across a variety of scientiﬁc disciplines (Python is a competitor) 2 R is a statistical programming language and computing environment for data management, data visualization, and statistical analysis.
functions, data, and compiled code in a well-deﬁned format. They allow us to do things in R. Package R comes with several packages (“applications”), out of the box They are never enough to do what we need to do in R. We can get more from R’s version of the “app store” call CRAN (it’s free) install.packages(“NAME”)
“Comprehensive R Archive Network” (CRAN) is a collection of sites which carry identical material, consisting of the R distribution(s), the contributed extensions, documentation for R, and binaries. Others are available for download and installation. https://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-devel/doc/html/packages.html
in an “app store”, you learn about different packages by reading books, attending trainings, or courses. We learn several helpful packages from our book R4DS. ‘ggplot’ for graphs ‘dplyr’ for transforming data There are so many helpful packages in our book that they have been ‘grouped’ into one package called the ‘tidyverse’ which we install early.
system He was fed up with other systems of version control and thought he could make something better in two weeks. He did. Names products after himself including Linux and now “Git” The most widely used software for version control