Taxa Scientia 3: Disiplinlerarası bir bilim öyküsü

F800bb1e61b1a368d91a26c360cfa599?s=47 H. Kemal Ilter
October 26, 2016

Taxa Scientia 3: Disiplinlerarası bir bilim öyküsü

F800bb1e61b1a368d91a26c360cfa599?s=128

H. Kemal Ilter

October 26, 2016
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  1. None
  2. Taxonomy Organizmaların sınıflandırılması Taxon (tekil) Belirli bir organizmanın belirli bir

    popülasyonuna ait belirli bir grup Taxa (çoğul) + Scientia potentia est - Francis Bacon
  3. w w w . h k i l t e

    r . c o m | T w i t t e r : @ h k i l t e r | k i l t e r @ g m a i l . c o m H . K e m a l İ l t e r , B E n g , M B A , P h D
  4. S e c t i o

  5. Sorular 1. Bir üçgenin iç açılarının toplamı kaç derecedir? 2.

    Ali’nin bir elma bahçesi vardır, bahçesinin çevresinin uzunluğu ne kadardır? 3. Bir ayna yardımıyla geçmişimizi görebilir miyiz? 2006 Bilgeliğin Yolu Mideden Geçer mi? 2006 Kuantumcu Paradigmanın Kaotik Boyutları 2008 Kara Maddeden Gri Maddeye Bir Bilim Düeti 2010 Taxa Scientia: Artificium 2012 Taxa Scientia 2: Melodia
  6. Büyük Patlama Planck: 10–43 s. Grand unification: 10–43 s. -

    10–36 s. Electroweak: 10–36 s. - 10–12 s. Inflationary: ? - 10–32 s. Genç Evren Supersimetrinin kırılımı Quark: 10–12 s. - 10–6 s. Hadron: 10–6 s. - 1 s. Lepton: 1 s. - 10 s. Photon: 10 s. - 380 K yıl Nucleosynthesis: 3 d. - 20 d. Maddenin oluşumu: 70 K yıl Tekrar birleşim: 377 K yıldan sonra Yapısal Oluşum Tekrar iyonlaşma Yıldızlar, Galaksiler, Gruplar, Kümeler, Süperkümeler: 150 M - 1 B yıl Güneş sisteminin oluşumu: 8 B yıl
  7. Evrenin Kaderi Büyük Donma: 1014 yıl Büyük Büzülme: 100+ B

    yıl Büyük Yarılma: 20+ B yıl Isının Ölümü: 10150+ yıl Bugün 13.73 ± 0.12 B yıl
  8. None
  9. Aristotle 384 BC Stagirus, Yunanistan 322 BC Chalcis, Yunanistan Nicolaus

    Copernicus 1473 Torun, Polonya 1543 Frauenburg, Polonya René Descartes 1596 La Haye, Fransa 1650 Stockholm, İsviçre Galileo Galilei 1564 Pisa, İtalya 1642 Arcetri, İtalya
  10. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck 1858 Kiel, Almanya 1947 Göttingen,

    Almanya Albert Einstein 1879 Ulm, Almanya 1955 Princeton, USA Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger 1887 Erdberg, Avusturya 1961 Viyana , Avusturya Niels Henrik David Bohr 1885 in Kopenhag, Danimarka 1962 in Kopenhag, Danimarka Ölü kedi Canlı kedi
  11. Louis Victor Pierre Raymond duc de Broglie 1892 Dieppe, Fransa

    1987 Paris, Fransa Werner Karl Heisenberg 1901 Würzburg, Almanya 1976 Münih, Almanya
  12. 12 Klasik Dönem MÖ 600-500 *Thales of Miletus - Ionian.

    One element - water Anaximander of Miletus - Ionian. Apeiron - "The Boundless" Anaximenes of Miletus - Ionian. One element - Aer *Pythagoras of Samos - Ionian. Deepest reality - numbers, souls are immortal MÖ 500-400 Heraclitus of Ephesus - Ionian. mutability of the world, prime element - fire, paradoxes Parmenides of Elea - Eleatic. being is one Protagoras of Abdera - Sophist. relativism Zeno - Eleatic. motion as logically impossible, as is one substance Empedocles of Acragas - Pluralist. four elements, Vegetarianism Hippias - Sophist. proto-empiricist. Leucippus of Miletus - Atomist. determinist Anaxagoras of Clazomenae - Pluralist. order is of mind, atomist Archelaus - Pupil of Anaxagoras Democritus of Abdera - Atomist *Socrates of Athens - virtue, dialectics, truth MÖ 400-300 Aristippus of North Africa - Cyreniac. hedonism Antisthenes of Athens - Cynic. wise can't be fooled, denied contradictions Xenophon of Greece - history Plato of Athens - idealism, polity Diogenes of Greece - Cynic. individualist, independent *Euclid of Greece - geometry *Aristotle of Stagira - social advocate, moderation, universal logic Xenocrates - soul as numbers Pyrrho of Elis - skeptic Helenistik Dönem MÖ 300-200 Epicurus of Athens - atomism, hedonism Zeno of Citium - acceptance of objectivity allows overcoming of passion Timon - Pyrrhonist, skeptic Thales Tek element-Su Pythagoras Ruhun ölümsüzlüğü Socrates Dialektik Euclid Geometri Aristotle Evrensel Mantık
  13. *Archimedes of Syracuse - engineering, Pi, geometer Chrysippus of Soli

    - stoic, calculus MÖ 200-100 Carneades - light skeptic, probability MÖ 100-0 Lucretius - Epicurean Roma Dönemi 0-100 Jesus - forgiveness, separation of ideas and people Philo - allegorical method Seneca the Younger - pro-suicide, stoic 100-200 Epictetus - self-determination, desire as suffering Marcus Aurelius - stoic 200-400 Sextus Empiricus - skeptic, Pyrrhonist Plotinus - neoplatonist, central unity, chaos at the periphery, humans as microcosms Porphyry - student of Plotinus Iamblichus of Syria - late neoplatonist, espoused theurgy Batı Ortaçağ Dönemi 400-500 Saint Augustine - everything is in the present tense, original sin Hypatia - Platonism, mathematics, "heretic" Pelagius - free will, anti-original sin Cyril of Alexandria - Christ as a single person with two aspects, persecuted opposing philosophers Nestorius - Christ as a dual man/God, "heretic" Proclus - late Neoplatonist 500-800 Boethius - logic, rationalist Muhammad 800-900 al-Kindi - faith over reason John the Scot - free will, Pelagian, realist, pantheism, predestination, neoplatonic 900-1000 al-Faràbi - God through logic, Aristotlean logic Platonian society Saadia Gaon - linguistics, duty over pleasure al-Razi - chemist and early scientific genius; God creates the universe by rearranging pre-existing laws 1000-1100 Ibn Sina - proof of God through cause Ibn Gabirol - essence vs will of God Anselm - ontological argument for the existence of god faith over reason, atonement al-Ghazali - revelationist 1100-1200 Abelard - general turns universal after abstraction, intention over consequence Ibn Daud - free will Peter Lombard - history of philosophy Averroes (Ibn Rushd, "The Commentator") - God's existence can be proven by reason alone Maimonides - reason to its extent, then faith St Francis of Assisi - ascetism Archimedes Mühendislik
  14. 1200-1300 *Fibonacci - Fibonacci series of numbers Robert Grosseteste -

    origin of light Albert the Great - empiricism *Roger Bacon - empiricism and mathematics Thomas Aquinas - faith over reason, proofs of God Bonaventure - reason legitimate only as extension of faith, humans as footprints of divinity Siger - moral assessments: intuitive, egoistic, and normative Boetius of Dacia - religion as irrational 1300-1400 Duns Scotus - formal distinctions Meister Eckhart - pantheist revelationist John Wycliffe - secularism Marsilius of Padua - chief function of gov't as mediator William of Ockham - nominalist, demands necessity of an entity identified before existence, preference of clear arguments over convoluted ones Gersonides - matter is eternal religion can't conflict w/ reason Buridan - nominalist, inertial motion Crescas - happiness through faith over reason 1400-1500 Cusa - contradictions are solved through divinity Lorenzo Valla - incompatibility of divine omnipotence and free will, humanism, criticized scholastic logic Pico della Mirandola - unified theory, humanism Erken Modern Dönem 1500-1550 Erasmus - humanism, free will, irreligious Niccolò Machiavelli - leadership, success by any means, militarism Saint Thomas More - theism, utopia, hedonism, humanism, ecclesiology *Copernicus - rotation of planets, heliocentric Petrus Ramus - dialectical Martin Luther - theism, Biblical authority, ecclesiastical reform 1550-1600 Teresa of Avila - mystic Montaigne - classical skeptic Bruno - heliocentrism, pantheism, infinite matter Suarez - voluntaristic law John Calvin - theism, divine sovereignty Fibonacci Fibonacci sayıları Bacon Deneysel çalışma Copernicus Gezegen hareketleri
  15. 1600-1700 *Johannes Kepler - elliptical heliocentrism Pierre Charron - skepticism

    Mersenne - theist anti-skeptic Francis Bacon - empiricist Hugo Grotius - natural law theory of society *Galileo Galilei - heliocentrism, scientific method Herbert of Cherbury - innate ideas Pierre Gassendi - mechanistic empirical Princess Elizabeth - skeptical of mind-body dualism 1600-1650 Queen Kristina - skepticism *René Descartes - heliocentrism dualism, rationalist, skepticism overcome by certainty *Pierre de Fermat - mathematics, probability Thomas Hobbes - pessimistic about human nature, obedience, Leviathan Filmer - divine monarchy Kepler Güneş merkezli yörünge Galilei Bilimsel metod Descartes Şüphecilik Fermat Olasılık
  16. 1650-1700 Joseph Glanvill - anti-empirical skeptic, anti-atheist Arnold Geulincx -

    anti-dualist *Blaise Pascal - pro-faith, fideistic mathematician Henry More - compatibility of faith and reason, theistic Geraud Cordemoy - dualist Pierre Nicole - egoism Ralph Cudworth - immutable morality Margaret Cavendish - spiritual materialist feminism Antoine Arnauld - logic Richard Cumberland (philosopher) - anti-egoist, universal benevolence Jacques Rohault - animal mechanism Simon Foucher - skepticism Roger Boyle - chemist, mechanist Nicolas Malebranche - uncausality Samuel Pufendorf - social contract Baruch Spinoza - metaphysics, God, unity of existence, dual natures, thought and extension, practical knowledge *Isaac Newton - physics, gravity Anne Conway - universal substance, monad Pierre Régis - interaction of accidentally conjoined substances accepted on faith John Locke - empiricism, human nature, majority rule Damaris Masham - feminist John Toland - rational theism Pierre Bayle - fideist, skepticism, Pyrrhonist Madeline de Souvré - human nature 1700-1750 Samuel Clarke - obligation to worship, Newtonian Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury - moral sense without God John Norris - Malebrancian Gottfried Leibniz - timeless 'monads', relationism George Berkeley - idealism, empiricism Catherine Cockburn - empiricism, rational morality Giambattista Vico - genius-centered historian Bernard Mandeville - egoist Francis Hutcheson - greatest happiness principle, moral sense Joseph Butler - conscience as moderation of self-love Christian Wolff - fatalism, rationalism John Gay (philosopher) - theistic roots of utilitarianism David Hume - never knowing causes, empiricism, morality as passion, atheist Julien La Mettrie - materialist, physician genetic determinist Pascal Mekanik hesap makinesi Newton Fizik
  17. David Hartley - mechanisms for ideas Charles de Secondat, Baron

    de Montesquieu - skepticism, humanism 1750-1800 *Leonhard Euler - number theory Etienne de Condillac - empiricism Richard Price - liberal, intuitionist-rational morality Jean d'Alembert - agnosticism, empiricism Voltaire - deist, sensationalism Denis Diderot - atheism, social contract theory John Wesley - theism, divine grace Jean-Jacques Rousseau - anti-contractual social theory, natural state of humanity Thomas Bayes - probability Baron d'Holbach - materialism, atheism Helvétius - hedonism, egoism, empiricism Adam Smith - political economy Thomas Jefferson - liberal Thomas Reid - realism common sense Thomas Paine - American revolutionary G.E. Lessing - truth as historical development Edmund Burke - traditionalist, aesthete Immanuel Kant - synthetic a priori truths, metaphysics of morals, duty morality Mary Wollstonecraft - feminism Jeremy Bentham - revolutionary, utilitarian Moses Mendelssohn - theist, immortal souls tolerance Dugald Stewart - common sense realism William Godwin - anarchism, social theorist, utilitarianism Friedrich Schiller - unKantian ethics Thomas Malthus - overpopulation William Paley - moral sense theory, teleological argument of God Johann Gottlieb Fichte - noumenal self, idealism, nationalism Modern Dönem 1800-1850 *C.F. Gauss - electromagnetics prime numbers Madame de Staël - essayist of philosophy F.W.J. von Schelling - transcendental idealism Friedrich Schleiermacher - faith over reason, hermeneutics *P.S. de Laplace - determinism G.W.F. Hegel - absolute idealism Jean-Baptiste Lamarck - evolution Euler Sayılar teorisi Gauss Asal sayılar Laplace Determinizm
  18. Comte de Saint-Simon - socialism *Joseph Fourier - heat conduction

    archeology Arthur Schopenhauer - pessimistic human nature, the human will Richard Whately -logician *Charles Babbage - difference engine, economy N.I. Lobachevsky - nonEuclidean geometry John Austin - legal positivism, utilitarian Auguste Comte - sociology, communitarian, positivism William Whewell - realism, creative theory in science James Mill - utilitarianism, associationist P.J. Proudhon- anarchism, anti-feminism Bernard Bolzano - objective independence of truths Ralph Waldo Emerson - abolitionist, egalitarian, nontheist, humanist Ludwig Feuerbach - nontheistic humanism Augustus De Morgan - logical validity Margaret Fuller - egalitarian, social reformer Søren Kierkegaard - theist existentialist George Boole - Boolean algebra Henry David Thoreau - revolutionary, passive resistance 1850-1875 Bernhard Riemann - field theory Sojourner Truth - egalitarian Karl Marx - socialism, participatory economics, dialectical materialism Charles Darwin - natural selection Harriet Taylor - egalitarian, utilitarian Friedrich Engels - egalitarian, dialectical materialism William Hamilton - common sense Gregor Mendel - heredity and genetics J. S. Mill - utilitarian Rudolf Lotze - nature as the will of the Absolute Herbert Spencer - radical libertarian, genetic determinism, innate intelligence, social Darwinist John Venn - diagrammatic method Susan B. Anthony - feminism Mikhail Bakunin - revolutionary anarchism Georg Cantor - diagonal proof Franz Brentano - phenomenologist 1875-1900 Henry Sidgwick - conflicting moralities Richard Dedekind - Peano postulates, real numbers defined as cuts of rational numbers Fourier Isı iletimi Babbage Fark makinesi
  19. W. K. Clifford - morally wrong to believe in errors

    or uncertainties Charles Peirce - pragmatism, abductive logic, syllogism Edward Caird - idealist Ernst Mach - logical positivism, radical empiricism T.H. Green - anti-laissez-faire, abstract thought Gottlob Frege - quantifiers Wilhelm Dilthey - metaphysics as a cultural phenomenon Friedrich Nietzsche - nihilism, ultimate skepticism, primacy of the will Lewis Carroll - epistemology Bernard Bosanquet - the Absolute, idealism, contradictions as illusions *Giuseppe Peano - logicization of arithmatic Elizabeth Stanton - separation of church and state, egalitarian David George Ritchie - idealism, natural rights Émile Durkheim - sociology as transcendent of biological and psychological explanation William James - pragmatism Josiah Royce - absolute idealism Charlotte Perkins Gilman - feminist, matriarchical F.H. Bradley - absolute idealism Vilfredo Pareto - elitism Thorstein Veblen - sociology, liberal education Geç Modern Dönem 1900-1925 Max Planck - the Planck constant Sigmund Freud - psychodynamics, structure of the psyche Max Weber - sociology, separation of observation and judgment Henri Bergson - thought and creativity as opponents to material entropy John Dewey - pragmatism, philosophy of education Alexius Meinong - levels of reality W.E.B. Dubois - sociologist of race Cook Wilson - realist epistemology *Henri Poincaré - knowledge as utility and not truth Pierre Duhem - science as metaphysical speculation Edmund Husserl - invented phenomenology Jane Addams - pragmatism, social ethics Andrew Seth - personality as reality, idealism *Ernst Zermelo - axiomatization of set theory G.E. Moore - subjective good, common sense Benedetto Croce - anti-fascist, non-cognitivist creativity *Albert Einstein - theory of relativity Carl Jung - psychology, personality theory Peano Mantıksal aritmetik Poincaré Üst bilgi Zermelo Küme teorisi Einstein Görelilik kuramı
  20. Emma Goldman - anarchism Hans Vaihinger - concepts as fictions

    *Niels Bohr - atomist and quantum theory Rosa Luxemburg - revolutionary, activist Rudolf Otto - numinous feelings David Hilbert - axiomatic formalization of mathematics Miguel de Unamuno - human morality dilemma Alfred Adler - inferiority complex Ferdinand de Saussure - linguistic structuralism Jan Łukasiewicz - bracketless logical notation Martin Buber - Jewish existentialist Bertrand Russell - atheism, logical positivism, logical basis for mathematics, theory of types Alfred North Whitehead - event and process based metaphysics George Herbert Mead - pragmatism, self-consciousness, symbolic interactionism Samuel Alexander - perceptual realism J. M. E. McTaggart - ultimate idealism, antidialectics John Maynard Keynes - probability, economics: inflation sometimes helps boost economies C. D. Broad - existence of phenomena Gyorgy Lukács - socialist realism, communism George Santayana - desire for belief in human nature, aesthetic priority 1925-1950 *Hans Reichenbach - relativity, probability A.O. Lovejoy - perceptual realism principle of plentitude, history of ideas W.D. Ross - intuitionist, moral duties Nikolai Berdyaev - theistic existentialism *Werner Heisenberg - quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle Martin Heidegger - phenomenology, being-in-the-world Hans Kelsen - universal legal ground rule outside of morality Moritz Schlick - Vienna Circle. logical positivism, positivist ethics Otto Neurath - Vienna Circle. anti-metaphysic, logical positivism *Frank P. Ramsey - redundancy theory of truth, nature of semantic paradox, modern applications of probability calculus Ernst Cassirer - categories as a priori Nicolai Hartmann - Kantian idealism, realism Karl Barth - theism, neo-orthodoxy Kurt Gödel - Vienna Circle. systems can't analyze themselves Ralph Barton Perry - naturalistic perceptual realism Antonio Gramsci - humanistic / libertarian Marxism R.G. Collingwood - understanding of history by reconstruction of thought Roman Ingarden - perceptual realism, phenomenalism, aesthetic theory Bohr Quantum teorisi Reichenbach Görelilik Heisenberg Belirsizlik Ramsey Semantik paradoks
  21. C.I. Lewis - naturalism, Symbolic Logic Gaston Bachelard - knowledge

    as imagination between evidence and rationality A.J. Ayer - logical positivism, emotivist ethics Friedrich Waismann - Vienna Circle. logical positivism, conventionalist, analytic semantics Jacques Maritain - theist, one author of declaration of human rights Dorothy Day - theist, passive resistance, communism José Ortega y Gasset - relativism, populist Alfred Tarski - correspondence theory of truth, semantics Rudolf Carnap - Vienna Circle. Logical positivist, experiential, confirmation of hypotheses Willard van Orman Quine - pragmatism, logic, philosophy of language Brand Blanshard - absolute idealism naturalistic morality E. Nagel - logical pragmatism, reductionism Karl Popper - knowledge through disproof of alternatives and not proof of theory Ernest Addison Moody - philosopher of science, medievalist, philosophy of religion Mahatma Gandhi - humanism, passive resistance Karen Horney - vagina resentment Jean-Paul Sartre - humanistic existentialism Gilbert Ryle - logical behaviorism, misapplication of semantics in philosophy H.H. Price - defended relationship between sense-data and objects Susanne Langer - emotions as inexpressible by language Albert Camus - existentialism, death Mortimer Adler - liberal education, great ideas theory Friedrich von Hayek - classic liberal / libertarian economics Karl Jaspers - authentic existentialism C.L. Stevenson - emotivism Ludwig Wittgenstein - Vienna Circle. logical positivism, language as useful to convey sense- experience and logic / mathematics and all else is meaningless Theodor Adorno - Frankfurt School. conformity as a paradox to individuality, the authoritarian personality Alan Turing - AI studies, functionalism in the philosophy of mind H.A. Prichard - perceptual realism, moral intuitionism Gabriel Marcel - theistic existentialism Simone Weil - eclectic philosophy of religion Simone de Beauvoir - existentialism, feminism Frantz Fanon - colonialism, phenomenology John Howard Yoder - theism, pacifism & nonviolence 20. Yüzyılın Sonları 1950-1975 *von Neumann - created first programming instructions for a computer, set theory, game theory Konrad Lorenz - ethology, biology, aggression Neumann Oyun teorisi
  22. John Wisdom - philosophy of mind, analytic Paul Tillich -

    theist, authenticist *Grace Hopper - COBOL, programming Kenneth Arrow - group psychology, economics R. M. Hare - noncognitivist morality, morals as prescriptive universalizables Maurice Merleau-Ponty - consciousness as pre-sensual awareness George Polya - heuristics B.F. Skinner - behaviorism, operant conditioning Isaiah Berlin - positive and negative freedom Simone Weil - mystic, Christian, alienation solved by meaningful work Alonzo Church - arithmetic is non-recursive and therefore there can't be a decision procedure for them GEM Anscombe - ethics and humanity Ayn Rand - atheism, capitalist libertarian, thematic aesthetics, egoism Max Horkheimer - unification of abstract philosophy and social science Herbert Feigl - Vienna Circle. logical positivist, materialist Milton Friedman - Chicago Boys. monetary economics, quantity of funds as determinant of government policy / business cycles / inflation John Austin - language, locution, illocution, perlocution Stuart Hampshire - freedom, intention vs. likelihood Hannah Arendt - futility of philosophy on individual actions and politics, anti-totalitarian Carl Hempel - paradox of contraposition P. F. Strawson - descriptive metaphysics Kurt Baier - social and personal morals Hans-Georg Gadamer - hermeneutic W.V.O. Quine - naturalistic, physicalistic, relativity creative skepticism Paul Grice - language, discourse rules, reflexive intention and conversational implicature H.L.A. Hart - analytic legal philosopher Jacques Lacan - psychoanalyst, unconscious, repressed messages in linguistics Nelson Goodman - semantics, radical nominalism Wilfred Sellars - logical positivism, functionalism, analytics Jürgen Habermas - origins of knowledge the will comes from dialogue Thomas Kuhn - discontinuity of scientific progress J. J. C. Smart - physicalist, noncognitivist utilitarianism Herbert Marcuse - Frankfurt. Marxist-Freudian *Richard Feynman - philosophy of science Gustav Bergmann - realism, ideal language Paul Ricoeur - theologist, hermeneutic, volition Edmund Gettier - justified belief != knowledge David Malet Armstrong - materialism mental events correlate to brain states (functionalism) Martin Luther King - civil rights, egalitarianism, passive resistance Louis Althusser - structuralist, assignment of social roles Hopper Programlama Feynman Bilim felsefesi
  23. Noam Chomsky - libertarian socialism, anti-globalization, underdetermination, universal grammar, internal

    language over social language Roderick Chisholm - phenomenology Jacques Derrida - deconstructionist, meaning occurs provisionally, reinterpretation on an individual level John Searle - skeptical of AI comprehension, non-physical cognition, speech as acts Imre Lakatos - heuristic John Rawls - justice as fairness, social inequality justifiable only if least favored receive most benefits Michel Foucault - thought shaped by norms, freedom in deviance Saul Kripke - modal logic, names and sorts not descriptions but designators Robert M. Pirsig - metaphysics of quality E.O. Wilson - sociobiology Marshall McLuhan - human consciousness inside machines medium as message, hot and cool media, tetrad Gilles Deleuze - post-modernist, anti-modernist-rationality 1975-2000 Paul Feyerabend - critique of science rational anarchist Judith Jarvis Thomson - individual rights as defeasible *Stephen Hawking - quantum and relativity physics, topography, beginning and end of time Peter Singer - animal rights, consequentialist *Umberto Eco - semiotics *Michael Dummett - intuitionist mathematics Hilary Putnam - brain in a vat epistemology Andrea Dworkin - legal positivism Jean-François Lyotard - postmodernism, anti-inhumanism, anti-grand narratives Donald Davidson - identity theory, intentionalism, logic of humanity Thomas Nagel - subjectivity and objectivity Mary Midgley - ethological morality Mary Daly - theologist, egalitarian gynomorphic language Douglas Hofstadter - AI, cognitive science, history of science, metamathematics, recursivity Lawrence Kohlberg - moral structure of the mind Richard Rorty - postmodern philosophical method Robert Nozick - libertarian Helene Cixous - sought destruction of binary opposition inherent in symbolic language, deconstructivist *Benoit Mandelbrot - fractal geometry Jaegwon Kim - metaphysics psychophysical identity Tom Regan - animal rights Michele Le Dœuff - criticisms of gender categories undermine objectivity (?) *Donna Haraway - cyborg feminism Carol Gilligan - male and female ethics Julia Kristeva - semiotics vs. logic Umberto Unger - experimentalist social theory Marvin Minsky - nonconscious parts of a conscious whole, map of the mind Harry Frankfurt - free will as ownership Kwame Anthony Appiah - African roots of knowledge, probabilistic semantics Nel Noddings - relationship-centric ethics Hawking Quantum fiziği Eco Semiotik analiz Dummett Sezgisel matematik Mandelbrot Fraktal Geometri Haraway Cyborg feminizmi
  24. Luce Irigaray - anti-valorization of gender Klaus von Klitzing -

    discovered the quantized Hall effect Keith Lehrer - coherence theory of knowledge Annette Baier - trust as a link between rationality and love Virginia Held - female experience emphasizes private influence Sandra Harding - against the necessity of universality, objectivity, duality Sara Ruddick - violence as masculine, empathic method to ethics Sarah Lucia Hoagland - isolation of homosexuals, patriarchy and heterosexuality as the source of all evil George Lakoff - family studies as political roots categories of the mind, metaphors as essential to understanding Catharine MacKinnon - legal feminism, gender exploitation Daniel Dennett - neuroscientific philosophy of mind Martha Nussbaum - emotion, decision-making Michael Walzer - liberalism, justice spheres, tolerance John Martin Fischer - guidance control in the free will Susan Bordo - masculinization of thought Georges Charpak - invented and developed particle detectors Francis Fukuyama - success of liberal democracy as the end of historical progress Andrew John Wiles - solved Fermat's last Theorem Michael Albert - participatory socialism John Ralston Saul - positive and negative nationalism, corporatism Cornel West - theologist, ethnicity, cultural genealogy Frederick Reines - detected the neutrino bell hooks - egalitarian, critic of feminist movement as racist Ken Wilber - sought to synthesize Western science with mysticism Millenyum Dönemi 2000+ *Lene Hau - slowed down light Lynne Baker - free will as a first person perspective Martin Van Creveld - military historian, war as an end to itself Christopher DiCarlo - evolutionary process of logic Hau Yavaşlayan ışık hızı
  25. BELİRSİZLİK GÖZLEMCİNİN ETKİSİ DEĞİŞEN BİLİM SOSYAL BİLİMLER BİLİMİN TANIM ARAYIŞI

    “Postmodern bilim, bütün olgular arasındaki temel bağımlılığı ve kişilerin, toplulukların doğanın döngüselliği içinde duruşlarını tanıyan yeni bir epistemolojik paradigmayı yakınsamaktadır.” -- Capra, 1988
  26. S e c t i o

  27. BİLİM Gerçeği ararken, bilginin elde edilmesini sağlayan sistemler bütünü. DÜŞÜNME

    Varlıkların dünyayı modellemesini ve onunla etkileşmesini sağlayan mental süreç.
  28. Deneme-Yanılma Beyin fırtınası Morfolojik analiz Odak objeler metodu Etraflıca düşünme

    Dikey düşünme Araştırma Ters varsayım Analoji Böyle bir problemin olmadığı hipotetik dünya Kısıt çalışması Daha fazla zaman kullanmak İnkübasyon Probleme ait model yaratmak Problemin çözülemeyeceğini kanıtlamak Yardım almak Problem Çözme
  29. Fikirleri, ilişkili bütün konulardan ayırmak ve bu konularla ilgili birbirini

    destekleyecek mantıklı argümanlar toplamak Argümanları bileşenlerine ayırmak ve bu bileşenlerden ek çıkarımlarda bulunmak Bileşenleri ve çelişkilerini sınamak Argümanlar arasındaki çatışan iddiaları ve göreli ağırlıklarını belirlemek Eleştirel Düşünme
  30. Yaratıcı Düşünme Entelektüel liderlik Problemlere karşı duyarlı olmak Orijinallik Yaratıcı

    hayalgücü Olağandışılık Kullanışlılık Uygunluk
  31. Analitik Düşünme “Omnia apud me mathematica fiunt.” -- Decartes

  32. ANALİZ SENTEZ

  33. Bilimsel Yöntem Problemin tanımlanması Problemle ilgili bilgi ve kaynakların elde

    edilmesi Hipotezin oluşturulması Deney yapılması ve veri toplanması Veri analizi Verilerin yorumlanması ve değerlendirilmesi Sonuçların paylaşılması
  34. 34 Çok-Disiplinli Yaklaşım (Multidisciplinarity) Disiplinlerarası Yaklaşım (Interdisciplinarity) İki ya da

    daha fazla alandaki bilim insanlarının ortak bir amacı gerçekleştirmek için birarada çalışmasını sağlayan akademik paylaşım türü.
  35. Atmosferik elektirik çalışmaları Biyojeokimya Jeobiyoloji Biyomedikal mühendislik Biyomedikal informatik Bilişsel

    bilim Karşılaştırmalı nöropsikoloji Sayısal nörobilim Nöro sibernetik Nörobilim Etnik çalışmaları İslam çalışmaları Cinsiyet çalışmaları Erkek çalışmaları Kadın çalışmaları Kültür çalışmaları Holistik bilim İnsan merkezli bilgi-işlem Matematiksel biyoloji Medya çalışmaları Disiplinlerarası Fizik Yapay zeka Yapay yaşam Biyoinformatik Sayısal dilbilim Sibernetik Matematiksel fizik Sistem teorisi
  36. SİBERNETİK Karar teorisi Oyun teorisi Bilgi teorisi Semiyotik Yönetsel sibernetik

    Mühendislik sibernetiği Medikal sibernetik Biyolojik sibernetik Biyomedikal sibernetik Uygulamalı sibernetik Antroposibernetik Mikroantroposibernetik (Psikosibernetik) Makroantrosibernetik (Sosyosibernetik)
  37. NEDEN? 1. Yaratıcı ataklar 2. Aynı disiplin içinde hataların gözardı

    edilmesi 3. Entelektüel, sosyal ve pratik problemler 4. Bilginin bütünleşmesi 5. Daha az zamanda daha fazla bilgi
  38. DİSİPLİNLERARASI ENTEGRASYON DERECESİ 1. Biraraya gelen disiplin sayısı 2. Disiplinler

    arasındaki benzerlik düzeyi 3. Yenilik kombinasyonu 4. Entegrasyon derecesi
  39. Duvar Enformatik Nöropsikoloji Nöroenformatik

  40. BAĞLAM (CONCEPT, CONTEXT?) 1. Disiplinlerarası bilgi 2. Disiplinlerarası araştırma 3.

    Disiplinlerarası eğitim 4. Disiplinlerarası yaklaşım teorisi
  41. • Arkadaşları uygun seçmek, diğerlerini desteklemek • Erken başlamak ve

    bilgiyi aramak • Geribildirim almak • Bir disiplin içinde saygıyı aramak • Çalışmanın önemini açıklamak • Her fırsatta süreci etkilemek • Eleştiri mesajlarına, mektuplarına ve raporlarına etkin ve anlayışlı cevap vermek • İyi ilişkiler oluşturmak • Olumsuz olmamak • *Dosya hakkında düşünmek Disiplinlerarası Bilim İnsanı İçin Öneriler
  42. Disiplin Bilimsel Kolay değerlenir Geleneksel Disiplinlerarası Daha az bilimsel Zor

    değerlenir Yenilikçi Problemler
  43. • Bilim ve teknoloji arasındaki sınırın bulanıklaşması • Temel ve

    uygulamalı bilimler arasındaki ayrımın bulanıklaşması • Akademisyenler ve üniversiteler tarafından dikkate alınmayan disiplinlerarası yaklaşımın öneminin artması • Bilimde atama ve yükseltilmenin hızlı bir şekilde değişmesi, genişlemesi ve çeşitlenmesi • Temel ve uygulamalı araştırmanın küreselleşmesinin hızlı bir şekilde gelişmesi • Dış kaynak kullanımının artan bir şekilde olağan hale gelmesi • İngilizcenin evrensel bilim dili olması • Fiziksel bilimlerin hala çok popüler olması, biyolojik bilimlerin ona yetişiyor olması, genetik, medikal ve beyin araştırmalarının gelişiyor olması • Fiziksel ve biyolojik bilimlerin, telekomünikasyonda, bilgisayarlarda ve bilgi teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler nedeniyle ön plana çıkması • Çevreciler ve çevre hareketi için ekolojinin mantıksal bilim temeline oturuyor olması • Halk tarafından sahip olunan bilimsel bilginin acınacak şekilde zayıf ve güvenilmez olması • Özel sektör tarafından desteklenen temel araştırmaların başarısız olması • Amatörlerin geleneksel bilimle iki türlü etkileşiminin oluşması • Ortaya çıkan sonuçların devlet ve sektör tarafından acilen faaliyete geçirilmesi Bilim Nereye Doğru Gidiyor?
  44. None
  45. a Business School

  46. S e c t i o

  47. Sorular 1. Bir üçgenin iç açılarının toplamı kaç derecedir? 2.

    Ali’nin bir elma bahçesi vardır, bahçesinin çevresinin uzunluğu ne kadardır? 3. Bir ayna yardımıyla geçmişimizi görebilir miyiz?
  48. None
  49. None
  50. None
  51. None
  52. Q&A

  53. w w w . h k i l t e

    r . c o m | T w i t t e r : @ h k i l t e r | k i l t e r @ g m a i l . c o m H . K e m a l İ l t e r , B E n g , M B A , P h D