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Biofuels in an Evolving Transportation Landscape

Biofuels in an Evolving Transportation Landscape

Michael Berube
U.S. Department of Energy


  1. Biofuels in an Evolving Transportation Landscape National Ethanol Conference February

    17, 2021 Michael Berube Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation
  2. Why Does TRANSPORTATION MATTER? Transportation Connects People Transportation Connects Goods

    and Services Transportation is the 2nd Largest Expense of U.S. Households1 Transportation is the largest source of CO2 emissions within the energy sector2 1 Transportation Energy Data Book 36th Edition, ORNL, 2017. Table 2.1. U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-use Sector, 1973-2017. 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2020
  3. 3 Environment Meet everyone’s needs Affordable What Does Sustainable Transportation

    Mean Need to address local air quality, water and GHG emissions Provide reliable mobility solutions for people and goods recognizing diverse needs of different communities and stakeholders Affordable (for consumer) and competitive for industry by supporting economy/jobs

    ENERGY Technology / Component R&D Systems & Supporting Infrastructure Research High Impact R&D Vehicle Technologies ($400M) • Electrification • Combustion engines • Low cost lightweight materials • New mobility & transportation systems H2 & Fuel Cell Technologies ($150M) • Hydrogen production (photoelectrochemical, electrolysis) • Fuel Cell systems • H2@Scale Bioenergy Technologies (260M) • Biofuels and bioproducts • New products, fuels, and chemicals from waste • Energy crops TRANSPORTATION SECTOR INVESTING ACROSS THE Budget is FY 20 Enacted Demonstration & Deployment
  5. 5 International Energy Agency says solar is now the cheapest

    form of electricity New Business Models The world is changing, industry is on board Technology Development Policies and Global Push The World is Changing, and Industry is Engaged Policies and Global Push Battery cost declined by 90% since 2010 Bloomberg Price for hydrocarbon fuels dropped by 47% from 2014 to 2019. US DOE New Business Models Vehicles are low- utilized assets: parked for 95% of the time Average heavy truck trip declined from 800 to 500 miles between 2000 and 2018. ATRI California bans new combustion engine vehicles starting in 2035 Global oil demand has passed peak forever British Petroleum (2020) We see a future with Zero Crashes, Zero Emissions, Zero Congestion General Motors Amazon CEO has "just placed an order for 100,000 electric delivery vans Disruption is Happening Across Transportation – New Opportunities Light Duty Vehicle Electrification
  6. EVs Cost Comp- etitive w/ ICEs $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000

    $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 $16,000 ICEV HEV PHEV BEV LDV Maintenance Costs for 150,000 Miles by Powertrain Powertrain Coolant Transmission Service Spark Plugs Oxygen Sensors Filters Inspections REDUCE BATTERY COST MAINTENANCE COST BATTERY RECYCLING SMART CHARGING $6000
  7. 7 27.8 Quads) 2050 U.S. Transportation Energy Use (24.7 Quads)

    Automobiles 25% Passenger ght Trucks 32% Automobiles 22% Passenger Light Trucks 27% Buses 4% Commercial Light Trucks 1% Light- Medium Freight Trucks 9% Heavy Freight Trucks 16% Air 14% Water 5% Rail 2% Opportunity: Low-Carbon Fuel for Large Vehicles Demand for “hard to electrify” heavy vehicles is growing more rapidly, reaching ~75 B gallon in 2050
  8. 8 Greatest Biofuel Opportunity is Air/Marine and Legacy Fleet

  9. LanzaTech-DOE-PNNL Sustainable Aviation Fuel from Ethanol LanzaTech Produced ✓ 4000

    gallons Jet ✓ 600 gallons Diesel 9 World First Transatlantic Flight October 3, 2018 Ethanol: Excellent Substrate Building Block of the Future Hydrogenation Ethanol Dehydration Oligomerization Jet Diesel Separator Fractionation Ethylene Demonstrated feedstock flexibility ▪ 1,500 gal of jet from Waste Gas Ethanol (Lanzanol) ▪ 2,500 gal of jet from Grain Ethanol
  10. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Overview • BETO Core Focus: Develop

    technologies for production of low-carbon, liquid fuels (>60% greenhouse gas [GHG] reduction) for the transportation sector • BETO works on many biomass feedstocks: • Terrestrial Feedstock Wastes (corn stover and other crop waste, forest residues) • Purpose Grown Biomass (switchgrass, poplar trees, algae) • Waste Feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW], reclaimed wood waste, biosolids, food waste, CO, CO2 , methane) • For the last 8 years, BETO has not worked on ethanol as a fuel – focusing on drop-in biofuels Corn Ethanol <2000 Cellulosic Ethanol 2000-2012 Drop-in Biofuels and Bioproducts 2012>
  11. Ethanol’s GHG Reduction has Improved over Past Decade Rosenfeld, J.,

    M. Kaffel, J. Lewandrowski, D. Pape, 2020. The California Low Carbon Fuel Standard: Incentivizing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in the Ethanol Industry. USDA, Office of the Chief Economist. November 2020. Average Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Ethanol Carbon Intensity, 2011-2019

    ENERGY | BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 12 Evolution of Alcohols in fuels • Changes are occurring: • U.S. Department of Agriculture study indicating current CO2 impact from corn ethanol is 32%–40% • DOE studies on GHG opportunity to lower CO2 emissions from corn to jet fuels by 60%–70% from petroleum • “Alcohols” to jet leading technology pathway Future Drop-in Biofuels and Bioproducts Source: https://www.usda.gov/sites/default/files/docume nts/CA-LCFS-Incentivizing-Ethanol-Industry-GHG- Mitigation.pdf
  13. R&D Technology Off-Ramps Pilot Pre-Pilot Demonstration Technology On-Ramps Strategy from

    R&D through Demonstration Scale

    ENERGY Thank you. Michael Berube Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Michael.Berube@ee.doe.gov