the question of where the aliens are. Given that our star and Earth are part of a young planetary system compared to the rest of the universe and that interstellar travel might be fairly easy to achieve the theory says that Earth should have been visited by aliens already. The Theory? Enrico Fermi (an Italian physicist) first came out with the theory in the 1950s. Fermi realized that any civilization with a modest amount of rocket technology and an immodest amount of imperial incentive could rapidly colonize the entire galaxyWithin ten million years, every star system could be brought under the wing of empire. Ten million years may sound long, but in fact it's quite short compared with the age of the galaxy, which is roughly ten thousand million years. Colonization of the Milky Way should be a quick exercise. Fermi Paradox
the Fermi Paradox as to where alien life might exist and why we have not encountered it yet. • Cosmic Fluke - It is possible that life within the universe is actually extremely rare given the many conditions required to sustain life and therefore we are just very lucky and possibly a one off situation within our galaxy. • Extinction - It could be that there comes a point in the development of any civilization when life faces mass extinction, either via an artificially created accident or a natural disaster meaning the aliens are all dead. • Primitive - We might still be too primitive to make contact with an advanced race and they are choosing not to reveal themselves or our method of communication is far too outdated.
the chemical reaction of life Habitable Zone For water to form a planet must be the right distance from the sun, too hot and gas will form, too cold it will freeze. This perfect distance for life is the Habitable zone. An Atmosphere protects the planet from harmful rays and sustains the conditions for life within it
the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev who was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals. It has 3 base classes, each with an energy disposal level and so this is used a basis to determine how advanced a civilization is. TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III A type I civilization would be able to access all of the available energy within its own planet such as weather, minerals and even the planets core we are currently only 0.73 on the type I scale and so have not even achieved the first level of advanced civilization but should do so in the next 200 years. 0.73 HUMANITY A type II civilization would be able to harness the energy of its home star, so in our case we would need to control all of the suns energy to become type II. The concept of the “Dyson sphere” may make this possible. This is the idea of building a gigantic complex around the sun much like the death star but hollow and full of solar panels with the sun in its centre. + A type III is a civilization that would be able to control the entire galaxy and its energy. A race this advanced would seem god like to us and poses technology beyond our entire understanding of current science ignorer to harness such energy.
factors thought to play a role in the development of advanced civilizations. It is used with in the scientific community as a way of estimating the possible number of intelligent civilizations within our universe. N = The number of civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy whose electromagnetic emissions are detectable. R* = The rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life. fp = The fraction of those stars with planetary systems. ne = The number of planets, per solar system, with an environment suitable for life. fl = The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears. fi = The fraction of life bearing planets on which intelligent life emerges. fc = The fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space. L = The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space.
alien would be determined by gravity, ambient density, and source of energy. Plantlike aliens are unlikely because photosynthesis doesn't encourage complex survival strategies. The need to chase food favors mobile life. If such life evolved in a thick atmosphere, it's likely to be a horizontal creature. A thinner atmosphere would favor the most vertical animals. Two legs and two arms are more efficient than four legs, so incorporating the rule of symmetry, it's not unlikely that aliens would have evolved just like humans. An octopus is a good example of an advanced-alien analogue on Earth. Octopuses are quite (probably human-level) intelligent and live in a totally alien environment (compared with ours). Evolution has had to find novel solutions to the pressures they're under— pressures completely different than those that shaped mammals on land.
create “lifepore" that allows a player to control the development of a species from its beginnings as a microscopic organism, through development as an intelligent and social creature, to interstellar exploration as a spacefaring culture. It has drawn wide attention for its massive scope, and its use of open-ended gameplay and procedural generation. I think it simulates the Idea of the Fermi Paradox as the civilizations you create must also get past barriers to to evolve and eventually take over the galaxy or they can go into extinction.
altering computer software and hardware to accomplish a goal that is considered to be outside of the creator's original objective. Those individuals who engage in computer hacking activities are typically referred to as “hackers.”
not all are considered to be illegal or harmful and they are referred to by colored hats. A black hat hacker is an individual with extensive computer knowledge whose purpose is to breach or bypass internet security. Black hat hackers are also known as crackers or dark-side hackers. The general view is that, while hackers build things, crackers break things. The term "grey hat" refers to a computer hacker or computer security expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards, but does not have the malicious intent typical of a black hat hacker. The term "white hat” refers to an ethical computer hacker, or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies to ensure the security of an organization's information systems. BlueHat is a term used to refer to outside computer security consulting firms that are employed to bug test a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed.
knowledge of computer programming to understand how certain software works in order to bypass security and other barriers. The Hacker must get past Administrator access and to do so is by obtaining a password
popular login pages to trick the user to enter their login details which are then sent to the hacker Same Password Some hackers can target websites with poor security and obtain user information such as your password and if you use the same password for many other things they can access these too Log Keystrokes This is software created by hackers to record everyday you press with out your knowledge and therefore obtaining your password
and are used to quickly generate every possible number combination for a numbered password until the correct one grants access Virus Hackers can use viruses to access computers in which they copy them selves and corrupt/destroy files R.A.T This is a tool used by hackers that can access public wifi connections that do not use security and therefore get into a device
citizen, former Intelligence Community officer and whistleblower. The documents he revealed provided a vital public window into the NSA and its international intelligence partners’ secret mass surveillance programs and capabilities. These revelations generated unprecedented attention around the world on privacy intrusions and digital security, leading to a global debate on the issue. Snowden worked in various roles within the US Intelligence Community, including serving undercover for the CIA overseas. After traveling to Hong Kong, Snowden revealed documents to the American public on the NSA’s mass surveillance programs, which were shown to be operating without any public oversight and outside the limits of the US Constitution. The US government has charged Snowden with theft of government property, and two further charges under the 1917 Espionage Act. Each charge carries a maximum 10-year prison sentence.
during the day, but at night he is a vigilante hacker. He is recruited by the mysterious leader of an underground group of hackers to join their organization. Elliot's task? Help bring down corporate America, including the company he is paid to protect, which presents him with a moral dilemma. Although he works for a corporation, his personal beliefs make it hard to resist the urge to take down the heads of multinational companies that he believes are running and ruining the world.
story follows a hacker and his efforts to seek revenge after the killing of his niece. The open world design lets players freely roam the urban city, suburbs, open countryside, and run-down neighborhoods of Chicago. The game is played from a third-person perspective and its world is navigated on-foot or by vehicle. Players control Aiden Pearce, a grey hat hacker who can hack into the "ctOS", a centralized operating system which manages the hyper-connected city of Chicago, and formed after the Northeast blackout of 2003 was caused by a hacker.
process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure.
or unknown outcome. There are failures as well as successes. Inspiration can start the process, but no matter how complete the initial idea, inventions typically must be developed. IMPROVMENT Inventors may try to improve something by making it more effective, more efficient, easier to use, serve more purposes, longer lasting, cheaper, more ecologically friendly, or aesthetically different etc. INSIGHT Such inventive insight may begin with questions, doubt or a hunch. It may begin by recognizing that something unusual or accidental may be useful or that it could open a new avenue for exploration. Inventors often envision a new idea, seeing it in their mind's eye. New ideas can arise when the conscious mind turns away from the subject or problem when the inventor's focus is on something else, or while relaxing or sleeping. A novel idea may come in a flasha Eureka moment ! RE-INVISION Play may lead to invention. Childhood curiosity, experimentation, and imagination can develop one's play instinct. Inventors feel the need to play with things that interest them, and to explore, and this internal drive brings about creations. PLAY Creative Process
the design of our cities. They were invented in their modern form in the late 19th century by a number of individuals, with German Karl Benz creating what’s considered the first practical motorcar in 1885. The Car The Internet 1990’s creation of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners- Lee is responsible for transforming our communication, commerce, entertainment, politics and much more by allowing device to be connected around the world. although he was not the only one working on this kind of tech, Alexander Graham Bell got the first patent for an electric telephone in 1876. It has revolutionized our ability to communicate. The Telephone
1856, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. He had over 278 inventions and his work led to the creation of many important things such as X-rays, lasers, robotics, different sources of light, radio and many more.
a group of like- minded people would get together and dance to all types of electronic music. Raves created a magical environment where people could dance for hours. Rave was founded on groundbreaking electronica and innovative DJs. There was quite a bit of reported psychedelic and club drug use at these all night events, which gave rise to negative media attention. House was banned from radio, television and media outlets, but during the backlash, a credible UK acid house record managed to break into the mainstream. By the early 1990s, it became more challenging for promoters to organize one-off events. New bylaws were passed in an attempt to discourage promoters from holding raves which lead to underground and illegal. Around the same time jungle and DnB started to emerge. Chicago in the mid-to-late 1980s was the birth place of house music. These were the first raves. Four DJs went to Ibiza where house had become popular and brung house to the uk and held the first house club night called “Shoom” in conjunction with the then-new drug ecstasy.
HACK: The earliest examples of the word Hacking through out the history of the human language have been linked to the word “working on”. The term “Hack” in the sense of messing with computers was apparently ﬁrst known to be used at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the M.I.T in April 1955 during a meeting at the Tech Model Railroad Club state that “Mr. Eccles requests that anyone working or hacking on the electrical system turn the power off to avoid fuse blowing.” In the nineteen-sixties, the term seems migrated from the M.I.T. context to computer enthusiasts in general, and, in time, became an essential part of their lexicon. The Jargon File, a glossary for computer programmers that was launched in 1975, lists eight deﬁnitions for “hacker.” The ﬁrst reads, “A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.” The following six are equally approving. The eighth, and last, is “[deprecated] A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence password hacker, network hacker. The correct term for this sense is cracker.” https://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/a-short-history-of-hack
Technology during the 1950s and 60s, a hack was simply an elegant or inspired solution to any given problem. Many of the early MIT hacks tended to be practical jokes. A book about the ﬁrst hacker groups was written by science ﬁction author Bruce Sterling. “The Hacker Crackdown”, details the lives and exploits of the ﬁrst generation of hackers. Most were kids, playing around with the telephone network, inﬁltrating early computer systems. This was the era of dedicated hacking magazines, including Phrack and 2600. The individuals involved adopted names like Fry Guy, Knight Lightning, Leftist and Urvile. Then Groups began to appear such as the Legion of Doom, the Masters of Deception, and Neon Knights. As the sophistication of computer hackers developed, they began to come onto the radar of law enforcement. During the 1980s and 90s, lawmakers in the USA and UK passed computer misuse legislation, giving them the means to prosecute. A series of clampdowns followed, culminated in 1990 with Operation Sundevil - a series of raids on hackers led by the US Secret Service.
technical information and articles, many of which are written and submitted by the readership, on a variety of subjects including hacking, telephone switching systems, Internet protocols and services, as well as general news concerning the computer "underground". The magazine traces its origins to early Bulletin Board Systems as a place for hackers to share information and stories with each other. It was launched in 1984, [ coinciding with the book of the same name. It is published and edited by its co-founder Emmanuel Goldstein and his company 2600 Enterprises, Inc.
a hacker group active from the 1980s to the late 1990s and early 2000. During its heyday from around 1984-1991 Legion of Doom was widely considered to be the most capable hacking group in the world. To this day, LOD ranks as one of the most inﬂuential hacking groups in the history of technology. MOD's initial membership grew from meetings on Loop-Around Test Lines that led to legendary collaborations to hack RBOC phone switches and the various minicomputers and mainframes used to administer the telephone network. They successfully remained underground using alternative handles to hide even their true hacker identities. Most of the members came from LOD As a result of a major nationwide investigation by a joint FBI/Secret Service task force, ﬁve of MOD's members were indicted in 1992 in federal court. The Masters of Deception
the Masters of Deception (MOD) and Legion of Doom (LOD), amongst several smaller subsidiary groups. Both of the primary groups involved made attempts to hack into the opposing group's networks, across Internet, X.25, and telephone networks. In a panel debate of The Next HOPE conference, 2010, Phiber Optik re-iterated that the rumored "gang war in cyberspace" between LOD and MOD never happened, and that it was "a complete fabrication" by the U.S attorney's ofﬁce and some sensationalist media. Furthermore, two other high- ranking members of the LOD conﬁrmed that the "Great Hacker War" never occurred, reinforcing the idea. The Great Hacker War Operation Sundevil was a 1990 nationwide United States Secret Service crackdown on "illegal computer hacking activities." It involved raids in approximately ﬁfteen different cities and resulted in three arrests and the conﬁscation of computers, the contents of electronic bulletin board systems (BBSes), and ﬂoppy disks. It was revealed in a press release on May 9, 1990. The arrests and subsequent court cases resulted in the creation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The operation is now seen as largely a public- relations stunt. Operation Sundevil has also been viewed as one of the preliminary attacks on the Legion of Doom and similar hacking groups. Operation sundevil This was passed by Parliament and made three new offences: 1. Accessing computer material without permission, eg looking at someone else's ﬁles. 2. Accessing computer material without permission with intent to commit further criminal offences, eg hacking into the bank's computer and wanting to increase the amount in your account. 3. Altering computer data without permission, eg writing a virus to destroy someone else's data, or actually changing the money in an account. The Computer Misuse Act (1990)
in North Korea is extremely outdated, their government still has shown interest in hacking. According to defectors, military hackers live extravagant lives in North Korea. Top students are handpicked from straight out of their "University of Automation" school. The primary wing of this hacking group is known as Bureau 121. It comprises about 1,800 people that work around the world. Most of the Bureau's activity has been focused on South Korea. Attacks have ranged from malicious gaming apps targeted at South Korea, hacking the website of the South Korean President, and destroying data of banks and broadcasting companies. Guardians of Peace, the group behind the famous Sony hack might have been a Bureau 121 proxy. That particular hack cost Sony about $15 million. Founded by a small group of Germans in 1981. Today it is a large association of mostly German-speaking hackers. CCC has made a number of hacks where they first consulted legal experts to make sure that what they were doing was legal. Although they almost permanently reside in or around legal grey-area, this willingness to operate within legal bounds has allowed their survival and sometimes glorified by the press. Chaos Computer Club Morpho, a.k.a. Wild Neutron, is a well- funded group that has executed dozens of high profile hacks since 2011 on tech, pharmaceutical, and investment companies. They're likely not state-sponsored because their hacks usually steal insider information for monetary gain. They've hit Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and Twitter via zero-day exploits. Since zero-day exploits are unknown to the software vendor as long as they are undiscovered, they give powerful access to the hacker. This is a contrast to something simple like a DDOS that just overloads server traffic for a period of time. Morpho is particularly interesting because they are likely a sophisticated small group. Morpho
Syrian sympathies as well as connections to Iran and Hezbollah. They've show a wide array of attack capabilities. Most famously, they've defaced many major Western news outlets, but they have also managed to locate opposition rebels using malware. The SEA is unique because of its varied tone and style. For example, it tweeted from AP's account that Obama had been injured in explosions at the White House. This one simple tweet sparked a dramatic temporary fall in the DOW Jones Index. On the lighter side, they've tweeted from BBC Weather that "Saudi weather station down due to head on- collision with camel". Their familiarity with English colloquialism and humor raises questions about the SEA's identity, but the NYT has stated that the SEA is probably Iranian. Anonymous is probably the most recognizable hacker group. They originated in 2003 on 4chan, and have grown to be a significant force on the internet. Most of their hacks historically have been of the liberal hacktivist variety, although others have been extremely serious or extremely light-hearted in nature. Some of their more focused campaigns have been the Occupy Movement, anti-child pornography, and anti-Church of Scientology. Although they have certain collective symbols, such as Guy Fawkes masks and taglines, there is no single person giving commands. Anonymous After a major cyber attack on Iran it decided it was best to aggressively upgrade their cyber capabilities. They did this in at least two ways: create an independent state- sponsored group, Tarh Andishan, and consult and hire existing Iranian hackivist groups Ajax. Ajax is most famous for "Operation Saffron Rose" in which they attempted to gain information on U.S. defense industry officials with advanced phishing attacks. Tarh Andishan gained access to airport gate control systems in South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Such access would allow them to spoof security credentials in an airport. They've also hacked industrial targets like oil, gas, and telecommunications companies. Syrian Electronic Army Tarh Andishan & Ajax
Europe and Russia, is Dragonfly. Dragonfly is likely state- sponsored due to its targets: electric grids, energy industry, and other control systems in U.S. and Europe. They're designated as an APT (Advanced Persistent Threat).Their most common attacks are spear-phishing and watering hole attacks. This is not unusual for APT groups. APT28 is an Advanced Persistent Threat group. They're Russian, and might share funding sources with Dragonfly. All of their targets are targets that the Russian government is interested in, they speak Russian, and they've been traced back to a government sponsor in Moscow. APT28 uses pretty well known hacking methods, and uses them successfully and often. They've hacked NATO, Polish government websites, Georgia ministries, and OSCE. They're unique in that they've been caught framing the Cyber Caliphate (ISIS) for their attacks. APT28 Elderwood Group, Axiom, Unit 61398, Comment Crew, Putter Panda, Hidden Lynx, and many more. China pioneered the state-sponsored hacking group, and they've continued to perfect the practice. Often it is difficult to tell whether the Chinese government is pulling the strings, funding, or even has affiliation with a group. One of the more famous attacks came in 2010 under the name "Operation Aurora". We in part know about Operation Aurora because Google came forward and announced it had been hacked. Common targets included defense industries, human rights campaigns, and supply-chain firms. Elderwood group is a blanket term for all the groups involved. Such a coordinated, advanced, well-funded attack had to be orchestrated by the Chinese government. DragonFly Elderwood Group
about Tailored Access Operations (TAO). TAO has some of the best capabilities in the world, and has collected about all the American telephone data you can imagine. Once revealed, more and more details have come out about them. We now know they have 600 employees in the main NSA complex in Fort Mead, Maryland. There are also branches in Hawaii, Georgia, Texas, and Denver. They have sophisticated unique abilities One of those capabilities is QUANTUMSQUIRREL, which allows them to appear on the internet anywhere as anyone. They've also compromised very common computer systems often with physical access or cooperation with network or hardware companies. They are known to force companies to insert vulnerabilities into their own systems for TAO to exploit. Just about all the details of the organization are Orwellian. Take, for example, WARRIOR PRIDE. It's IPhone and Android software that can turn on a phone remotely, turn the microphone of the phone on and listen, track using geolocation, and its own tamper-proofing and stealth programming. That's just one that we know about. NSA Stuxnet is one of the best known names when it comes to cyber attacks, and for good reason. The worm (a self replicating, self propagating computer virus) destroyed a ﬁfth of Iran's nuclear centrifuges in 2009, seriously hindering the country's atomic plans. But what makes Stuxnet really stand out among all the destructive malware out there was just how well crafted it was. According to Trend Micro, the Stuxnet payload consisted of three parts: the worm itself (WORM_STUXNET), an execution .LNK ﬁle (LNK_STUXNET) that allowed the worm to auto-execute, and a rootkit (RTKT_STUXNET) that hid the worm's existence. It was also propagated by an unusual means. For four years, it was thought the virus was introduced into the Natanz uranium enrichment facility, the primary target of the attack about 1,000 centrifuges were damaged, via an infected USB stick. However, researchers at Kaspersky Lab discovered in 2014 that the vector of attack was in fact the plant's supply chain.The sophistication of the Stuxnet program led many to believe it was created by a nation state and, given the target, that the US and Israel were probably involved. Stuxnet Virus
graduate student at Cornell University in 1988, Robert Morris created what would come to be known as the ﬁrst worm on the Internet. Morris has said he created the worm not for damage, but to give him an idea of the size of the web. However, a design ﬂaw caused the worm to replicate itself at higher levels than Morris has intended, overloading systems and causing damage signiﬁcant damage. After he was identiﬁed as the source of the worm, Robert Morris became the ﬁrst person convicted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1990. Morris was sentenced to three years of probation, 400 hours of community service, a ﬁne of $10,050, and the costs of his supervision. • Jonathon James hacks NASA - Known by the hacker name c0mrade, Jonathon James was 16 when, in 1999, he hacked into the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and downloaded proprietary software for the International Space Station. The software supported the International Space Station's physical environment and was responsible for critical control of humidity and temperature for living in space. NASA oﬃcials valued the documents stolen by James at around $1.7 million. The incident forced NASA to shut down its computer systems for three weeks and cost them about $41,000 to ﬁx. • Gary McKinnon hacks the US military - Scottish hacker Gary McKinnon, who went by the handle Solo, was accused of hacking to several US military computers in 2001 and 2002. McKinnon allegedly wanted to know what the government knew about UFOs. Military oﬃcials said the damage caused by McKinnon included the deletion of critical ﬁles from operating systems, prompting a shut down the US Armys Military District of Washington network of 2,000 computers for 24 hours. McKinnon also allegedly deleted weapons logs at the Earle Naval Weapons Station. Oﬃcials said the cost of cleanup from McKinnons hack was over $700,000.McKinnon is currently in London and has been ﬁghting US extradition orders for over a decade. He could face a sentence of over 60 years in prison if convicted of the charges against him.
servers, or even through secured government networks. There are many ways in which a criminal could use electronic means to incite fear and violence. It's far less expensive to purchase a computer than to access guns or bombs, making this approach appealing for many potential criminals worldwide. It can be anonymous and conducted at a great distance away from the target. For just a few examples, consider these situations: • Foreign governments may use hackers to spy on U.S. intelligence communications in order to learn about where our troops are located or otherwise gain a tactical advantage at war. • Domestic terrorists may break into the private servers of a corporation in order to learn trade secrets, steal banking information, or perhaps the private data of their employees. • Global terror networks may disrupt a major website in order to create a public nuisance or inconvenience, or even more seriously, try to stop trafﬁc to a website publishing content with which they disagree. • International terrorists could try to access and disable the signal which ﬂies drones or otherwise controls military technology. Cyber Terrorism Hackvatist Group Hacktivism is the act of hacking, or breaking into a computer system, for a politically or socially motivated purpose. The individual who performs an act of hacktivism is said to be a hacktivist. Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of attack coupled with a demand for money to avert or stop the attack. Cyberextortionist Cybersecurity is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access. Cybersecurity Protector
the mysterious image contained a simple message in white text on a black background: “Hello. We are looking for highly intelligent individuals. To ﬁnd them, we have devised a test. There is a message hidden in the image. Find it, and it will lead you on the road to ﬁnding us. We look forward to meeting the few who will make it all the way through. Good luck.” It was signed “3301.” And so began the hunt to solve the mysterious Cicada 3301 puzzle, one that recurs each year and has left cryptoanalysts and hackers scratching their heads. Joel Eriksson His is one of the few known people to have actually solved it since the ﬁrst challenge appeared online. “I stumbled upon it on one of the image boards the ﬁrst image was posted to in 2012,” says Eriksson, a 34-year-old cryptosecurity researcher and developer from Sweden. “Unfortunately, I didn’t see it until some time after it was originally posted, and thus had some catching up to do,” Eriksson says. “Initially, I just thought it would be a nice little brainteaser. I’ve always been interested in anything that can challenge me, and I never give up. In the case of Cicada, the puzzle in question turned out to be a lot more than I thought it would be when I started it.”Tackling the puzzle would lead Eriksson to rely on a host of skills from steganography to cryptography, to an understanding of ancient Mayan numerology and a familiarity with cyberpunk speculative ﬁction. As he worked his way from solving one piece of the puzzle to the next, the journey would lead him to discover that the answers lay not just in the digital domain, but in the real world: From clues left on the voicemail of a Texas telephone number to ﬂyers taped to telephone poles in 14 cities around the world. The quest would ultimately return to the deepest layers of the digital world: the dark web.
the world wide web that requires special software to access. Once inside, web sites and other services can be accessed through a browser in much the same way as the normal web. However, some sites are effectively “hidden”, in that they have not been indexed by a search engine and can only be accessed if you know the address of the site. Special markets also operate within the dark web called, “darknet markets”, which mainly sell illegal products like drugs and ﬁrearms, paid for in the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Because of the the dark web’s almost total anonymity, it has been the place of choice for groups wanting to stay hidden online from governments and law enforcement agencies. On the one hand there have been whistleblowers using the dark web to communicate with journalists. What is it? There are a number of ways to access the dark web, including the use of Tor, Freenet and I2P. Of these, the most popular is Tor, partly because it is one of the easiest software packages to use. Tor downloads as a bundle of software that includes a version of Firefox conﬁgured speciﬁcally to use Tor. Tor provides secrecy and anonymity by passing messages through a network of connected Tor relays, which are specially conﬁgured computers. As the message hops from one node to another, it is encrypted in a way that each relay only knows about the machine that sent the message and the machine it is being sent to. Rather than conventional web addresses, Tor uses “onion” addresses, which further obsure the content. There are even special versions of search engines like Bing and Duck Duck Go that will return onion addresses for Tor services. It is a mistake to think that Tor is entirely anonymous. If a web site is accessed, it can still potentially ﬁnd out information about whoever is accessing the site because of information that is shared, such as usernames and email addresses. Those wanting to stay completely anonymous have to use special anonymity services to hide their identity in these cases. Accessing The Dark Web
expert discovers The security protocol used to protect the vast majority of wiﬁ connections has been broken, potentially exposing wireless internet trafﬁc to malicious eavesdroppers and attacks, according to the researcher who discovered the weakness. Mathy Vanhoef, a security expert at Belgian university KU Leuven, discovered the weakness in the wireless security protocol WPA2, and published details of the ﬂaw on Monday morning. “Attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted,” Vanhoef’s report said. “This can be abused to steal sensitive information such as credit card numbers, passwords, chat messages, emails, photos and so on. Vanhoef emphasised that “the attack works against all modern protected wiﬁ networks. Depending on the network conﬁguration, it is also possible to inject and manipulate data. For example, an attacker might be able to inject ransomware or other malware into websites.” The vulnerability affects a number of operating systems and devices, the report said, including Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, OpenBSD, MediaTek, Linksys and others. “If your device supports wiﬁ, it is most likely affected,” Vanhoef wrote. “In general, any data or information that the victim transmits can be decrypted … Additionally, depending on the device being used and the network setup, it is also possible to decrypt data sent towards the victim (e.g. the content of a website).” Click for link:
Bond ﬁlm series produced by Eon Productions. The story centres on Bond investigating a cyber attack on MI6; the cyber attack is part of a plot by former MI6 agent Raoul Silva to humiliate, discredit and kill M as revenge against her for betraying him. The story evolves around hacking and cyber terrorism. Characters Two of the characters within the ﬁlm are interesting in regards to hacking. The character “Q” is the MI6’s Tech guy and basically a hired hacker to help protect MI6’s cyber security system or even carry out cyber attacks. The main villain in the ﬁlm Silva is a cyber-terrorist and former Secret Intelligence Service (SIS/MI6) operative who uses is skills to hack and blow up MI6 HQ and forcing “Q” to ﬁght back in a cyber war.
future in which reality as perceived by most humans is actually a simulated reality called “the Matrix”, created by sentient machines to subdue the human population, while their bodies’ heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source. A character named “Neo”, who is a computer Hacker, learns this truth and is drawn into a rebellion against the machines. Blackhat is newly released movie by Chris Hemsworth. In this movie hackers hack Chinese nuclear power plant to start nuclear reaction. Simultaneously, they also hack the stock exchange and steal million of dollars from the bank. This movie shows how a black hat hackers threaten governments. Blackhat In this movie, two people get a call from an unknown number by a woman. They get a task on phone that if they don’t follow the phone call they would die. This movie displays supercomputer hack on all networks and military networks. It shows how AI can be used against us if hacked. Eagle Eye
through the very basics of hacking with a series of challenges and and even provides a mock site for users to hack. Therefore I started by signing up to site and trying the ﬁrst series of challenges. I shall document my process into learning how to hack and hopefully use those skills to inform my game ideas and use them with the game itself
In order to complete the task I had open the page source code through the inspector then ﬁnd the email it was being sent to Here I found the email I then just had to edit the html code and change it to my email in order to send the password to me
within the source code. This involved me ﬁnding the “password.php” ﬁle then inputing this into the browse to show the hidden ﬁle through the URL Here I had to use cryptography to decrypt the password, I looked online for example and had to ﬁgure out the algorithm to this. I found out that each character would +1 to the next character for example if there were already 3 characters in the word and the next number was 4 the encrypted number would actually be 7 instead of 4
could input the correct command into this UNIX cal script. This is a script that just displays calendar dates however with certain command inputs it will unintentionally display other information. For example the “;Is -l” which I need to input would display ALL ﬁles within the directory not just the calendar dates. This is where the hidden password ﬁle was and could be obtained in order to gain access.
though often using other user-interface metaphors, such as a simulated operating system. The player uses this to explore the internal programming of "Pony Island" arcade game. At times, the player must play the "Pony Island" game, a type of endless runner game with shoot 'em up elements, guiding a pony character in a side-scroller while avoiding obstacles and shooting enemies that might attack it. Mechanics of this "Pony Island" game, as well as the operating system, may be accessed by clicking on special marks that appear on the screen, presenting the player with simpliﬁed pseudocode along with one or more boxes and visual instruction commands, such as "move down", "move left" or "repeat". On these screens, the player will be required to reorder the visual instructions as to allow the program execution to complete or to achieve a certain goal, such as raising their experience points past a speciﬁc level. The game deﬁantly has aspect of hacking as the player must venture inside of the machine going through a series of programming like tasks its also very mysterious and could help me with ideas on the sort of game I want to develop.
border crossing immigration ofﬁcer in the ﬁctional dystopian Eastern Bloc-like country of Arstotzka, which has been and continues to be at political hostilities with its neighboring countries. As the ofﬁcer, the player must review each immigrant and returning citizen's passports and other supporting paperwork against a list of ever-increasing rules using a number of tools and guides, allowing in only those with the proper paperwork, rejecting those without all proper forms, and at times detaining those with falsiﬁed information. The player is rewarded in their daily salary for how many people they have processed correctly in that day, while being ﬁned for making mistakes; the salary is used to help provide shelter, food, and heat for the player's in-game family. In some cases, the player will be presented with moral decisions, such as approving entry of a pleading spouse of a citizen despite the lack of proper paperwork, knowing this will affect their salary. This is a perfect example of the type of game idea I have in mind as its based all on morality and decision making which could translated into a hacking game that has consequences for the players actions I also really like the art style its dark, simple but appealing.
morality of hacking for a game making the user think about the path they take and the consequences for there actions to see how far there hacking skills will take them and what outcomes it will present. In a puzzle/point and click style game with multiple endings or never ending . Below I have outlined every possible reason for hacking I could think of with each one questioning its morality. Some of the examples may stretch to Sci-ﬁ. • Obtaining information • Spying on an individual • Testing security • Extortion • Fun • Pranks • Destroying information • Stealing identtiy • Stealing money • Physical destruction • Control AI, systems • Getting past physical barriers (electronic gate systems) • Manipulating real world electronics • Creating security against hackers • Terrorist attack • Bringing down company • Politcal stand • Controlling weapons • Warfare • Education • Fixing something thats broken but is hard to access without hacking • Controlling Machines • Hack wearable tech or bio tech such a chip in the brain
true identities with names such as anonymous and within ﬁlms and games seen wearing masks to cover up there appearance when talking to the public. In terms of potential characters I looked at these masks and list of names used by hacking groups and others involved. Online Personas Hacking Names • Anonymous • Lizard squad • Dark army • Legion of doom • Masters of deception • Electronic Army • Chaos computer club • Mr Robot • Morpho • Elderwood group • Digitaldawg pound • Shadow brokers • Fry guy • Knight lighting Other groups • Government • Hacking group • FBI • NSA • Security company • Tech company • Private detective • MI5/MI6 • Student club • Terrorist group • Hacktavist • Military • Police • Aliens • Robots/Super computers • Criminal gangs
be completed in a number of different sequences. Each player may take on (or even encounter) only some of the challenges possible, and the same challenges may be played in a different order. ConverselyA nonlinear game will allow greater player freedom than a linear game. For example, a nonlinear game may permit multiple sequences to ﬁnish the game, a choice between paths to victory, different types of victory, or optional side-quests and subplots. I want the game to have a branching narrative giving the player the freedom to explore the game. For example they may just hack a computer and ﬁnd information that leads them on a certain path like getting recruited to a hacking group or under the radar of FBI or maybe just to a dead end but can still have fun exploring someone else's computer to see what they can ﬁnd or access the webcam to look around their house. This would be just a fun aspect of the game that makes it feel more reel and question the morality of which this person through the camera
artwork pulls you in straight away. It doesn’t let up either, as what unfolds within the smooth frames of its animation is a subtle story about being a twenty-something with a lost cause. As the anthropomorphised feline Mae, you return to your home town of Possum Springs after dropping out of college. Things are very different here now that the coal mines have closed, an industry that was the lifeblood of this facsimile of small- town America. Night in the Woods Made by Telltale and Disney alumni, this beautiful teen drama has the most natural speech system in games; well-written chatter that ﬂows between friends and never awkwardly pauses while you choose a dialogue option. Instead, you’re offered a few choices that, when selected, protagonist Alex will slip into the ongoing conversation. Abstain from choosing and she’ll simply stay silent, allowing her buddies to continue and drive the story forward themselves. A sort of X-Files with teenagers, it sees a typical ‘cabin in the woods’ horror adventure expand into something with signiﬁcantly more merit. Puzzles, exploration, and character development drives this gem, and the multiple endings Oxenfree The Stanley Parable is a ﬁrst person exploration game. You will play as Stanley, and you will not play as Stanley. You will follow a story, you will not follow a story. You will have a choice, you will have no choice. The game will end, the game will never end. Contradiction follows contradiction, the rules of how games should work are broken, then broken again. This world was not made for you to understand. But as you explore, slowly, meaning begins to arise, the paradoxes might start to make sense, perhaps you are powerful after all. The game is not here to ﬁght you; it is inviting you to dance. The Stanley Parable
of online currency as it gives the player a goal and reason to hack or work for an organization. With this they can unlock new tech and more hacking knowledge Bitcoin is a worldwide cryptocurrency and digital payment system called the ﬁrst decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central repository or single administrator. It was invented by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009. Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own ﬁnances. Litecoin features faster transaction conﬁrmation times and improved storage efﬁciency than the leading math-based currency. Monero is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on privacy, decentralization, and scalability that runs on Windows, MacOS, Linux, Android, and FreeBSD.
in game crypto currency I listed every possible name for currency and every possible digital term I could think of in an eﬀort to combine the two and come up for a name for my game currency and from this design a logo. Currency Terms : • Currency • Money • Coins • Gold • Cents • Pennies • Medallions • Notes • Cheques • Copper • Change • Yen • Dollars • Pounds • Euros • Loan • Debt • Credit • Swipe • Cash • Points • Voucher • Trade • Exchange • Wealth • Fortune • Treasure • Jewels • Assets • Pay • Salary • ResourcesProﬁt • Margins • Bucks Digital Terms : • Digital • Online • Cyber • Crypto • Hacking • Electronic • Robotic • Android • Code • Bit • Binary • Computer • Fiber • Optic • AI • Interface • Data • Technology • Virtual • Simulation • Matrix • Programming • File • Science • Memory • Hardrive • Motherboard • Wireless • Sytem • Operation • Charge • Web • Internet • Mobile • Connection • Artiﬁcial • Video game • Bug • Application • Desktop • Stocks • Shares • Score • Riches • Card
science ﬁction technobabble, in which you play the role of a starship bridge crew working together to avoid disaster. Every game features chaos, confusion, teamwork and a whole lot of shouting. Each player's screen is composed of an instrument panel of buttons, switches and sliders; as impending doom races toward the ship, players have to execute timed tasks, barking out instructions to other players while also paying attention to their own screen. Lurks has you and your friends guiding the crew of the starship AE Hybrid on its mission while trying to ﬁgure out who among you is the secret alien inﬁltrator. As the Hybrid sets out on its journey, players will encounter challenges that they must overcome through a series of mini-games. At the same time, the alien is trying to sabotage each challenge without revealing his or her identity. Lose too many challenges, and the mission fails as the alien triumphs. But if the humans can identify and eliminate the inﬁltrator, or complete enough missions successfully, they win the game. Who Lurks Bounden Bounden is a neat iOS dancing game that takes advantage of the iPhone’s motion sensors to get you to move. What makes Bounden different is that it’s designed to be played with a partner. Each dancer takes hold of one end of an iPhone, and then tilts the device in order to move an on-screen sphere through a path of rings. Players swing their arms around, twist their bodies
gate which they must hack to open in order to get the ball down This is inside the gate imagine this is some sort of puzzle involving shapes that the player must work out, each puzzle will be based around cryptography. Each puzzle would be random each game. The game will consist of 2 players which work together to hack the gates and get the ball to the bottom against a time limit or anther team of two players with the ﬁrst to get the ball down wins. Each player can work on a diﬀerent gate and there may be more than one pathway which could be quicker or longer, the players would not know until the ball travels down. Hacker Ball
two players would have to work against 2 other players acting as the network security. Therefore the two players being the security could create new gates and puzzles of their own slowing down the hackers. The gates would be in allocated places and couldn’t be put onto existing gates. This would mean a time limit would need to be in place too for either side to win. These would be the gates created by the security team. The security team would not know the location of the ball so some gates may be put too high, Also only 4 security gates could be present at one time The security team would need to create there own puzzles so they could spend mire time on creating puzzle making it harder at the risk the ball already moving down past that point. Make a quick but simple puzzle that the other players could easily get past
be that the user interacts with one of the gates the puzzle will appear on a separate terminal like this. The user may have to complete the puzzle using certain buttons on the terminal or just drag and dropping within the screen. This would give a greater feel of hacking within the game in way that is fun. Security players would also use the terminal to create their puzzles.
was ﬁrst advertised by a hidden message in a Halo 2 trailer; players who investigated the titular website discovered that the pages appeared to be hacked by a mysterious intelligence. As players solved puzzles, audio logs were posted to the ilovebees.com site which gradually revealed more of the ﬁctional back-story, involving a marooned artiﬁcial intelligence stranded on Earth and its attempts to put itself back together. 250,000 people viewed the ilovebees website when it was launched in August 2004, and more than 500,000 returned to the site every time the pages were updated. More than three million visitors viewed the site over the course of three months, and thousands of people around the world participated in the game. I Love Bees won numerous awards for its innovation and helped spawn numerous other alternate reality games for video games. Ingress is a location-based, augmented-reality mobile game. Unlike many other massively multiplayer online game (MMOG)s, the competition in Ingress is primarily between the two opposing factions rather than between individual players, and players never interact directly in the game or suﬀer any kind of damage other than temporarily running out of "XM", the power that fuels all actions except movement and communication. The gameplay consists of capturing "portals" at places of cultural signiﬁcance, such as public art, landmarks, monuments, etc., and linking them to create virtual triangular "control ﬁelds" over geographical areas. Progress in the game is measured on an individual level primarily by accumulating "Access Points" (or AP), and AP are awarded for a variety of in- game actions: destroying or damaging an enemy portal, capturing, linking, or recharging a portal, creating a control ﬁeld, and other actions.
puzzle. There can be any number of players who must work through layers of the cube to break it down to the next layer and eventually get to the center where there shall be a reward. The game may be adapted for small scale parties which would race against each other to get to the centre. Each layer is separated into smaller squares which must all be competed to move onto the next layer/ level. These squares will contain their own unique puzzles based around cryptography but also an idea would to include real life puzzles depending on player location use location based and AR technology through mobile devices. The game may also be a mobile geo location based game with lots of players in one area solving diﬀerent cubes around the world. For example there could be a cube in each town or certain locations within a city granting points or even real world prizes.
text adventure/platformer. The game would consist purely within the terminal and use cool Terminal style art. It would be text based but may transition into a 2D platformer or become purely a platform game using terminal style sprites similar to old games. Hacker Terminal
interactive ﬁction computer gamesit is set in "the ruins of an ancient empire lying far underground". The player is a nameless adventurer "who is venturing into this dangerous land in search of wealth and adventure". The goal is to return from exploring the "Great Underground Empire" alive and with all treasures needed to complete each adventure, ultimately inheriting the title of Dungeon Master. The dungeons are stocked with many novel creatures, objects, and locations, among them the ferocious but light- fearing grues and zorkmids (the GUE's currency). GUILDED YOUTH Guilded youth is also a text adventure involving a group of adventures which the player can interact with. This game is quite modern and uses an AI system to give a certain response to the player depending on what character they refer to when talking or certain action they do will give a fraction from the other characters. The player must experiment to with diﬀerent object described in the room and go on an adventure.
my “Hacker Ball” game idea, I used Apples Xcode developer software and objective C to create the game as I am experienced in this language so could create a quick prototype this way. Below is a screen recording of the prototype running on my phone. If this does not work click here for a youtube link to the video.
for a simplistic, paper look but also a blocky style similar to games like crossy roads. I also wanted a cool neon style to reﬂect the digital cyber tone of the game. Here is the design for the interface I wanted the computer to look quirky and interactive with big buttons also the hack jesters encourages the user to tap and interact with the interface to see how the puzzles will be solved.
the user must ﬁrst ﬁgure out and use the buttons to rotate each panel so the shapes align correctly in correspondence to the the centre image. This is the second puzzle the user must connect the correct circles to complete the puzzle. Each circle has a certain amount of lines but three of them have the same amount these are the ones that connect.
user taps the circles. Ive told it to turn the circles to green when tapped and set the limit to 3 circles taped then they all turn red again. Ive also told it to only be tapped once until the circles are reset.
played the prototype Feedback “have the background animate to contrast the play screen ” “make the puzzles and computer screen feel more like a terminal for hacking” “make the ball animate” “Make the puzzles easier for the first level” “If the player completes a puzzle reward them with more time”
some of the visual styles of the artists. I found this comic book artist and illustrator who’s art style I particularly liked due to the limited color palette used. I have reﬂected this within my own art by trying to stick to one color such as blue and pink but use diﬀerent shades.
player mode where players can see how many gates they hack before the time runs out and get more points for balls. Every time a player gets a puzzle correct 10 seconds are added to the count down timer +10 5:00 1 1 5:00 The clock will always be a 5 minute countdown with additional time added from chapleted puzzles. The next box counts the amount of gates hacked so far. There are unlimited gates for this mode and none can be created by the player.
to make it longer in order to ﬁt the mobile device screen better. This eliminates the eﬀort of turning the device portrait to landscape to zoom in, instead players can tap on the computer to enlarge and ﬁt it into the mobile screen .
system it was vital to understand what motivates some to create puzzle and what makes this fun. In one of the uni lecture we had a guest speaker called Mink who was a designer of escape rooms. In her talk she said the best thing when designing puzzles is the satisfaction of watching people solve the puzzles she created. When looking at puzzle game shows such as “Crystal maze” but particularly “The Adventure games” most enjoyment came from the viewers at home watching the contestants ﬁguring out the puzzles while the viewers knew how the puzzle works. Therefor I think it is vital to allow the puzzle maker to watch the hacker player try and solve their puzzles
feel the puzzles should relate more to a terminal and code to get the feel of hacking. Therefore I looked at this game which was a small game developed by google and was designed to help kids learn how to code. The games used very simple drag and drop sudo code to control a character and solve puzzles. The way they use this sudo code for puzzles may be good for my game in order to get that terminal feel and relate the puzzles more to hacking. Puzzle Mechanic 4 User places to tell character to move forward User places to tell character to turn left or right + + User can place current sequence in loop and loop it the amount they input User then presses play to test sequence and move character #Google Doodle Mechanics
design, player must use the right sequences of movement commands to tell the ball to get to get from the start point to the end. The current sequence the player has constructed which will command the ball in order they appear. Commands can be dragged and swapped. The white arrows allow player to scroll through very long common sequences. 3 3 Command lines can be dragged into the loop command. Any number can be input into the loop command to tell it how many times to loop the command sequence. Each button is a diﬀerent command that can be pressed to add to the command line. The X button will reset the current command line. The play button will play the current command line and can’t be stopped once played until common ends. White ball on dot indicates what direction its facing and will move in.
player must construct a puzzle for the hacker to solve by drag and dropping pieces into place. The pieces can be dragged out and swapped. This is the list of components that the player can use to construct a puzzle. They can drag and drop the components from the list onto the screen to connect them. The white arrows allow player to scroll through the list of components. These button do not currently have any function and are there to look good. The X button will reset the current puzzle. The tick button will conﬁrm the current puzzle if it can be completed. This will be how every puzzle is created with a selection of components with drag and drop features and buttons. If the process changes a lot due to the puzzle I will show this.
mobile games for mechanic ideas. One of these was cut the rope with a unique physics mechanics where the player would obviously cut the rope in a certain way in order to get the candy to the monsters mouth but also try and collect the stars too as they do it. The rope idea wouldn’t ﬁt in with my age but it may be adapted to come up with a new style of this puzzle. 1. 2. 4. 3. 5. 1. The ﬁrst rope on the right must be cut to allow the physics of the candy to swing to the left 2. The rope then swings up to the left and gets the stars 3. The physics of the candy causes the top to swing back up to the right side 4. The rope is cut as it swing in line with the star and monster 5. The candy then drop down in the correct position to get the star and into the monsters mouth
bottom ball to drop into these boxes below These button do not currently have any function and are there to look good. Each of the puzzles must be completed using diﬀerent gestures for the user to ﬁgure out. The ﬁrst one uses simply swipe to cut the line Swipe This one uses a continuous tap gesture to tighten line until it snap Tap Tap Tap This one uses a turn gesture to lower ball into box This one uses a upward or downward swipe gesture
crush, which uses a “match 3” puzzle system by swapping the card a round. I didn’t want to copy this style of puzzle as it has been heavily over used and copied with other apps so I tried my best to adapt it for my game instead. Candy can be swapped left or right to match 3 of the yellow squares which grant the player points and disappear to let the candy above to drop down forming more potential matches Candy can be also be swapped up or down and allow for more than 3 in a row to match granting more points Some candy crush block do not move and players must swap and match around them or must be broken by matching next to them.
have any function and are there to look good. Players must match the ball colors in a row of 3 along the grid by swiping to swap them Players must cant swap through the blue boxes so must go around them. When a match is made the balls disappear leaving white balls allowing player to swap trough them so the puzzles get easier the more you solve
decided to implement the sudo code style of game play. This is due to me focusing more on creating an educational game to teach people the basics of coding through the theme of hacking which is further explained in my blog. This also meant a re-design of the game interface with an expanded puzzle mechanic of the original sudo code style.
sense to look at diﬀerent stamens whiting programming. I mostly looked at python for these statements as its one of the most popular and wisest language to learn for beginners. Loop if For loops are traditionally used when you have a block of code which you want to repeat a ﬁxed number of times. 3 This is the loop used in my game that repeats the commands placed in it by the number inserted. if statement is a command that, if proved true, performs a function or displays information. These buttons act as if statues by changing the balls color depending on wether parts of the puzzle are that color. For statements are a command that say for every one of something then perform this function These buttons act as a for statement as for every one input the ball will output that command.
the hacker interface it still has a longer design to ﬁt better on a phone screen but just with a longer key board of buttons as to make it feel more like a computer and ﬁt the new command on. 1:00 This is the countdown timer with the light that ﬂashes red when the time gets to 10 seconds left Lights up blue if puzzle is correct and red if puzzle is wrong New screen design look more aesthetically pleasing and separates puzzle from command lines The new keyboard design moves down from inside the computer when the player is zoomed into the interface. During normal view the keyboard can not be seen only the square screen.
the security interface. I have changed how the puzzles are created instead of drag and dropping pieces into place to create the puzzles the security must also create a line of commands that then draw out the puzzle they want. This was changed as I wanted both players to experience the code style of gameplay as this is now the main focus. 1:00 Blue light ﬂashes when time is at 10 second, the shields represent the amount of gates the security player has created so far with 3 max. When the gates are being hacked the shield and light will ﬂash red and the security player can tap on the ﬂashing shield to watch the hackers screen while they solve there puzzle. These buttons create colored balls within the puzzle where the hacker must ad the correct color to the command line to pass through them or complete the puzzle This button tests the created puzzle before creating it as a gate