a vessel which has provision of cell cultivation under sterile condition & control of environmental conditions e.g., pH, Temp., Dissolved oxygen etc. Fermenter: Fermenter is a type of bioreactor in which the biocatalyst is a living cell. / A fermenter is a system that provides an anaerobic process for producing alcohol from sugar.
to the reactor and it is run until a predetermined set point (i.e. time, concentration). The bioreactor has a constant volume (the initial volume). Fed-Batch: The bioreactor is a batch process in the beginning and after a certain point a feed input is introduced and the volume of the vessel increases. Continuous: The bioreactor starts with an initial volume and media is constantly introduced and product is constantly taken out. The inputs and outputs are at the same rate, so the volume always remains the same.
processes: 1. Processes in which the product is produced by the cells is either extracellular or intracellular. 2. Processes that produce a cell mass. 3. Processes that modify a compound that is added to the fermentation process are referred to as ‘biotransformation’.
the media and the cells Vessels can be made of glass, stainless steel, or a durable plastic. All the additional parts of a bioreactor connect to the vessel. The top of the vessel is called a head plate. On glass reactors, most additional parts are located on the head plate.
gasses into the vessel. Spargers are located at the bottom of the vessel and consist of a tube with tiny holes for the gas to escape through into the culture. The gas coming out of the sparger helps to aerate and mix the contents in the vessel, as well as supply oxygen to the cells.
dividing. To maintain a constant temperature in the reactor, the vessel is covered by a cooling jacket. Coolant (cold water or glycol) flows through the cooling jacket to regulate the temperature. The temperature is controlled by the flow rate of the coolant.
introduced or removed from the vessel. Ports are needed to add the media (media port), cells (inoculation port), and nutrients (feed ports). Ports are also used for the addition of acid and base for pH control. A sample port is also located on each vessel to remove culture for off-line investigation.
entering the vessel are sterile. They require exhaust filters to keep the reactor sterile and allow gas to escape to regulate pressure. Filters require a filter housing – a stainless steel cabinet to hold and sterilize the filter.
either gas or liquid. Manual Valves – open and close the valves with your hand. Pneumatic Valves – automatic valve which opens and closes with the use of high pressured air (instrument air). Steam Lock Valves- a two valve assembly so you can Allow a fluid to flow through a portion of the valve and then close and use the other portion of the valve.
bubble column reactors, in an airlift reactors, there are two liquid steams: up- flowing and down- flowing steams. • Liquid circulates in an airlift reactor as a resutl of density difference between riser and downcomer.
to disperse foam. A batch bioreactor is normally equipped with an agitator to mix the reactant, and the pH of the reactant is maintained by employing either buffer solution or a pH controller Batch operation with stirring S m S s C K C dt dC max t C C C C K s s s s m max 0 0 ln Change of Cs with time, t
one end of a cylindrical tube. It is packed with immobilized enzyme and the product steam leaves at the other end. Continuous operation without stirring Residence time An ideal plug-flow reactor can approximate the long tube, packed-bed and hollow fiber or multistage reactor t C C C C K s s s s m max 0 0 ln F V F, Cs0 F, Cs t = 0 V
V V FC FC s s s s 0 on Accumulati n Consumptio Output - Input 0 dt dC s S m S C K C max 0 max 0 s m s s s C K C V FC FC Steady state: Michaelis-Menten rate: F, Cs0 F, Cs
many new high value products and the replacement of existing chemical-based commodity processes. The proper selection and design of the bioreactor will determine the optimal commercial bioprocess and the corresponding capital investment. The bioreactor should not be regarded as an isolated unit, but as part of an integrated unit operation with both upstream (preparation) and downstream (separations) unit operations.