Moden epidemiology Chap.26 Social Epidemiology

712e4ea459afe9662a85fd972798026c?s=47 Yuri-L-st
January 14, 2020

Moden epidemiology Chap.26 Social Epidemiology

712e4ea459afe9662a85fd972798026c?s=128

Yuri-L-st

January 14, 2020
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  1. 2.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology Exposure and Covariate Assessment

    in Social Epidemiology • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Individual Level • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Aggregate Level Analytic Approaches • Multilevel Modeling • Marginal Models • Effect Decomposition • Life-Course SES Concepts • Experiments and Quasi-Experiments • Narrative Historical Approach Chapter26 Social Epidemiology Jay S. Kaufman P.532〜 P.532 2
  2. 3.

    Introduction P.532〜 .PEFSOFQJͰ͸ʜ lूஂʹ͓͚ΔࣾձతཁҼͱ࣬ױͱͷؔ܎Λݚڀ͢Δ͜ͱͰ͋Δz ΠνϩʔɾΧϫνઌੜͷஶॻͰ͸ʜ l݈߁ঢ়ଶͷࣾձతͳ෼෍͓Αͼ݈߁ͷࣾձతܾఆཁҼΛݚڀ͢ΔӸֶͷҰ෼໺l Berkman, L. F., Kawachi,

    I., & Glymour, M. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press. ࣾձӸֶͷఆٛ ࣾձӸֶͷಛ௃ • ࣾձతʹఆٛ͞Ε͍͔ͨͭ͘ͷଆ໘ʢਓछຽ଒ੑɼδΣϯμʔɼࣾձܦࡁత ֊ڃ஍Ґʣͷ͍ͣΕ͔ʹैͬͯ෼ྨ͞ΕͨάϧʔϓؒͰɼ͋ΒΏΔϦεΫҼࢠ·ͨ͸ ݈߁্ͷΞ΢τΧϜͷҟͳΔൃੜΛแؚ͢ΔΑ͏ʹ޿͘ղऍ͢Δ • മ࿐ͷఆٛ·ͨ͸෼ੳϞσϧʹࣾձతɼܦࡁతɼจԽతͳม਺Λ໌ࣔతʹؚΊΔ͔ɼ ղऍʹࣾձՊֶཧ࿦Λ໌ࣔతʹࢀর͢Δ • ࣾձత֊૚Խɼ౎ࢢԽɼ২ຽ஍ओٛͳͲͷࣾձཧ࿦·ͨ͸ࣾձ࢙ύϥμΠϜͷจ຺Ͱ ղऍ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ 3
  3. 4.

    Introduction P.532〜 ҰൠతͳӸֶ׆ಈ͸࣍ͷͭͷλΠϓʹ෼ྨ͞ΕΔ αʔϕΠϥϯε පҼֶతਪ࿦ • ఆٛ͞Εͨമ࿐ͱ0VUDPNFͷؒͷҼՌؔ܎Λཧղ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ • ࣮ࣾձͰ͸ͳ͘ɼ͋Δఆٛ͞ΕͨԾ૝తͳհೖͷ΋ͱͰͷมԽΛࣔ͢Α͏ͳσβΠϯ ྫʣߴྸऀͷࢮ๢ϦεΫʹର͢Δ෋ͷมԽͷҼՌޮՌΛਪఆ

    • ࣾձ͕ͲͷΑ͏ʹݟ͑Δ͔Λਖ਼֬ʹදݱ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ • ؔ৺ͷ͋ΔӸֶత਺஋͸ɼҰൠʹҼՌޮՌΑΓ΋༗ප཰΍ൃੜ཰Ͱ͋Δ • ಛఆͷമ࿐ʹؔ܎ͳ͘ɼ࣌ؒɼ೥ྸɼࣾձ֊ڃͳͲͷई౓ʹؔ࿈ͨ͠0VUDPNFͷ ൃੜʹয఺Λ౰ͯΔ ྫʣਓछ͓Αͼࣾձ֊ڃʹΑΔףಈ຺࣬ױͷ෼෍ 4
  4. 5.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology Exposure and Covariate Assessment

    in Social Epidemiology • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Individual Level • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Aggregate Level Analytic Approaches • Multilevel Modeling • Marginal Models • Effect Decomposition • Life-Course SES Concepts • Experiments and Quasi-Experiments • Narrative Historical Approach Chapter26 Social Epidemiology Jay S. Kaufman 5
  5. 7.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology P.533〜 ݪҼͱͯ͠ͷݕ౼͔Βআ֎͠ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ • ࣾձӸֶతݚڀʹ͓͍ͯɼਓछຽ଒ɾੑผ͕༗ޮͳয఺Ͱͳ͍༁Ͱ͸ͳ͍

    • ݚڀσβΠϯ͓Αͼ෼ੳతΞϓϩʔν͕മ࿐͓ΑͼԾઆతհೖͷ࣮࣭తʹ ҙຯͷ͋Δ֓೦ԽʹରԠ͠ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ਓछຽ଒ ҩࢣͷ਍அ ਓछຽ଒ ףಈ຺࣬ױൃ঱ϦεΫ ࣮ࡍͷ࣮ݧ·ͨ͸૝૾্ͷ࣮ݧͰ෺ཧతʹૢ࡞Ͱ͖Δ հೖ͢Δ͜ͱʹ໌നͳҙຯ͸ͳ͍ɼհೖ͢Δ͜ͱ͸ෆՄ Өڹ͋Γ Өڹͳ͠ ૢ࡞ෆՄೳͳҼࢠʢਓछຽ଒ɾੑผͳͲʣ 7
  6. 8.
  7. 9.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology P.533〜 • ࣾձత૚ผԽ΍ݸਓͷҙࢥͷෳࡶͳ૬ޓ࡞༻ʹىҼ͢Δ •

    ॴಘิॿɼڭҭϩʔϯɼॅ୐ࢧԉͷ੓෎ϓϩάϥϜͳͲͰम০͞ΕΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ • ඪຊूஂʹ͓͚Δമ࿐ϨϕϧΛݻఆ͢Δ༷ʑͳհೖͷ΋ͱɼ0VUDPNFͷ෼෍ͷൺֱʹ පҼతؔ৺͕͋Δ ૢ࡞ՄೳͳҼࢠʢॴಘɾڭҭɾॅډͷ࣭ͳͲʣ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ॅډλΠϓ ᄶଉൃ࡞ ެӦॅ୐ ݸਓॅ୐ 74 മ࿐ϨϕϧΛ ݻఆ͢Δհೖ 0VUDPNFͷ ൺֱ 9
  8. 11.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology P.533〜 ؔ࿈ "TTPDJBUJPO ޮՌ

    &GGFDU WT WT ޮՌͱؔ࿈ͷ͕ࠩަབྷʢ$POGPVOEJOHʣ EPͱهࡌ͢Δຊ΋͋Γ·͢ 11
  9. 12.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology P.533〜 ݪҼ ݁Ռ ॅډλΠϓ

    ᄶଉൃ࡞ ශࠔ • ؍ଌσʔλͷ໰୊ͷ֩৺͸ݸମ܈ͷઃఆʢset/doʣΛߦ͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍͜ͱ • ҼՌޮՌΛΑΓ༗ޮʹਪఆ͢ΔͨΊʹ͸ɼ؍ଌ͞ΕͨσʔλΛԿΒ͔ͷํ๏Λ༻͍ͯ ௐ੔͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ ॅډλΠϓ͕ᄶଉൃ࡞ʹ༩͑ΔӨڹΛݕ౼ͨ͠৔߹ɼශࠔ͕ަབྷҼࢠͱͯ͠ߟ͑ΒΕΔ ශࠔͷଞͷ෺࣭త·ͨ͸৺ཧࣾձతൃݱʹର͢ΔͦΕΒͷ૬ޓ൓Ԡ͔Βަབྷ͕ੜ͡Δ Մೳੑ΋͋Δ ަབྷҼࢠ • ෺࣭తཁҼ • ৺ཧࣾձతͳཁҼ • ͦΕΒͷ૬ޓ൓Ԡ 12
  10. 13.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology P.533〜 ަབྷҼࢠͷௐ੔ํ๏ʹ͍ͭͯ ͭ͸ଌఆ͞Εͨශࠔঢ়ଶΛ৚݅ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ ශࠔঢ়ଶΛTUSBUJGJDBUJPOWBSJBCMFʹ͢Δʢྫɿශࠔ૚ͱඇශࠔ૚

    ශࠔ૚ͱඇශࠔ૚ʹ෼͚ͯղੳ͢Δ͜ͱͰަབྷҼࢠʢශࠔঢ়ଶʣͷӨڹΛऔΓআ͘ ˠമ࿐ͱ0VUDPNFͷҰൠతͳݪҼΛྻڍ͠ɼਖ਼֬ʹଌఆ͕Ͱ͖ͨ৔߹ɼ ͜ͷํ๏͸؍࡯σʔλ͔Β๬·͍͠ҼՌޮՌΛಛఆ͢Δͷʹे෼Ͱ͋Δ ͔͠͠ɼࣾձతമ࿐ʹରͯ͠͸ࠔ೉࡞ۀͰ͋Γɼඞͣ͠΋ظ଴Ͱ͖ͳ͍ ʢཧ༝ʣ • ଟҼࢠ࣬ױͷసؼ͓Αͼॅډબ୒ͳͲͷෳࡶͳߦಈʹڞ௨͢ΔݪҼͷྻڍ͓Αͼਖ਼֬ ͳଌఆ͸ࠔ೉Ͱ͋Δ • ࢧ഑తͳܦࡁతɾࣾձతΠϯϓοτΛ൐͏ߦಈ͸ɼࣾձՊֶʹ͓͍ͯϞσϧԽ͢Δͷ͕ ඇৗʹ೉͍͜͠ͱ͕ূ໌͞Ε͍ͯΔ • ͢΂ͯͷཁҼ͕Θ͔͍ͬͯͯ΋ɼ࣮ࡍͷσʔληοτͰ͜ΕΒͷଟ͘ͷม਺Λਖ਼֬ʹ ଌఆ͢Δͷ͸େมͳ࡞ۀ 13
  11. 14.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology Exposure and Covariate Assessment

    in Social Epidemiology • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Individual Level • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Aggregate Level Analytic Approaches • Multilevel Modeling • Marginal Models • Effect Decomposition • Life-Course SES Concepts • Experiments and Quasi-Experiments • Narrative Historical Approach Chapter26 Social Epidemiology Jay S. Kaufman 14
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    • ࣾձӸֶ͸ओͱͯ͠ௐࠪ͞ΕΔമ࿐ͷੑ࣭ʹΑͬͯಛ௃͚ͮΒΕΔ • മ࿐ͱڞมྔΛఆٛ͠ଌఆ͢Δٕज़͸ࣾձӸֶతํ๏࿦ͷओཁͳཁૉͰ͋Δ • ଟ͘ͷݚڀͰ͸ɼࣾձతࠩผͷओཁͳ࣠ʢਓछɾຽ଒ɼੑผɼࣾձత֊ڃɾ஍Ґʣʹ ԿΒ͔ͷܗͰؔ࿈ͨ͠മ࿐Λݕ౼͍ͯ͠Δ • ͦͷଞͷݚڀͰ͸ɼଟ͘ͷࣾձӸֶతമ࿐͕ఆٛ͞Εݕ౼͞Ε͍ͯΔ •

    ݸਓϨϕϧʢ഑ۮऀͷ༗ແɼ෺త૕ࣦɼࣾձతࢧԉɼ·ͨ͸஍ҐͷෆҰகͳͲʣ • ूஂϨϕϧʢࣾձωοτϫʔΫɼܦࡁతෆฏ౳ɼࣾձࢿຊɼۙྡॅຽͷണୣͳͲʣ • ڻ͘΂͖਺ͷമ࿐͕ߟྀ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͚ͩͰͳ͘ɼ͜ΕΒͷଟ͘͸ɼ͞·͟·ͳݚڀʹ ͓͍ͯҟͳΔํ๏Ͱఆٛ͞ΕɼධՁ͞Ε͍ͯΔ Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology മ࿐ͱڞมྔධՁ P.534〜 15
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    • Race/Ethnicity • Sex/Gender • Educational Attainment • Annual Individual

    or Family Income • Household Wealth • Occupation/Unemployment • Discrimination and Racism Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Individual Level P.534〜 16
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    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology Race/Ethnicity • ݸਓత͓ΑͼࣾձతΞΠσϯςΟςΟͷத৺Ͱ͋Γɼ෺࣭త͓Αͼࣾձత஍Ґͷॏཁͳ

    ܾఆҼࢠͱͯ͠ͷ໾ׂΛՌͨ͢ • ࣾձతωοτϫʔΫɼډॅύλʔϯ͓ΑͼߦಈʹӨڹΛٴ΅͢ • ද޲͖͸૆ઌ͓Αͼ਎ମతಛ௃ͷ؍఺͔Βࢦఆ͞ΕΔ͕ɼ࠷ऴతʹʮΰʔϧυελϯ μʔυʯධՁ͕ࣗݾใࠂʹجͮ͘͜ͱΛҙຯ͢Δ • %/"ͷߴ౓ʹՄมతͳྖҬͷ෼ੳ͸ࣾձӸֶతͳؔ৺ࣄͰ͸ͳ͍ • ΧςΰϦʔԽͱͦͷ؅ཧͷܧଓతͳਐԽ͸ͦΕࣗମ͕ํ๏࿦తటপ • ࠷ۙͰ͸ɼͭͷجຊతਓछΧςΰϦʔʢΞϝϦΧΠϯσΟΞϯͱΞϥεΧݪॅຽɼ ΞδΞܥɼࠇਓͱΞϑϦΧܥΞϝϦΧਓɼϋϫΠݪॅຽͱଞͷଠฏ༸ॾౡॅຽɼനਓɼ ͦͷଞͷϨʔεʣͷͷՄೳͳ૊Έ߹Θͤʹͭͳ͕ͬͨɽ • ݸਓ͸ࣗ෼ͷຽ଒ੑΛώεύχοΫ·ͨ͸ඇώεύχοΫͱఆٛ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ P.534〜 17
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    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology Sex/Gender • 4FY͸ɼ͢΂ͯͷਓؒࣾձʹ͓͚Δࣾձతɼ؀ڥత͓Αͼ෺࣭తঢ়گͷॏཁͳܾఆҼࢠ

    ͱͯ͠ͷ໾ׂΛՌͨ͢ • ڞมྔɼޮՌई౓म০ࢠɼ·ͨ͸૚ผม਺ͱͯ͠ͷࣾձӸֶత෼ੳʹ͓͚Δॏཁͳม਺ • (FOEFS͸ɼੜ෺ֶతͳੑͷࣾձత࣮ݱͰ͋Γɼද޲͖͸Ҩ఻ࢠܕͱදݱܕͷܗ࣭ͷ ؍఺͔Βࢦఆ͞Ε͍ͯΔ • ͦͷࣾձతҙຯ߹͍͸จԽʹେ͖͘ґଘ͍ͯ͠ΔͨΊ࣌ؒͱ৔ॴʹΑͬͯେ͖͘ҟͳΔ • ੜཧֶͱߦಈʹ͓͚Δ࣮࣭తͳࣗવมಈੑͷཧ࿦తݚڀͱೝࣝͷ૿Ճ͸ɼ͜ͷݫີͳ ೋ߲෼ྨ͕ྺ࢙త׳शʹ༝དྷ͢ΔศརͳϑΟΫγϣϯͰ͋Δͱ͍͏ೝࣝΛߴΊͨ P.535〜 18
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    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ࠷΋ݹ͘Ұൠతʹ࢖༻͞ΕΔࣾձӸֶతྔͷͭ •

    ֶྺ͸ࣾձత஍Ґͷ֫ಘͷϝΧχζϜͱͯ͠΋࣮࣭తͳؔ࿈ੑΛ࣋ͭͨΊɼ ॴಘ΍෋ͷ༧ଌྗ͕ߴ͍ ܽ఺ • యܕతͳڭҭਫ४΍ɼͦͷ݁Ռͱͯ͠ੜ͡Δܦࡁతɾࣾձతศӹ͸࣌ؒͷܦաͱͱ΋ʹ มԽ͍ͯ͠ΔͨΊɼ೥ྸͷίϗʔτؒ΍஍Ҭؒͷൺֱ͸ࠔ೉ • ֶҐ΍ࢿ֨ͷऔಘʹ൐͏ڭҭن໛ͷෆ࿈ଓੑ΋಺ࡏ ྫʣߴߍΛ೥ੜҎ্Ͱଔۀͯ͠΋ࣾձతͳར఺͸΄ͱΜͲͳ͍͔΋͠Εͳ͍͕ɼ ೥ੜҎ্Ͱଔۀ͢Δͱେ͖ͳར఺͕ಘΒΕΔ͔΋͠Εͳ͍ ڭҭ಺༰ͱֶߍڭҭ೥਺ͱͷؒͷؔ܎͕ෆ࣮֬Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱɼ͓Αͼڭҭमྃͷࣾձܦࡁత ॏཁੑ͕ѹ౗తͰ͋Δ͜ͱΛߟ͑Δͱɼڭҭमྃ೥਺ʹΑΔଟ͘ͷ݈߁্ͷΞ΢τΧϜͰ ؍࡯͞ΕΔ౳ڃผؔ܎͸ɼՈఉࢿݯɼͦͷଞͷਓ͓֨Αͼ؀ڥҼࢠͷؔ਺ͱͯ͠ͷֶߍڭ ҭ೥਺ͷ಺ҼੑׂΓ౰ͯͷূڌͱղऍͰ͖Δ Educational Attainment P.535〜 19
  17. 20.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ݈߁͕ࢢ৔ܦࡁͰ͸ඞध඼Ͱ͋Δͱ͍͏໌നͳཧ༝ͷͨΊɼࣾձӸֶత෼ੳʹ ͓͍ͯॏཁͳม਺

    • ࡒ੓ࢿݯ͸݈߁݁ՌʹҼՌޮՌΛ࣋ͭ͜ͱ͕࿦ཧతʹظ଴͞ΕΔ • ೥ؒݸਓॴಘ͸ڭҭͱಉ༷ʹɼࣾձత஍Ґͷහײͳࢦඪͱͯ͠ػೳ • ॴಘ͸ʮٯҼՌؔ܎ʯʹࠨӈ͞Ε΍͘͢ͳΔɻ ॴಘ͕௿͍ͱ݈߁ঢ়ଶ͕ѱԽ͢Δ ⁶ ݈߁ঢ়ଶ͕ѱԽ͢Δͱॴಘ͕௿Լ͢Δ Annual Individual or Family Income(1) P.535〜 20
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    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ݸਓॴಘͰ͸ͳ͘ੈଳॴಘΛධՁ͢Δ͜ͱ͕ҰൠతʹߦΘΕ͍ͯΔ ؔ࿈͢Δ֓೦

    ශࠔ • جຊతͳ෺࣭తχʔζΛຬ͚ͨͩ͢ͷऩೖ͕ͳ͍ঢ়ଶ • ඃැཆऀΛҡ࣋͢ΔͨΊʹ࠷௿ݶඞཁͳॴಘ͸Կ͔ͱ͍͏ධՁʹج͍ͮͯੈଳॴಘΛ ශࠔϥΠϯͰೋ෼͢Δ Annual Individual or Family Income(2) P.535〜 21
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    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ࢿݯͷ஝ੵΛද͢ •

    ୡ੒͞Εͨࣾձత஍Ґͷࢦඪͱ͚ͯͩ͠Ͱͳ͘ɼ݈߁ͱ෱ࢱͷαʔϏεʹಈһͰ͖Δ ૯ࢿݯͷई౓ͱͯ͠΋݈߁੒Ռʹؔ࿈ੑ͕͋Δ • ॴಘͱ෋ͷؒͷෆۉߧ͸ɼஉঁΛൺֱͨ͠৔߹ɼ·ͨ͸ਓछຽ଒άϧʔϓΛൺֱͨ͠ ৔߹ʹಛʹݦஶ ྫʣਓछຽ଒άϧʔϓؒͰ݁ՌϦεΫΛରൺ͢ΔϞσϧͰ͸ɼࣾձత஍ҐΛࣔ͢ॴಘ ͱڭҭ͕ަབྷҼࢠͱͳΔͨΊɼௐ੔͕ඞཁ • ࢿ࢈͸༷ʑͳۚ༥঎඼ʢגࣜɼ࠴݊ɼୀ৬೥ۚޱ࠲ʣ΍෺తϦϙδτϦʢՈɼ৐Γ෺ɼ ๅੴʣʹଘࡏ͢Δ͕ɼถࠃͰ࠷΋෋ͷ͋Δ΋ͷ͸ෆಈ࢈΍ं྆ͷՁ஋Ͱอ༗͞Ε͍ͯΔ • ʮՈΛ͍࣋ͬͯ·͔͢ʯͷΑ͏ͳ୯७ͳ࣭໰͸ɼࢿ࢈ਫ४ͷ௿͞ͱߴ͞Λ۠ผ͢Δͷʹ ඇৗʹ༗ӹͰ͋Δ Household Wealth P.536〜 22
  20. 23.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ྺ࢙తʹॏཁͳࢦඪͷ̍ͭ •

    ࣾձతҖ৴ɼڭҭ͓Αͼࣾձతͭͳ͕Γͷػೳత݁ՌΛ͚ࣔͩ͢Ͱͳ͘ɼ৬৔ࣗମͷ ਎ମత͓Αͼ৺ཧత؀ڥΛ௨݈ͨ͡߁ʹؔ࿈͢Δঢ়گͷ௚઀తͳ൓ө΋ఏڙ͢Δ • ӳࠃΛ͸͡Ίͱ͢Δଟ͘ͷࠃͰ͸ɼඪ४తͳࣾձܦࡁత஍Ґͷई౓͸ɼถࠃͰ༏੎ͳ ڭҭ͓Αͼॴಘͷई౓ͱ͸ରরతʹɼ৬ۀ֊ڃʹج͍͍ͮͯΔ • ॴಘͱಉ༷ʹɼ৬ۀͱޏ༻ঢ়ଶ͸ੜ֔Λ௨ͯ͡ಈతͰ͋ΔͨΊɼ͜ΕΒͷાஔ͸݈߁ͷ ௿Լ͕৬ۀతҖ৴ͷ௿Լʹͭͳ͕ΔʮٯҼՌؔ܎ʯΛؚΊɼ͜ͷજࡏతͳෆ҆ఆੑͷ௕ ॴͱ୹ॴΛڞ༗͍ͯ͠Δ • ৬ۀʹ͍ͭͯͷ໌֬ͳ֓೦ͷͭ͸ਓʑͷάϧʔϓؒͷܦࡁతؔ܎ͷࢦඪͱͯ͠Ͱ͋Δ Occupation/Unemployment P.537〜 23
  21. 24.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ਓछຽ଒ɼੑผɼੑతࢦ޲ͳͲͷݸਓతΞΠσϯςΟςΟͷଆ໘͸ɼެऺӴੜ্ͷ հೖʹΑͬͯૢ࡞͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍͕ɼࣾձతϥϕϧͱͯ͠ͷ͜ΕΒͷΧςΰϦʔͷ

    ݁Ռ͸ॱԠՄೳͰ͋Γɼલड़ͷҙຯͰͷമ࿐ͱͯ͠ҼՌతҙຯΛ࣋ͭ • ॏཁͳҧ͍͸ɼݪҼͱͳΔม਺͸ݸਓͦͷ΋ͷͷΞΠσϯςΟςΟͰ͸ͳ͘ɼଞऀʹΑ ΔΞΠσϯςΟςΟͷೝࣝͰ͋Γɼ͜ͷೝ͕ࣝݸਓͷߦಈ΍ݸਓ͕ૺ۰͢Δ੍౓ʹӨڹ Λ༩͑ΔࡍʹՌͨ͢໾ׂͰ͋Δͱ͍͏͜ͱͰ͋Δ • Ξϓϩʔν ଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼରਓతͳ෠ৱͱೝࣝ͞Εͨෆਖ਼ٛͷܦݧͷࣗݾใࠂʹয఺Λ౰͍ͯͯΔ • Ξϓϩʔν ࣮ݧత·ͨ͸४࣮ݧతͳσβΠϯΛ༻͍ͯݸਓ·ͨ͸૊৫ͷϓϩηεͷҙࢥܾఆʹ ର͢Δೝࣝ͞ΕͨΞΠσϯςΟςΟͷӨڹΛ෼཭͢Δ Discrimination and Racism(1) P.537〜 24
  22. 25.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ྫ͑͹ɼ֎Պखज़΁ͷ঺հ΍ޏ༻΁ͷਃ੥ͷΑ͏ͳҩֶత·ͨ͸ܦࡁతͳૺ۰ͷʮ؂ࠪ ௐࠪʯ͸ɼܾఆաఔʹٴ΅͢ೝࣝ͞ΕͨूஂͷҰһͰ͋Δ͜ͱͷҼՌؔ܎Λ෼཭͢Δͨ

    Ίʹɼؔ৺ͷ͋ΔࣾձతΧςΰϦʔʢ௨ৗਓछ΍ੑผʣΛআ͍ͯɼݸਓͷಛ௃ʹ͍ͭͯ Ұகͨ͠ʢ؍ଌత·ͨ͸࣮ݧతʹʣ঱ྫͷൺֱΛؚΉɽ • ࣮ࡍͷඃݧऀΛ؍࡯͞Εͨڞมྔ্ͰϚονϯάͤ͞Δͱɼෆۉߧ͕ະଌఆଐੑʹ࣋ଓ ͢ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ • ࣮ࡍͷඃݧऀͷ୅ΘΓʹߦҝऀ͕༻͍ΒΕͨ৔߹ɼ͋Δ͍͸ࣄྫͷࣸਅ΍Χϧςɼٻਓ ථ͕άϧʔϓࣝผࢠΛআ͍ͯ׬શʹಉҰͰ͋ΔΑ͏ʹਓҝతʹ࡞੒͞Εͨ৔߹ɼҼՌࣝ ผޮՌ͸௚઀తʹࣝผՄೳͰ͋Δ Discrimination and Racism(2) P.537〜 25
  23. 26.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ࣾձӸֶʹ͓͚Δଟ͘ͷॏཁͳม਺͸ɼݸਓ·ͨ͸ੈଳϨϕϧͰ͸ͳ͘ɼΑΓେ͖ͳ ू߹ͷϨϕϧʢ஍Ҭɼ܊ɼभ·ͨ͸ࠃʣͰఆٛ͞ΕΔ

    • Կ͕஍ҬΛߏ੒͢Δ͔ͷӡ༻্ͷఆٛ͸ఆ͔Ͱ͸ͳ͍͕ɼಛʹʮ஍Ҭʯ͸ࣾձӸֶʹ ͓͍ͯ௕೥ͷؔ৺͕ڧ͍ • ݸਓͷू߹ମΛಛ௃෇͚ΔͨΊʹ͸ɼ೔ৗతͳࠃ੎ௐࠪσʔλʹසൟʹґଘ͢ΔͨΊɼ ߦ੓۠ը͸ɼॅຽʹ͸Ұൠతʹ஌ΒΕ͍ͯͳͯ͘΋ɼ࠷΋޿͘࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ஍Ҭڥք ͷ୅ସखஈͰ͋Δ Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Aggregate Level P.538〜 • Deprivation • Segregation • Inequality • Social Capital 26
  24. 27.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology Deprivation • ݸਓͱੈଳͷ෺࣭తࢿݯ͕൴ΒͷࣾձܦࡁతҐஔΛಛ௃͚ͮΔͷͱಉ༷ʹɼ஍Ҭͷ෺࣭

    తࢿݯ͸ίϛϡχςΟͷශࠔͷఔ౓Λಛ௃͚ͮΔͷʹ࢖ΘΕΔ • ฏۉॴಘ·ͨ͸ฏۉڭҭϨϕϧͳͲͷݸਓϨϕϧͷσʔλͷू߹Ͱ͋ͬͯ΋Α͍ • ਓޱີ౓ɼ਍ྍॴ·ͨ͸าಓͷଘࡏɼյΕͨ૭·ͨ͸མॻ͖ͷීٴ཰ɼʮࣾձతແட ংʯ·ͨ͸ʮ஍ҬޮྗײʯͳͲͷԿΒ͔ͷཁ໿ྔͷେ͖͞ͳͲɼ஍ҬϨϕϧͰͷΈఆٛ ͞ΕΔࢿݯͰ͋ͬͯ΋Α͍ • ଟ਺ͷࣾձతม਺͔Βཁ໿είΞΛ࡞੒͢Δ৔߹ɼཁૉྔͷॏΈΛݟ͚ͭΔͨΊʹҼࢠ ෼ੳ๏·ͨ͸જࡏม਺๏͕༻͍ΒΕΔ • λ΢ϯθϯτ͓ΑͼΧʔεςΞʔζണୣࢦ਺ P.538〜 27
  25. 28.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ॅΈ෼͚ͱ͸ࣾձతΞΠσϯςΟςΟʹؔ͢Δݸਓͷମܥతͳ෺ཧత഑ஔͷई౓ •

    ࠷΋ଟ͍ͷ͸ਓछຽ଒Ͱ͋Γɼ஍Ҭࣾձ·ͨ͸౎ࢢ΍܊ͳͲͷΑΓେ͖ͳۭؒ୯ҐͰ ߦΘΕΔ • ॅΈ෼͚͸ɼࣗൃతͳબ୒ͱॅ୐ࢢ৔ʹ͓͚Δࠩผ΍Ҡಈʹର͢ΔܦࡁతোนͳͲͷ ඇࣗൃతͳ੍໿ΛؚΉෳࡶͳཁҼͷ૊Έ߹Θ͔ͤΒੜ͡Δ • .BTTFZBOE%FOUPO  ͸ɼډॅ஍ͷਓछִ཭ʹؔ͢Δͷ౷ܭతࢦඪΛಛఆ͠ɼ ۉҰੑɼമ࿐ɼूதɼूதԽɼΫϥελʔԽͱ͍͏ͭͷҟͳΔ࣍ݩʹάϧʔϓԽͨ͠ Segregation(1) P.539〜 28
  26. 29.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology മ࿐ • ଟ༷ͳࣾձूஂͷϝϯόʔؒͷજࡏతͳ઀৮·ͨ͸૬ޓ࡞༻ͷఔ౓ʹؔ܎͢Δִ཭Λ

    ද͢ .BTTFZ͓Αͼ%FOUPO  ʹΑͬͯಛఆ͞Εͨമ࿐ͷͭͷई౓͸ɼϥϯμϜʹબ ୒͞Εͨগ਺೿͕ɼۭؒ୯ҐΛଟ਺೿ʢ૬ޓ࡞༻ࢦ਺ʣ·ͨ͸ผͷগ਺೿ʢ෼཭ࢦ਺ʣ ͱڞ༗͢Δ֬཰Λද͢ • ͭͷάϧʔϓ͚ͩΛߟྀͨ͠৔߹ɼ͜ΕΒͭͷई౓͸ͭʹू໿͞ΕΔ Segregation(2) ۉҰੑ • গ਺೿άϧʔϓ͕ۭؒతʹҰ༷ʹ෼෍͢Δఔ౓ͰԼهͷࢦඪʹΑΓ౷ܭతʹධՁՄ ʢඇྨࣅੑࢦ਺ɼδχ܎਺ɼΞτΩϯιϯࢦ਺ɼςΠϧͷΤϯτϩϐʔʣ P.539〜 29
  27. 30.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology ूத౓ • ࣾձूஂ͕઎ΊΔ෺ཧతۭؒͷ૬ରతͳྔΛද͢

    • .BTTFZͱ%FOUPOʹΑͬͯ֬ೝ͞Εͨͭͷूத౓ଌఆ๏  ͷதͰɼ࠷΋ݹ͍ͷ ͸)PPWFSͷʮσϧλʯɽۭؒ୯Ґʹ͓͚ΔϚΠϊϦςΟͷׂ߹ͰɼฏۉҎ্ͷϚΠϊ ϦςΟͷີ౓Λ͍࣋ͬͯΔ தԝूݖԽ • ର৅ͱͳΔΑΓ޿͍஍Ҭͷ஍ཧతத৺ʹର͢Δগ਺ຽ଒ͷҐஔΛࢦ͢ • தԝूݖԽͷ૬ରతई౓͸ɼଟ਺೿ूஂͷΑ͏ʹ෼෍͢ΔͨΊʹۭؒ୯ҐΛมߋ͠ͳ͚ Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍গ਺೿ूஂͷׂ߹Λද͢ • தԝूݖԽͷઈରతई౓͸ɼଟ਺೿ूஂͷ෼෍ʹؔ܎ͳ͘ɼগ਺೿ूஂͷۭؒ෼෍ͷΈ Λߟྀ͢Δ Segregation(3) P.539〜 30
  28. 31.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology ΫϥελϦϯά • গ਺ऀ͕ྡ઀ۭͨؒ͠୯ҐͰੜ׆͍ͯ͠Δ͔Ͳ͏͔Λද͢෼཭ͷ࣍ݩ

    • ΫϥελʔԽͷઈରࢦඪ͸ɼྡ઀͢Δۭؒ୯Ґͷগ਺ຽ଒ͷฏۉ਺ΛɼͦΕΒͷ୯Ґͷ ෼฼ूஂશମʹର͢Δׂ߹ͱͯ͠ଌఆ͢Δ • ૬ରతΫϥελϦϯάई౓͸ɼϥϯμϜʹબ୒͞Εͨ೚ҙͷͭͷগ਺ऀؒͷ༧૝ڑ཭ ͱɼϥϯμϜʹબ୒͞Εͨ೚ҙͷͭͷଟ਺ऀؒͷ༧૝ڑ཭ͱΛൺֱ͢Δ • .BTTFZͱ%FOUPO͸ʮڑ཭ݮਰ૬ޓ࡞༻ʯͱʮڑ཭ݮਰ෼཭ʯͱ͍͏ई౓΋ఏҊͯ͠ ͍Δ͕ɼ͜Ε͸গ਺೿͕࣍ʹૺ۰͢Δਓ͕ͦΕͧΕଟ਺೿·ͨ͸গ਺೿άϧʔϓͷϝϯ όʔͰ͋Δ֬཰Λද͢ Segregation(4) P.539〜 31
  29. 32.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ࠷େͷؔ৺͸ܦࡁతෆฏ౳ɼྫ͑͹ॴಘ΍෋ͷਓޱʹ͓͚Δෆฏ౳ͳ෼഑ʹूத͢Δ •

    աڈ೥ؒͷࣾձӸֶత׆ಈͷओཁͳয఺Ͱ͕͋ͬͨɼ͜Ε͸Ұ෦ʹ͸೥Ҏ߱ͷ ઌਐ޻ۀࣾձʹ͓͚Δॴಘ͓Αͼ෋ͷෆฏ౳ͷ૿Ճʹഥं͕͔͔ͬͨͨΊͰ͋Δ • ͜ͷજࡏతަབྷ͸ɼߏ੒Λॴಘෆฏ౳ͷจ຺ͷޮՌ͔Β੾Γ཭͢໰୊ͱͯ͠આ໌͞Εͯ ͓Γɼ͜ͷ໰୊ʹରॲ͢ΔͨΊʹաڈे೥ؒʹଟॏճؼϞσϧ͕޿͘࢖ΘΕΔΑ͏ʹ ͳͬͨ • ͦΕʹ΋͔͔ΘΒͣɼʢͨͱ͑͹ਅͷؔ܎͸ඇઢܗ͕ͩɼઢܗճؼΛ࢖༻͢ΔʣϞσϧ ͷ࢓༷ͷޡΓ͸ɼͨͱ͑ෆฏ౳ͷਅͷҼՌతޮՌ͕ͳͯ͘΋ɼෆฏ౳ͱ݈߁ͷ݁ՌΛ ؔ࿈ͤͨ͞··ʹ͢Δ Inequality(1) P.540〜 32
  30. 33.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ϩʔϨϯπۂઢΛ࡞੒͢Δʹ͸ɼର৅ͱͳΔྔZ͢ͳΘͪॴಘʹԠͯ͡Z≤Z≤Z≤ ͱͳΔΑ͏ʹɼूஂதͷOݸͷݸମΛॱҐ෇͚͢Δ

    • ≤ZOͰ͋Γɼ࠷খͷॴಘ஋͔Β࠷େͷॴಘ஋·ͰਓޱΛ௨ա͢Δ • ϩʔϨϯπۂઢͷԣ࣠͸ɼ೚ҙͷ఺' Z Ͱ߹֨ͨ͠ݸମͷྦྷੵׂ߹Λࣔ͠ɼࠨͷ͔ Βӈͷ·Ͱͷ஋ΛͱΔ • ॱҐ͚ͮ͞Εͨݸମ͕઎ΊΔॴಘͷྦྷੵγΣΞЇ Z ͸ɼಉ༷ʹॎ࣠ʹه࿥͞Ε͍ͯΔɽ ͢ͳΘͪॴಘ஋ͷࠨ͔ΒӈʹҠಈ͠ͳ͕ΒॴಘZJʹ౸ୡ͢ΔͱɼͦͷZJͷࠨʹ૬౰͢Δ ݸମͷྦྷੵॴಘׂ߹Q͕ϓϩοτ͞ΕΔɽ' Z ରЇ Z ͷάϥϑ͸ϩʔϨϯπۂઢ ਤ  Ͱ͋Δɽݸମ͸ϥϯΫॱͰ͋ΔͷͰɼۂઢ͸ৗʹ›ͷର֯ઢʢ׬શฏ౳ͷ৔ ߹ʣʹԊͬͯଘࡏ͢Δ͔ɼର֯ઢͷԼͰݫີʹತͰͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ʢෆ౳͕ࣜ͋Δ৔ ߹ʣ Inequality(2) P.540〜 33
  31. 34.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology • ݈߁ݚڀʹ͓͚Δࣾձࢿຊͷڞ௨తͳࢦඪ͸ɼ౤ථͳͲͷࢢຽࢀՃͷࢦඪ΍ɼ೚ҙஂମ ΁ͷՃೖ཰΍ใࠂ͞Εͨʮରਓ৴པײʯͷਫ४ʹؔ͢Δௐࠪͷճ౴Ͱ͋Δ

    • ࣾձࢿຊͷ֓೦ͱີ઀ʹؔ࿈͍ͯ͠Δͷ͸ɼࣾձֶͷதͰํ๏࿦Λཱ͍֬ͯ͠Δ͕ɼ ެऺӴੜͷݚڀͰ͸͋·ΓҰ؏ͯ͠ద༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ࣾձωοτϫʔΫͷݚڀͰ͋Δ • ࣾձతωοτϫʔΫͷ෼ੳ͸ɼूஂ಺ͷݸਓؒͷͭͳ͕Γͷߏ଄ͱɼͦΕΒ͕ͲͷΑ͏ ʹ৘ใɼ෺࣭తࢧԉɼ͞Βʹ͸ײછੑҼࢠΛ఻ୡ͢ΔΑ͏ʹػೳ͍ͯ͠Δ͔Λߟྀͨ͠ ૯߹తͳϨϕϧʹ͋Δ Social Capital P.541〜 34
  32. 35.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology LSTL͞Μ͔Βͷ͝঺հ͍͍ͨͩͨ࿦จͷ͓࿩ Rehkopf, D.

    H., Glymour, M. M., & Osypuk, T. L. (2016). The consistency assumption for causal inference in social epidemiology: when a rose is not a rose. Current epidemiology reports, 3(1), 63-71. ࿦จͷओͳ಺༰ • ࣾձӸֶݚڀʹ͓͚Δ$POTJTUFODZͷॏཁੑ • $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆ͕ͲͷΑ͏ʹҧ൓͞ΕΔͷ͔ྫΛ༻͍ͯࣔ͢ 35
  33. 36.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆΛຬͨ͢͜ͱͷॏཁੑ Ӹֶऀ͸ɼ؍ଌ͞Εͨσʔλʹର͠ɼҼՌਪ࿦ʢ൓ࣄ࣮త·ͨ͸જࡏతPVUDPNF΁ͷΞϓ ϩʔνʣΛߦ͏͜ͱʹΑΓհೖͷӨڹΛ༧ଌ͢ΔͨΊʹɼ࣍ͷͭͷԾఆΛ༻͍Δ

    • &YDIBOHFBCJMJUZʢQPUFOUJBMPVUDPNFͷਪఆ͕ՄೳͰ͋Δ͜ͱɿަབྷͷௐ੔ʣ • 1PTJUJWJUZʢൺֱՄೳͰ͋Δ͜ͱɿ֤૚಺ʹ࣏ྍ܈ͱඇ࣏ྍ܈͕ଘࡏ͢Δʣ • $POTJTUFODZʢമ࿐͕े෼ͳಛҟੑΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͜ͱʣ &YDIBOHFBCJMJUZͱ1PTJUJWJUZ͸͜Ε·Ͱ΋ॏཁࢹ͞Ε͖͕ͯͨɼ $POTJTUFODZ͸͋·Γॏཁࢹ͞Εͳ͔ͬͨɽ ͔͠͠ʜ • $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆΛແࢹ͢Δ͜ͱ͸ɼ0VUDPNFʹҟͳΔӨڹΛٴ΅͢ • $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆ͕ҧ൓͞Εͳ͍Α͏஫ҙ͢Δ͜ͱ͸ɼ ΑΓޮՌతͳհೖσβΠϯΛઃܭ͢ΔͨΊʹ༗༻Ͱ͋Δ ͜ͱ͕ઌߦݚڀͰࣔ͞Ε͍ͯΔ 36
  34. 37.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆͷҧ൓ྫ ޮՌम০ •

    ʮࡀҎ্ͷೖֶ WTࡀҎ্ͷೖֶʯPSʮࡀͰͷೖֶ WTࡀͰͷೖֶʯ • ৺࣬ױʹର͢ΔࣾձతࢧԉͷӨڹ͕உঁؒͰҟͳΔͷʹ૚ผ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍ ഔհܦ࿏ • ڭҭ͸ɼ஌ࣝͱೝ஌ೳྗͷ޲্ɼࢿ֨ͷऔಘɼ஍Ґͷ޲্ɼιʔγϟϧωοτϫʔΫͷ มԽΛ௨݈ͯ͡߁ʹӨڹΛ༩͍͑ͯΔ հೖͷఆٛʢൣғʣͷ͍͋·͍͞ • հೖ͸े෼ͳಛҟੑΛ࣋ͬͯఆٛ͞ΕΔඞཁ͕͋Δ͕ɼհೖͷઆ໌͕ෆඞཁʹ۩ମతͰ ͋Δͱকདྷͷ࠶ݱੑ͕๦͛ΒΕΔ ॴಘɿऩೖʹ͸͍ΖΜͳछྨ͕͋Δʢڅ༩ɼ੫ۚؐ෇ɼౌ͚ɼ૬ଓɼๅ͘͡ͷ৆ۚʣ ڭҭɿओʹमྃ೥ɼऔಘֶҐͰΧςΰϦʔ෼͚͞ΕΔ͕ɼࣝࣈ཰͸݈߁ʹӨڹΛٴ΅͢ ॏཁͳҼࢠͰ͋Δ ஍Ҭɿઃఆͨ͠հೖҎ֎ͷཁҼʢҠಈ੓ࡦɼ஍Ҭ׆ੑԽɼ஍ҬͷߴڃԽʣ͕݈߁ʹӨڹΛ ༩͑ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ 37
  35. 38.

    Exposure and Covariate Assessment in Social Epidemiology $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆΛҧ൓͠ͳ͍ͨΊʹ ࣾձӸֶऀʹର͢Δͭͷקࠂ •

    മ࿐ͷԾఆΛ໌ࣔ͠ɼཧ࿦త͓Αͼ࣮ݧతূڌͷ྆ํʹج͍ͮͯજࡏతʹؔ࿈͢Δมಈ Λಛఆ͢Δ΂͖ • മ࿐ͷൣғ͕$POTJTUFODZͷԾఆʹҧ൓͠ͳ͍͜ͱΛࣔࠦ͢Δ݁Ռ͕ಘΒΕΔ·Ͱ͸ɼ മ࿐ͷมಈͷൣғΛॖখͯ͠ݕ౼͢ΔΑ͏౒ΊΔ΂͖ • ՄೳͳݶΓɼ̍ͭͷമ࿐ʹ͍ͭͯෳ਺ͷҟͳΔఆٛΛ໌ࣔతʹݕূ͢Δ΂͖ ࣾձӸֶݚڀͰ͸ɼ$POTJTUFODZͷԾఆΛຬͨͨ͢Ίʹଟ͘ͷ஫ҙ͕ඞཁͰ͋Δ $POTJTUFODZͷԾఆΛຬͨ͢͜ͱ͸ɼ؍࡯ݚڀͱݚڀ݁Ռʹجͮ͘ߦಈʹ͍ͭͯͷਪ࿦Λ ΑΓۙ͘͢Δ͜ͱΛՄೳʹ͢Δ 38
  36. 39.

    Causation and Confounding in Social Epidemiology Exposure and Covariate Assessment

    in Social Epidemiology • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Individual Level • Social Factors Defined and Measured at the Aggregate Level Analytic Approaches • Multilevel Modeling • Marginal Models • Effect Decomposition • Life-Course SES Concepts • Experiments and Quasi-Experiments • Narrative Historical Approach Chapter26 Social Epidemiology Jay S. Kaufman 39
  37. 40.

    Analytic Approaches Multilevel Modeling P.542〜 • աڈ਺े೥ؒͷ౷ܭֶతֵ৽ͷதͰɼ.VMUJMFWFMNPEFM΄ͲࣾձӸֶݚڀʹີ઀ʹ ݁ͼ͍ͭͨ΋ͷ͸ͳ͍ • ͜ͷํ๏ͱԠ༻ͷ༥߹͸ɼཧ࿦ͱٕज़ͷֵ໋͕΄΅ಉ࣌ʹىͬͨ͜೥ॳ಄ʹى

    ͬͨ͜ ཧ࿦తʹ໌Β͔ʹͳͬͨ͜ͱ • ࣾձӸֶݚڀ͸ɼ֊૚ߏ଄Λ໌֬ʹઆ໌͠ͳ͚Ε͹લਐͰ͖ͳ͍ • ͦͷඞཁੑ͸$IJOFTFCPYFTͱ͍͏ααʔͷൺᄻʹΑͬͯڧ͘໌֬ʹࣔ͞Εͨ • $IJOFTFCPYFTύϥμΠϜ͸ɼ఻౷తͳӸֶతϒϥοΫϘοΫεΛ෼ࢠϨϕϧ͔Β ݸਓϨϕϧɾࣾձϨϕϧ·Ͱɼ૊৫ͷෳ਺ͷೖΕࢠঢ়ͷϨϕϧΛแؚ͢ΔΑ͏ʹ ֦ு͢Δ͜ͱΛҙਤͨ͠ 40
  38. 41.

    Analytic Approaches • ΫϥελʔԽ͞ΕͨσʔλΛҰൠతͳ౷ܭιϑτ΢ΣΞͰճؼ෼ੳ͢Δख๏͕ొ৔͠ɼ ೥୅ʹ͸ϥϯμϜ܎਺ϞσϧͱਓޱฏۉϞσϧͷ։ൃͱಋೖ͕ٸ଎ʹਐΜͩ • .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMͱ͍͏༻ޠ͸ɼݱࡏͰ͸ΫϥελʔԽ͞ΕͨσʔλʹରԠ͢Δ ͋ΒΏΔ౷ܭతख๏ΛؚΉ΄Ͳ޿͘࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ • ϥϯμϜ܎਺Ϟσϧ͸ࣾձӸֶతͳద༻ʹ͓͍ͯҰൠతͳܗࣜͱͳ͍ͬͯΔ

    ٕज़తʹ໌Β͔ʹͳͬͨ͜ͱ • Ӹֶऀ͕ૄͳηϧΛ࡞੒ͤͣʹෳ਺ͷڞมྔΛ৚݅ͱ͢ΔͨΊʹճؼ๏ʹେ͖͘ґଘ ͢ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͨ • ඪ४తͳϞσϧϑΟοςΟϯά๏Ͱ͸ɼಠཱͨ͠؍࡯ɼ͢ͳΘͪɼΫϥελʔແ࡞ҝԽ ࢼݧ΍൓෮ଌఆΛ൐͏ίϗʔτݚڀͷΑ͏ͳݚڀσβΠϯͷԼͰɼ͋Δ͍͸σʔλ͕஍ Ҭ಺ͷݸਓͷΑ͏ͳࣗવͳ֊૚ͷ͍͔ͭ͘ͷϨϕϧͰऩू͞ΕΔ৔߹ʹ͸ޡ͍ͬͯΔͱ Ծఆ͍ͯ͠Δ • ڞมྔΛίϯτϩʔϧͨ͠ޙ΋ɼΫϥελʔม਺ʢ஍ҬͳͲʣ͕ґવͱͯ͠PVUDPNF Λ༧ଌ͢Δ৔߹ɼ͜ͷม਺Λແࢹ͢Δ෼ੳ͸ɼ஍ҬϨϕϧͷ༧ଌҼࢠͷਪఆ܎਺ʹ͍ͭ ͯόΠΞεͷ͔͔ͬͨ෼ࢄਪఆ஋Λੜ੒͠ɼͦͷͨΊແޮͳݕఆ͓Αͼ۠ؒΛ΋ͨΒ͢ ౷ܭతδϨϯϚ P.542〜 41
  39. 42.

    Analytic Approaches ஍ҬɿϨϕϧ .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMͷ֓೦ͷઆ໌ ݸਓɿϨϕϧ ʹॅΜͰ͍Δ ਓͷ࿈ଓతͳPVUDPNF Λߟ͑Δ ஍ҬN ஍Ҭ

    ݸਓ ਓ ஍Ҭ ɾɾɾ ɾɾɾ 尾崎幸謙,川端⼀光,⼭⽥剛史.[編著]『 Rで学ぶマルチレベルモデル[⼊⾨編]―基本モデルの考え⽅と分析―』 朝倉書店, P3.を参考にして作成 ݸਓ ਓ ݸਓ ਓ ͸஍Ҭ͝ͱʹฏۉ ͓Αͼ෼ࢄ ͷਖ਼ن෼෍ʹै͏ P.542〜 42
  40. 43.

    Analytic Approaches • ੾ยʹద༻͞ΕΔϥϯμϜ܎਺ͷ֓೦͸ɼ஍Ҭ͝ͱͷฏۉ ΋ط஌ͷܗͷϥϯμϜ ͳ෼෍ʹΑͬͯهड़Ͱ͖ΔͱԾఆ͍ͯ͠Δ • ஍Ҭ͝ͱͷฏۉ ΋ɼฏۉ ͱ෼ࢄ

    Ͱਖ਼ن෼෍͢ΔͱԾఆ͢Δͱɼ ࣍ͷͭͷ֊૚ͷϞσϧ͕ੜ͡Δ ʢϨϕϧʣ ʢϨϕϧʣ P.542〜 ݻఆޮՌ ʢूஂʹΑͬͯมಈ͠ͳ͍ύϥϝʔλʣ ஍Ҭͷ۠ผʹΑΒͳ͍໨తม਺ͷظ଴஋ ϥϯμϜޮՌ ʢूஂʹΑͬͯมಈ͢Δύϥϝʔλʣ Λத৺ʹ֬཰తʹมಈ͢Δ஍Ҭ KͷޮՌ ϥϯμϜ੾ย ஍Ҭ Kͷ฼ฏۉ ޡ߲ࠩ ݸਓ J ͷ஍Ҭ Kͷ฼ฏۉͱͷဃ཭ 43
  41. 44.

    Analytic Approaches ͜͜Ͱ ɼ ɼ Ͱ͋Γɼ Ϩϕϧͷ ΛϨϕϧͷ੒෼ʹஔ͖׵͑ͨ߹੒Ϟσϧ͸ҎԼͷͱ͓Γ P.542〜 ͜ͷϞσϧ͸ɼݸਓʹΑΔߏ੒ཁૉͱ஍ҬʹΑΔߏ੒ཁૉʹՄมੑΛ෼ׂ͢Δ͜ͱ͔Βɼ

    Ұํ޲ϥϯμϜޮՌ෼ࢄͱͯ͠΋஌ΒΕ͍ͯΔ ૯ฏۉ ஍Ҭ͝ͱͷ ภࠩ ݸʑͷภࠩ ڃ಺૬ؔ܎਺ʢ*$$ɿJOUSBDMBTT PSJOUSBDMVTUFS DPSSFMBUJPODPFGGJDJFOUʣ • શ෼ࢄʹର͢Δ෼ࢄ੒෼ͷ૬ରతد༩͸ɼڃ಺૬ؔ܎਺ʹΑͬͯද͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ • ڃ಺૬ؔ܎਺ͱ͸ɼ஍Ҭ಺ͷݸਓؒͰ͸ͳ͘஍ҬؒͰى͜Δ:ͷมಈͷׂ߹Ͱ͋Δ 44
  42. 47.

    Analytic Approaches P.542〜 ަޓ࡞༻߲ ͜ͷϞσϧʹ͸ɼڞมྔ9ͱ;ͷؒͷΫϩεϨϕϧʢ૬ޓ࡞༻ʣ߲ɼ͓Αͼ9ͱϥϯμϜ ޮՌ ͷؒͷੵؚ͕·ΕΔ ϨϕϧϞσϧͷ܎਺ΛϨϕϧϞσϧͷํఔࣜʹஔ͖׵͑ͯɼ୯Ұͷ݁߹ํఔࣜΛ࡞੒ ͢Δ͜ͱͰ֬ೝՄೳ ʢϨϕϧʣ

    and ݸਓ ूஂ ͜ͷϞσϧʹΑΕ͹ɼ஍Ҭ Kʹ͓͚Δ݁Ռ:ʹର͢Δ9ͷޮՌ͸ɼͦͷ஍Ҭʹ͓͚Δ;ͷ Ϩϕϧ͓ΑͼϥϯμϜޮՌʢϨϕϧͷޡ߲ࠩʣ ʹґଘ͢Δ ;ͷϢχοτͰ͸ɼ͜ͷϥϯμϜޮՌ ͸ɼ஍Ҭ Kʹ͓͚Δ9ޮՌͷ͢΂ͯͷ஍Ҭʹ ͓͚Δฏۉ9ޮՌ ͔ΒͷภࠩͰ͋Δ 47
  43. 49.

    Analytic Approaches • Ϋϥελؒͷ:ͷฏۉ஋ͷมԽΛهड़͢Δ • ϥϯμϜ߲ͱͯ͠ΫϥελޮՌΛೖྗ͢Δ୅ΘΓʹΫϥελ಺૬ؔͷύϥϝʔλΛಋೖ ͠ɼ͜ΕΒͷ૬ؔΛՄೳʹ͢ΔϑΟοςΟϯά๏ʢ(&&ɿHFOFSBMJ[FEFTUJNBUJOH FRVBUJPOTʣΛ࢖༻͢Δ͜ͱʹΑͬͯΫϥελޮՌΛߟྀ͢Δ • ෳ਺ϨϕϧͱΈͳ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ͕ΫϥελޮՌͷ෼෍Λ௚઀ϞσϧԽ͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖

    ͳ͍ • Ϟσϧ಺ͷଞͷڞมྔΛ৚݅ͱͯ͠ɼશूஂʹ͓͚Δ9ͷมԽʢ͢ͳΘͪɼ͢΂ͯͷΫ ϥελʹΘͨΔ9ͷ୯ҐมԽͷ:ͷฏۉʹର͢ΔޮՌʣ͕:ʹٴ΅͢ӨڹΛਪఆ͢Δͷ ʹద͍ͯ͠Δ • .BSHJOBMNPEFM͸(-.ͷ֦ுʹ͗͢ͳ͍ .BSHJOBMNPEFMͷಛ௃ P.544〜 49
  44. 50.

    Analytic Approaches .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMʢ.JYFEʣ .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMͱͷϞσϧͷҧ͍ .BSHJOBMNPEFMʢ(&&ʣ 03 03 03 03 ڵຯͷ͋ΔڞมྔҎ֎ͷڞมྔͱΫϥελʔΛ

    ৚͚݅ͮΔ͜ͱʹΑΓΫϥελʔߏ଄Λߟྀ Ϋϥελ಺૬ؔΛϞσϧʹ૊ΈࠐΉ͜ͱʹΑΓ Ϋϥελʔߏ଄Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱΛߟྀ ʢަ׵Մೳͳ૬ؔɼࣗݾ૬ؔɼແߏ଄ɼಠཱʣ มྔޮՌ ڞมྔϕΫτϧ ճؼ܎਺ ڞมྔϕΫτϧ Ϋϥελ಺૬ؔΛ ߟྀͨ͠ύϥϝʔλ P.544〜 Hosmer Jr, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied logistic regression (Vol. 398). John Wiley & Sons. 50
  45. 51.

    Analytic Approaches .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMͱͷղऍͷҧ͍ Hosmer Jr, D. W., Lemeshow, S., &

    Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied logistic regression (Vol. 398). John Wiley & Sons. P.544〜 ڵຯͷ͋Δม਺ • ϲ݄લʹ֏෩अʹ͔͔͔ͬͨ ʢ೥ؒຖ݄ଌఆʣ • ਓछʢനਓɼനਓҎ֎ʣ 0VUDPNF ᄶଉൃ࡞ ྫʣ $2ɿෳ਺͋Δม਺ͷ͏ͪɼͲͷม਺͕ࢠͲ΋ͷᄶଉͷൃੜʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δ͔ 51
  46. 52.

    Analytic Approaches .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMʢ.JYFEʣ .VMUJMFWFMNPEFMͱͷղऍͷҧ͍ .BSHJOBMNPEFMʢ(&&ʣ 03  03  03

     03  ࢠͲ΋ ֏෩अ લNͷࢠͲ΋͕࣍ͷ݄ʹᄶଉΛى͜͢ Φοζ͕ഒ ݸਓʹରͯ͠ݴٴ લNʹ֏෩अʹ͔͔ͬͨࢠͲ΋ͷᄶଉൃ࡞ͷ Φοζ͸֏෩अʹ͔͔Βͳ͔ͬͨࢠͲ΋ͷഒ ूஂʹରͯ͠ݴٴ ਓछ ಉ͡มྔޮՌΛ࣋ͭനਓҎ֎ͷࢠͲ΋͕ നਓͷࢠͲ΋ΑΓᄶଉΛى͜͢Φοζ͕ഒ ಉ͡ࢠͲ΋಺ͰมྔޮՌ΍ਓछ͕มΘΒͳ ͍ͷͰҙຯ͕ͳ͍ നਓҎ֎ͷूஂ͸നਓͷूஂͷᄶଉൃ࡞ͷ Φοζ͕ഒ ࢠͲ΋ ࢠͲ΋ ࢠͲ΋ N N N N N N N N N N N N P.544〜 Hosmer Jr, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied logistic regression (Vol. 398). John Wiley & Sons. 52
  47. 54.

    Analytic Approaches Effect Decomposition P.545〜 • ࣾձӸֶʹ͓͚Δ෼ੳํ๏ͷ̍ͭ • ؔ৺ͷ͋Δࣾձతമ࿐ʹର͢Δͭͷௐ੔͞Εͨਪఆ஋Λରൺ͢Δ͜ͱʹΑΔޮՌͷ ෼ղͰ͋Δ

    • മ࿐͕݁ՌʹӨڹΛٴ΅͢ܦ࿏্ʹม਺ʢதؒม਺ɿ;ʣ͕ଘࡏ͢Δ͜ͱΛԾఆ͢Δ • தؒม਺;Λհͨ͠മ࿐ͷؒ઀ޮՌͱதؒม਺;Λհ͞ͳ͍௚઀ޮՌͱΛ۠ผ͢Δ • தؒม਺;͕മ࿐ͷӨڹΛݮগͤ͞Δ৔߹ɼമ࿐ͷӨڹ͸ഔհ͍ͯ͠Δͱਪఆ͞ΕΔ X Y Z %*3&$5 */%*3&$5 தؒม਺ മ࿐ ݁Ռ 54
  48. 55.

    Analytic Approaches P.545〜 • தؒม਺Λௐ੔͢Δͱ͜Ε·Ͱଘࡏ͠ͳ͔ͬͨަབྷ͕ੜ͡Δ • ௚઀ޮՌͷେ͖͕͞૯߹ޮՌʢ5PUBMFGGFDUʣΑΓେ͖͘ͳΔ͜ͱ͕͋Δ ߴߍதୀ ௚઀ޮՌ ؒ઀ޮՌ

    ໰୊఺ ྫʣ૯߹ޮՌɿߴߍதୀ͕ϗʔϜϨεʹ༩͑ΔӨڹ தؒม਺ɿࣦۀ ϗʔϜϨε ࣦۀ ߴߍதୀ ϗʔϜϨε ૯߹ޮՌ ޮՌͷ෼ղ 55
  49. 56.

    Analytic Approaches P.545〜 X Z Y ߴߍଔۀΛଅਐ͞Ε͔ͨͲ͏͔ʹ͔͔ΘΒͣɼ ޏ༻ଅਐ͕ͳ͚Ε͹൴Β͸ࣦۀ͢Δ 0 →

    1 1 → 1 ߴߍଔۀΛଅਐ͞Ε͔ͨͲ͏͔ʹ͔͔ΘΒͣɼ ޏ༻Λڋ൱͞ΕͨΒ൴Β͸ϗʔϜϨεʹͳΔ 0 → 1 → 1 1 → 1 → 1 ޏ༻ଅਐΛߦͬͨ৔߹ɼߴߍଔۀ͢Ε͹ϗʔϜϨεʹ ͸ͳΒͳ͍͕ɼߴߍதୀͱͳΕ͹ϗʔϜϨεʹͳΔ 0 → 0 → 0 1 → 0 → 1 ࣍ͷͭͷհೖʹ͍ͭͯएऀ͕ಉ͡൓ԠΛࣔ͢ͱԾఆ • ߴߍڭҭͷऴྃΛ঑ྭ • ޏ༻ଅਐʢ܇࿅΍৬ۀ঺հʣ 9ɿڭҭ ;ɿޏ༻ :ɿϗʔϜϨε ̌ ߴߍଔۀ ब৬ Ͱͳ͍ ̍ ߴߍதୀ ແ৬ Ͱ͋Δ 56
  50. 57.

    Analytic Approaches 9ͷ૯߹ޮՌ  ʔ    ޏ༻͋Γʢ ;ʣʹݻఆͨ࣌͠ͷ௚઀ޮՌ

     ʔ    9ͷશޮՌʢʣʹޮՌΛ෼ղͨ͠ޙͷ௚઀ޮՌʢʣؚ͕·Εͳ͍ͨΊɼ શޮՌΛ௚઀ޮՌͱؒ઀ޮՌʹ෼ׂ͢Δͱ͍͏֓೦͸ෆे෼ 9ͷ૯߹ޮՌ ௚઀ޮՌ ؒ઀ޮՌ P.545〜 57
  51. 59.

    Analytic Approaches Life-Course SES Concepts • աڈ೥ؒͰٸ଎ʹൃలͨࣾ͠ձӸֶత֓೦ͷ̍ͭ • ੒ਓͷࣾձత஍Ґͱ݈߁ͱͷ୯७ͳԣஅతؔ࿈Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼݸਓͷੜ֔ʹΘͨΔࣾձతമ ࿐ͷಈతͳي੻Λઆ໌͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ΋ͷ

    • ए೥ظͷࣾձతঢ়گ͕ຫੑ࣬ױͷ੒ਓϦεΫʹӨڹΛٴ΅͢ͱ͍͏ΤϏσϯεΛ஝ੵ͢ Δ͜ͱʹΑΓՃ଎͞Εͨ • ͜ͷੜ֔Ϟσϧ͸͙͢ʹ֦ு͞Εɼप࢈ظͱ੒ਓظͷ৚͚݅ͩͰͳ͘ɼੜ׆ͷશஈ֊Λ ௨ͯ͡ҟͳΔ৚݅ͱܦݧͷ૊Έ߹Θͤɼ஝ੵɼ૬ޓ࡞༻΋ߟྀ͞ΕΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͨ P.546〜 59
  52. 61.

    Analytic Approaches Life-Course SES Concepts 4PDJBMNPCJMJUZNPEFM ਓੜͷ֤ଌఆ࣌఺Ͱࣾձత஍ҐͷԼҐͷΧςΰϦʔʹ͍ΔਓʑͱɼԼҐͷΧςΰϦʔ͔Β ্ҐͷΧςΰϦʔʹɼ͋Δ͍͸্ҐͷΧςΰϦʔ͔ΒԼҐͷΧςΰϦʔʹҠಈͨ͠ਓʑͷ ্޲͖·ͨ͸Լ޲͖ͷࣾձӡಈͷରরతͳύλʔϯ͕෼ੳͷର৅ͱͳΔ ͜ͷղੳతσβΠϯʹΑΓɼ݈߁ͷબ୒ʢ͢ͳΘͪපؾͷਓ͕පؾͷ݁Ռͱͯࣾ͠ձత஍

    ҐΛ௿Լͤ͞Δ͜ͱʣ΍ɼए೥ظͷണୣͱ੒ਓͷա৒ӫཆ΁ͷಉ࣌മ࿐͕৺݂؅࣬ױͷಛ ʹڧྗͳܾఆҼࢠͰ͋Δͱ͍͏࣌఺ؒͷ૬ޓ࡞༻Λߟྀ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Մೳ $VNVMBUJWFNPEFM ॏཁͳ࣌ظ΍ಛఆͷҠಈύλʔϯΛߟྀͤͣʹɼੜ֔Λ௨ͯ͡ͷ૕ࣦͷྦྷੵతͳ૯ޮՌΛ ߟྀ͢Δ P.546〜 61
  53. 62.

    Analytic Approaches Experiments and Quasi-Experiments • ؍࡯తࣾձӸֶʹ͓͚Δڧ͍ަབྷͷՄೳੑΛߟ͑Δͱ3$5Λݕ౼͢Δͷ͸ࣗવͰ͋Δ • ैདྷͷରর࣮ݧͱ͸ҟͳΔσβΠϯʹΑͬͯϥϯμϜԽͷར఺ΛಘΔ͜ͱ͕Մೳ •

    മ࿐ׂ͕Γ෇͚ΒΕ͍ͯͳͯ͘΋മ࿐Λ༧ଌ͢ΔϥϯμϜׂ෇Λར༻͢Δ͜ͱ͕Մೳ ྫʣϕτφϜઓ૪࣌୅ͷฌ໾͕ઓޙͷୀ໾܉ਓͷࢮ๢཰ʹٴ΅͢Өڹʹ͍ͭͯɼ ग़ੜ೔Ͱແ࡞ҝநग़Λ͓͜ͳͬͨ ˠ બ୒όΠΞεΛճආ ϥϯμϜԽࢼݧͷऑ఺ɿҰൠԽՄೳੑ ɾࢀՃऀ͸ඇࢀՃऀͱҟͳΔ ɾࢀՃऀͷෆ९क ɾϓϥηϘ܈ɼରর܈ͷࢀՃऀͷߦಈม༰ ϥϯμϜԽࢼݧͷ࣮ࢪ͓Αͼղऍʹ͸ɼಛʹࣾձӸֶݚڀ͕ؔ৺ͷ͋Δෳࡶͳհೖʹؔ͠ ͯɼଞʹ΋ଟ͘ͷ੍ݶ͕͋Δ ͦͷͨΊ؍࡯ݚڀ͸͍ٙͳࣾ͘ձӸֶͷத৺Ͱ͋Γଓ͚ΔͰ͋Ζ͏ P.547〜 62
  54. 63.

    Analytic Approaches Narrative Historical Approach • ࠷΋ݹ͘ɼ࠷΋޿͘༻͍ΒΕ͍ͯΔΞϓϩʔν͸ɼӸֶऀʹΑͬͯ࠷΋࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ ͍ • മ࿐ͱͦͷ݁Ռʹ͍ͭͯɼ౷ܭϞσϧʹΑͬͯఆٛ͞Εͨந৅తͰཧ૝Խ͞Εͨจ຺Ͱ

    ͸ͳ͘ɼ࣮ࡍʹىͬͨ͜ಛఆͷࣾձ࢙తจ຺ͰޠΒΕΔ • ٞ࿦͸ఆྔతͰ͋Δ͕ɼճؼϞσϧ͸༻͍ΒΕͣɼ౷ܭతݕఆ΋࣮ࢪ͞Εͳ͍ • ҼՌؔ܎͕ओு͞ΕΔൣғͰɼ౷ܭతͱ͍͏ΑΓ΋࣮࣭తʹٞ࿦͞ΕΔ • ࣾձӸֶ͕ੈلʹൟӫ͢ΔͨΊʹ͸ɼ؍࡯σʔλΛ͔͋ͨ΋࣮ݧతͳࢼݧ͔Βੜ͡ ͔ͨͷΑ͏ʹѻ͏͚ͩͰ͸ɼ࠷ྑͷ౴͕͑ಘΒΕͳ͍͜ͱ΋ड͚ೖΕͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ • ঀड़తͳํ๏͸ཧ࿦ͷݯઘͰ͋Γɼͦͷ๛෋͞͸ɼ౷ܭֶͷ௒અ໿ओٛϞσϧΛ୅ද͢ Δεύϧλࣜͷ୯७Խ͞Ε͗͢ʹର͢Δوॏͳର߅఺ͱͳΔ P.548〜 63