Week 4 - Memory

Week 4 - Memory

Sample lecture from Psych. of Design


Ashley Dzick

November 15, 2019


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    Class Activity Take out something to write with Going to

    show you a series of slides Few seconds to read and memorize them Do not write anything down yet
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    Uncoded Memories Memories that do not make it to long

    term Displaced by new information that is perceived Decay / expire after a certain amount of time (no more than 30 seconds)
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    Memory Comprised of 3 parts Iconic (sensory) memory Working (short

    term) memory - attention Long term memory
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    Characteristics Incredibly brief (about three seconds) Most are forgotten Anything

    your brain considers worth attention moves to short or long term memory
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    Characteristics Not a place or a store (antiquated view) Brain

    focuses attention on residual perceptions and takes in perception from all our senses Everything we are aware of right now is our short term memory
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    What happens? Current perceptions and retrieved memories Goals, tasks Numbers,

    words, names, sounds, images, odors—anything one can be aware of How many things can we be aware of?
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    Characteristics Unlike short term memory - is actually a “memory

    store” Memories not stored in one place, spread out over a large collection of activating neurons Nearly unlimited capacity
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    What happened? You crammed in last-minute studying and don’t remember

    what you just went over — even though it was just a few minutes ago You used to remember all your multiplication tables but you haven’t used them in years
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    What happened? The black numbers from our activity were forgotten

    by some after we recited our phone number backwards You can still remember your first address but not where your parents have lived for the past 10 years
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    Overview Actually a combination of several different phenomena Result of

    residual neural activity Residual perceptions are available as possible inputs to brain’s attention
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    Overview nvolves perception, attention and retrieval from long term memory

    Each perceptual sense has its own short term “memory” Residual perceptions are available as possible inputs to brain’s attention
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    Failures of Short Term Memory Going to another room for

    something, but once there we can’t remember why we came Taking a phone call, and afterward not remembering what we were doing before the call Something yanks our attention away from a conversation, and then we can’t remember what we were talking about In the middle of adding a long list of numbers, something distracts us, so we have to start over
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    Phonological Loop Phonological = Articulatory (sound) Things you hear and

    things you silently articulate to yourself Plays a key role in learning vocabulary and a second language
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    Visuospatial Sketchpad Stores visual information, form, color, movement Separate short

    term memory than the phonological loop Results from brain-imaging show that working memory tasks with visual objects activate mostly areas in the left hemisphere Tasks with spatial information activate more areas in the right hemisphere (origin of left/right brain myth)
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    Episodic Buffer Newest “discovered” addition to short term memory in

    2000 “Backup” store that communicates with both short and long term memory Responsible for time and ordering of memories Scientists are still trying to figure out what else it does
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    Central Executive Oversees all the other cognitive processes (it’s the

    “boss”) Shifts between tasks and attention Decides what’s important enough to direct your attention to Scientists not entirely sure what all it does
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    Overview Perceptions enter your system and into your working/short term

    memory With enough learning (future class), they are committed to your long term memory Memories are not in any specific spot of the brain One memory involves millions of neurons spread out across a wide area
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    Types of Long Term Memory Episodic - Remembering specific events

    in time Procedural - How to do things Semantic - knowledge about factual information (like definitions)
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    Which Type? • Change a flat tire on a car

    • First time you went to Chicago • Multiplication tables • Riding a bicycle • Taking the SATs
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    Failures of Long Term Memory Not everything is saved or

    accessible — needs to be augmented Error Prone Weighted by emotions Retroactively alterable
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    Augmenting Since prehistoric times, people have invented technologies to help

    them remember things over long periods Historic: Notched sticks, knotted ropes, mnemonics, verbal stories and histories retold around campfires, writing, scrolls, books, number systems Current Day: Shopping lists, checklists, phone directories, datebooks, accounting ledgers, oven timers, computers, PDAs, online shared calendars
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    Error Prone Heavily compressed Does not remember entire situation Even

    if entire situation was committed to memory, may not recall it
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    Alterable What was your previous phone number? Which of these

    words were not in the list presented in the short- term memory test last week? city stream corn auto twine spade What was your first grade teacher’s name? Second grade? Third grade? ... What Web site was presented earlier that does not show search terms when it displays search results?
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    Password Recall Place sticky notes on or near computers or

    “hide” them in desk drawers Contact customer support to recover passwords they cannot recall Use passwords that are easy for others to guess Setup systems with no login requirements at all, or with one shared login and password
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    PINs “Change your PIN to a number that is easy

    for you to remember” Must be 6-10 digits Cannot start with 0 Cannot have repeating numbers
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    Retrieval Your brain has 100 billion nodes There’s an average

    of 7,000 links between each neuron Synapse is the official term for a link between two nodes Synapses are constantly changing and reforming, like the rest of your cells
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    Recognition and Recall Through years of evolution, we’ve grown to

    recognize things quickly Patterns of neural activity (memories) are trigged by perception or other brain activity More frequent memories or activities are easier to member Dangers, threats, numbers, sexual desires all are recognized more easily
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    Recognition or Recall? You’re not sure if something happened in

    real life or a dream Your first grade teacher had brown hair, but you don’t remember her name Last week, we used 17x24 as an example You’ve met this person before Your own name What happens when we think we recall something but really it’s recognition?
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    Recall Activation of a “chunk of memory” Practice: how many

    times a chunk has been used in the past Recency: how recently a chunk has been used Context: what is present in the person’s focus of attention
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    Association Basis for learning and problem solving Generally how we

    learn new things Links current context and past experiences (experiential bias)
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    Promoting Recognition Show history and previously visited content Give tool

    tips and help for hard to complete or remember steps Show a progress bar or some way to figure out how they got here Rely on in-context tips instead of a big tutorial Label icons that aren’t intuitive Remind users of gestures (swipe, tap, etc) — especially in mobile
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    Designing for “Now” Remove as many distractions as possible Show

    the user where they are Don’t make the user recall information — save it or present it to them Instructions for infrequently used workflows (so they don’t have to remember it) Don’t make the user think
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    Distractions Everything we’ve talked about until now has been gaining

    user’s attention using distractions Too much attentional pull and the user will not focus on what we want Colors, Sounds, Movements, New features Eliminate everything unneeded Provide just enough information
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    “Where am I?” Tell the user where they have been

    Breadcrumbs, “past orders”, search or other things typed
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    Information Recall Humans are distracted and they cannot multi task

    Even if your website only makes them remember one thing - it could be lost
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    Instructions and Copy Use meaningful words Omit needless words Provide

    information where needed Too much instruction or copy is a distraction
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    Activity Group up & find a website to pick on

    What is the main goal of this website? (if multiple, pick one) Does the website draw your attention to this goal or away? Does the website assist memory retrieval or does it make you remember things?