and healthcare providers.” —The Lancet “Impressive . . This book shook me. . . Teicholz has done a remarkable job” —The BMJ “A page-turner…a nutrition thriller,” The Economist “A Best Book of the Year”— Wall Street Journal , Mother Jones, Forbes, Times of London, BBC Food, The Economist The Big Fat Surprise (Simon & Schuster)
trials (the “gold standard”) • There were actually a large number of government-funded, randomized, controlled clinical trials…..on hard endpoints • • On altogether at least 67,000 men and women, in experiments lasting 1 to 12 years • Most in in-patient settings; therefore highly controlled. • RESULTS: No Effect of saturated fats on cardiovascular mortality or total mortality. No Effect on myocardial infarction, stroke, total coronary heart disease (CHD) events, major CHD events. Source: Astrup et al, JACC State-of -the-Art Review, Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2020),
study population, no differences between the treatment and control groups were observed for cardiovascular events, cardiovascular deaths, or total mortality." The BMJ 2015: The more the men lowered their cholesterol, the more likely they were to die from cardiovascular death. Ivan Frantz
of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. 2010 Conclusions: “Although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate.”
fat is: the evidence is now looking pretty good, but the guidance hasn’t shifted… there doesn’t seem to have been an enormous ‘mea culpa’ from the scientific community that we got it so wrong. That does surprise me.” Swiss Re/BMJ conference, June, 2018
Do not oxidize and cause inflammation. STABLE fats. •Increase HDL “good” cholesterol—and are only food known to do so. •Saturated fats are present in nutrient-dense foods, often with nutrients in their most bio-available form. • Associated with a decreased risk of stroke.
been systematically reviewed by any of the dietary guideline committees.” • [G]uideline committees have never gone back to systematically review these early trials but instead relied on other government reports. Source: Teicholz, N, BMJ 2015
2013 • “Insufficient evidence” •Dropped by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans in 2015 • “no appreciable relationship between consumption of dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol” Cholesterol caps are gone Source: Report by the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, USDA-HHS, .2015. Source: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000437740.48606.d1Circulation. 2014;129:S76–S99
trial, on nearly 49,000 women, for 8 years, on average: Conclusions: the low-fat diet did not help fight obesity, cardiovascular disease or any type of cancer. (This trial looked at hard endpoints). Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 2006;295:655–66. “Boeing trials” On a 1,230 men and women, tested on the USDA diet. Conclusions: No benefit for weight loss, blood sugar control (diabetes), and mixed outcomes for heart disease (LDL-C dropped, but so did HDL-C and triglycerides went up) Knopp, R.H., et al., Journal of the American Medical Association 278, no. 18 (1997): 1509-15; Walden, C. et al, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 20, no. 6 (June 2000): 1580–1587.
conventional message to recommend low-fat diets.” Alice Lichtenstein, Vice-chair, 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee “Strong and consistent evidence from RCTs and prospective cohort studies shows that reducing total fat (replacing total fat with carbohydrates) does not lower CVD risk. This implies that total fat restriction may not be evidence based.” Frank Hu, Committee Member -2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee public meeting, September 15, 2015, Day 1, starting at minute 273:45) “…dietary advice should put the emphasis on optimizing types of dietary fat and not reducing total fat” (Italics added) -Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, Part D, Ch 6, p. 13, lines 460-461
a surprising fact: a systematic review on health and red meat has not been done. Although several analyses look at “animal protein products,” these reviews include eggs, ﬁsh, and dairy and therefore do not isolate the health effects of red meat, or meat of any kind.37 Teicholz, BMJ, 2015
• Contains: • B vitamins (including B12), iron, and zinc, selenium • Iron • “Heme iron from lean meats is highly bioavailable, hence, an excellent source” • “the highest source of iron from natural foods are clearly organ meats.” (2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report). • Note: beef contains > 2x the amount of iron per serving vs. lean white meat
in the womb run the risk of developing dangerous defects. •Expectant mothers with B-12 deﬁciency are up to ﬁve times more likely to have a child with a potentially disabling or fatal birth defect, many of which involve the brain or spinal cord. •Children also need B-12 for their brains to develop and their nervous systems to grow. Kids short on B-12 can face problems with digestion and growth. •Such deﬁciencies have even been linked to neurological and behavioral disorders • Source: NIH, https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/
children on a vegetarian diet could produce a dramatic and permanent improvement in their physical and mental development” • “Even when they were adolescents these children who were fed as vegans when they were young still had delayed development or permanently impaired development”