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Opportunities Arising from the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines for Ground Transportation

Opportunities Arising from the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines for Ground Transportation

Dan Gaspar
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Transcript

  1. better fuels | better vehicles | sooner This presentation does

    not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2021 National Ethanol Conference Opportunities Arising from the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines for Ground Transportation February 17, 2021 Dan Gaspar Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  2. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Motivation 2

  3. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 3 Transportation is now

    largest source of U.S. GHG emissions Transportation CO2 emissions dominated by combustion – efficiency directly reduces this component per mile Courtesy of John Farrell and Bob McCormick, NREL, and adapted from https://www.cleanenergyfuels.com/compression/blog/natgassolution-part-1-clean-natural-gas-stack-race- reduce-emissions/
  4. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Uncertainty regarding pace and

    trajectory of change… Green Car Congress link September 24, 2020 Reuters article link September 23, 2020 January 28, 2021 CNBC article link Electrification expected to increasingly dominate light duty transportation, though fleet turnover is slow
  5. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Liquid fuels and efficiency

    improvements projected to continue to be important Source: David L. Greene, Charles B. Sims, Matteo Muratori (2020) “Two trillion gallons: Fuel savings from fuel economy improvements to US light-duty vehicles, 1975– 2018,” Energy Policy, Volume 142, 111517 doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111517 Study estimates fuel economy improvements to US light-duty vehicles from 1975–2018 saved 2T gallons of fuel, 17B tons of CO2 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration – Annual Energy Outlook 2020 EIA Annual Energy Outlook projects that internal combustion engines and the use of liquid fuels to dominate transportation for many years
  6. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 We can improve engine

    efficiency… Today’s LD engines are not as efficient as they could be • Today’s IC engines do not spend much time at conditions where they operate at peak efficiency • Changing fuel properties, engine and emissions system can improve performance • Co-Optima focuses on understanding • fuel chemistry • fuel properties, and • benefits of sustainable production, use 6
  7. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 …And reduce emissions Can

    reduce criteria pollutant mitigation cost while reducing GHG emissions • Changing fuel properties, engine and emissions system can improve performance • Co-Optima focuses on understanding • fuel chemistry • fuel properties, and • benefits of sustainable production, use 7 Low-sooting blendstocks and new engine technology can reduce soot production by >98%. Source: C. Mueller, Sandia
  8. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Approach 8

  9. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 9 Three technical questions

    frame approach Foundational, coordinated research and analysis to address these questions
  10. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Co-Optima aligns broad and

    deep expertise and facilities across the United States DOE Offices National Laboratories University Partners Industry Partners
  11. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 • Near-term. LD boosted

    SI combustion opportunity with improved efficiency at higher load. • Longer-term. LD multi-mode combustion includes boosted SI and ACI, opportunity through improved efficiency across the drive-cycle. • Near-term. MD/HD MCCI with more conventional diesel combustion strategies. • Longer-term. MD/HD ACI opportunity for improved low-load emissions and efficiency including multi-mode solutions. Approach Research spans on-road transportation from light-duty to heavy-duty Light-Duty Medium/Heavy-Duty ACI – Advanced Compression Ignition; MCCI – Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition
  12. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Co-Optima fuel research focused

    on sustainable fuels Key constraints narrow search space • Focus only on liquid fuels • Identify blendstocks to blend into petroleum base fuel • Consider only non-food-based biofuel feedstocks • Assess well-to-wheels impacts for biofuel options (GHG, etc.) • Provide data, tools, and knowledge to stakeholders – objective is not to “pick winners” • Evaluating impact of hybridization, but focused on internal combustion component
  13. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Results: Light Duty 13

  14. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 14 Fuel properties impact

    efficiency in turbocharged engines Key properties – research octane number, octane sensitivity, heat of vaporization
  15. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 15 Merit Function provides

    basis for blendstock selection Alcohols, olefins, furans and cyclopentanone All outperformed an E10 premium at a blend level no higher than 30%
  16. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 16 Six of Top

    10 blendstocks were determined to have fewest barriers Alcohols and di-isobutylene
  17. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 1000 2000 3000 4000

    5000 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 BMEP [ kPa ] Speed [ RPM ] 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 Brake Efficiency [%] Multimode engines focus on improving efficiency under part-load conditions Source | Adapted from Jim Szybist, ORNL Co-optimized boosted SI Co-optimized boosted SI and ACI 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 BMEP [ kPa ] Speed [ RPM ] 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 Brake Efficiency [%] Advanced Compression Ignition (ACI) has potential to improve engine efficiency for part-load conditions while maintaining boosted SI improvements
  18. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 LD multimode engines benefit

    from higher octane Multimode engines operate in compression ignition mode at low load • All are oxygenates offering high, synergistic RON and S, and 60%+ GHG emissions reduction • Lignocellulosic ethanol is already a market fuel, and iso-propanol, n- propanol, iso-butanol, and the ethanol/n-propanol mixture have the fewest barriers to adoption
  19. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Results: Medium- and Heavy-Duty

    19
  20. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Biomass- and waste-derived diesel

    blendstocks Eleven blendstocks can reduce GHG, criteria emissions • Screened hundreds of mixtures and molecules via fuel property tests (thousands in silico), comprising a wide range of hydrocarbon and oxygenate chemistries • All final candidates offer: – CN > 40 (most > 48) – LHV > 28 MJ/kg* – GHG emissions reduced by 60%+ – Potential to be produced at $5.50/gge or better – Cold weather operability (freezing/cloud point, pour point) – Acceptable flash point and other properties – Potential to reduce criteria emissions relative to market diesel
  21. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 WTW GHG reductions for

    vary for “sustainable fuels” Top diesel candidates reduce GHG emissions >60% relative to petroleum diesel LCAs indicate Top 11 diesel blendstocks have the potential to reduce GHG emissions by at least 60% relative to petroleum diesel
  22. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 WTW GHG reductions for

    vary for “sustainable fuels” Diesel and MM candidates can reduce GHG emissions, but much work still to be done
  23. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 23 Drilling down into

    the ETD iso-alkanes ETD is “ethanol-to-distillate” with the diesel fraction represented in the Top 11 Synthetic paraffinic kerosene (ATJ-SPK) and/or diesel Fractionation Dehydration Ethanol Oligomerization Hydrogenation Example from steel mill waste gas Source: LanzaTech
  24. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 • Ethanol to Gasoline

    (61666-113-D1H)1 – RON = 85 – MON = 81 • Ethanol to Jet (61666-107-ETJ-FIN)2 – Density = 0.782 (0.775-0.840 for Jet A/JP-8/Jet A-1) – Flash Point = 56°C (ASTM D1655 requires > 38°C) – Freeze Point = < -70°C (ASTM D1655 requires < -40°C) • Ethanol to Diesel (61666-77-H7)3 – Cetane = 53.6 (Diesel fuels are typically in the 40-55 range) – Cloud Point = -60.1°C (ASTM D 975 includes case is < -28°C for MN, European standard EN 590 specifies < -34°C for Class 4 arctic diesel) – Pour Point = -66.0°C 24 Ethanol is a useful intermediate to distillate fuels Can be converted to a range of hydrocarbons for jet, diesel ü 98% isoparaffin
  25. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 • Internal combustion engines

    will be with us for decades, even with rapid electrification • Some applications will be harder to electrify (such as long-haul freight) • Ethanol remains an excellent source of octane, heat of vaporization and octane sensitivity, and has been made and used at scale • Ethanol also is an excellent feedstock for conversion to hydrocarbons for use in diesel and jet applications 25 Summary
  26. National Ethanol Conference, February 17, 2021 Acknowledgments DOE Sponsors •

    Alicia Lindauer (BETO) • Kevin Stork, Gurpreet Singh, Mike Weismiller (VTO) Co-Optima Research Team • >150 researchers across 9 national laboratories and many industry and university collaborators 26 For more information https://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/co- optimization-fuels-engines Searchable publication database https://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/co- optima-publications-library-0