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@[email protected] One does not simply add MFA Just like a walk into Mordor, good MFA is a journey

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@[email protected] What you will learn ✓ What is MFA ✓ How to secure your accounts ✓ What are the MFA types ✓ How to protect users and secure an application ✓ Potential testing steps ✓ MFA implementation best practices "Its black gates are guarded by more than just orcs. "

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@[email protected] Taking notes or pictures 📝 Asking foolish questions 🤔 Things you don't need to worry about "There is evil there that does not sleep, and the Great Eye is ever watchful"

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Let our journey begin…

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@[email protected] Back to the beginning To when you signed up for

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@[email protected] What was the hacker up to? Calling your mobile provider

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@[email protected] On the phone with your mobile provider... Using social engineering

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@[email protected] Now they have all the access... Sim swap/sim hijacking

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@[email protected]

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“ @[email protected] We learned that SMS-based authentication is not nearly as secure as we would hope, and the main attack was via SMS intercept Christopher Slowe Reddit chief technology of fi cer and founding engineer August 2018

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@[email protected] What is authentication? The process of verifying that someone or something is the actual entity that they claim to be. - (these people know what they are talking about when it comes to security)

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@[email protected] ... but what are the different factors of auth? ✔Factor is knowledge (i.e. your password) ✔Is the other method choice - Possession (token/soft token) - Identity (biometrics)

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@[email protected] 2FA = 2SV = MFA = 2F? = ??? What about all those other acronyms...

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@[email protected] Why didn't MFA help? •SMS was used •For most users MFA won’t even be enabled

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@[email protected] • Most common • Most compromised • Not recommended by NIST since 2016 SMS

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@[email protected] If SMS wasn't bad enough •SS7 (network shared by every telecom) has it's own vulnerabilities •Text messages that are sent can be intercepted

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@[email protected] Let's figure out all the ways to hack it... 1. Sim-swap (aka what just happened to us) 2. Port-out scam 3. Brute force on the application itself 4. Exploit SS7 weakness

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@[email protected] • Associated with certain authorized devices • Not visible on a locked phone screen Push Based

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@[email protected] … Push Based has major drawbacks too September 15th, 2022

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@[email protected] Security Questions • User answers a set of questions during sign-up • For example • Merry’s mother’s maiden name? • What is the shire’s address? • Just an extension of your first factor, password (knowledge) ❓ ❓

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@[email protected] Email • At login time, an email with verification code is sent to user • Convient • Should only be used with verified emails • Less Common, may be in use but may not referred to as MFA

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@[email protected] Example email verification step Awesome

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@[email protected] Time-based One Time Password aka app based aka soft token • Authy • Google Authenticator • 1Password TOTP

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@[email protected] Token based Physical keys that can auth • FIDO2/WebAuthn • USB drive • near- fi eld communication • Many use U2F (Universal 2nd Factor)

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@[email protected] OTP vs U2F

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@[email protected] OTP U2F • User has physical device • Strong security from public key cryptography • No personal information associated with a key • Users type in codes • Set up and provision required • Secrets stored, providing a single point of attack

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What would you change now?

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@[email protected] Secure Your Account 1. Use long password/passphrase 2. Secure with alternate authentication method 3. Use a VOIP number 4. Don't reuse passwords 5. Pin/password protect phone provider Keep on being @awesome

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@[email protected] … now let’s put a twist on our story

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@[email protected] Not that twist... Now you are the developer at shiregram (an insta rival) How do you secure your users from all the bad stuff out there?

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@[email protected] • Developers • Designers • Infrastructure • Managers • Not just info sec! Security is everyone's job YOU MEAN TO TELL ME INFORMATION SECURITY IS PART OF MY JOB TOO!?

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@[email protected]

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@[email protected]

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@[email protected] Back to your security basics 1. Strong passwords/passphrase 💪 2. Don't make them be rotated 🔁 3. Store the hash securely 🔒 4. Only store sensitive data that you need ⛔

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@[email protected] Why this helps •Greater entropy = harder to brute force the password •Passwords should be hard to guess, but easy to remember •Extra length + randomness allows for more entropy (strength)

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Do this 😄

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Not this 😞

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⬆ that is 6 a's

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Not this either 😧

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@[email protected] Let's talk about password hash encryption • Just an algorithm that takes data and produces fixed-size output • Some hashes are stronger then others • MD5/SHA-1 = 👎 • SHA-256/512-bit SHA-2= 👍 • If possible with performance, use an adaptive one-way function

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@[email protected] Strong recommended adaptive functions Argon2 PBKDF2 Scrypta Bcrypt Head on over to for more details

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“ @[email protected] …we made the decision to rotate customer accounts on May 5, 2022, out of an abundance of caution due to not all of the customers having multi-factor authentication (MFA) enabled at the time and potential for password reuse. Bob Wise Heroku General Manager and Salesforce

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@[email protected] ...a user lost their phone/app access/token • Recovery codes to the rescue! 🦹 • Allows access to application • Shown once, used once

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Choose your path DIY BUY

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@[email protected] If you choose to BUY •Choose your vendor wisely •What factor choices are available? •What are your authorization and authentication needs? •Can you export your data?

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@[email protected] If you choose DIY More flexibility More security surface area to cover More control over the user experience

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Somethings to keep in mind no matter your path…

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@[email protected] Rate limiting prevents brute force attacks Rate limiting prevents brute force attacks

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@[email protected] Use a truncated exponential back-off algorithm Uh wut now?

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@[email protected] What is an exponential back-off algorithm?

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@[email protected] Get user buy-in

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@[email protected] ✓ Make it easy opt in ✓ Make it easy to add ✓ Make it visible ✓Make it flexible Make it easy on your users

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@[email protected] Not this 😢 American Express OpenShift Net fl ix Pandora Pinterest Spotify Target Best Buy State Farm AT&T Twitter (well not right now) 🚫 MFA

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@[email protected] Do this 😄

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@[email protected] • For editing/removing of MFA require credentials • If authentication does fail, be generic in error response More authentication IT COMES IN PINTS?

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Do this "Login failed - invalid user ID or password" 😙

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Not this "Login for User awesome: invalid password" "Login failed, invalid user ID" "Login failed; account disabled" "Login failed; this user is not active" 😖

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@[email protected] Are we doing all we can to protect our users?

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@[email protected] Users with the most amount of privilege, 2FA is a requirement not optional

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@[email protected] MFA can help but... Can only improve security if you are following secure password practices Some MFA methods are more secure then others

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Thanks for having me WP Engine Omaha friends! Thanks to: Tyson Reeder for the final graphic @tysondreeder For references and further reading checkout Find me on mastodon @[email protected]

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@[email protected] What questions can I answer?

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@[email protected] Twilio API Example

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@[email protected] The Ruby One Time Password Library Example

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@[email protected] But you need to get this code to your user...

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@[email protected] Authy One Touch API Example

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@[email protected] QR Code Rendering ROTP: TOTP Twilio Ruby API Auth Ruby API