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運用の観点から見たTLSプロトコルの動き

 運用の観点から見たTLSプロトコルの動き

Internet Week 2017プレゼンテーション
S11 知らないと困る?! 認証局とHTTPSの最新技術動向
https://www.nic.ad.jp/ja/materials/iw/2017/proceedings/s11/

Shigeki Ohtsu

March 02, 2018
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  1. ӡ༻ͷ؍఺͔Βݟͨ
    5-4ϓϩτίϧͷಈ͖
    *OUFSOFU8FFL
    ೥݄೔
    େ௡ൟथ
    Ϡϑʔגࣜձࣾ
    ஌Βͳ͍ͱࠔΔʁʂೝূہͱ)5514ͷ࠷৽ٕज़ಈ޲

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  2. ࣗݾ঺հ
    w Ϡϑʔגࣜձࣾ$%/νʔϜॴଐɺ*&5'ඪ४ԽࢀՃɺࠇ
    ଳʢωοτϫʔΫɾηΩϡϦςΟʣ
    w /PEFKTίϛολʔUMT DSZQUPपΓͷ࣮૷ɺηΩϡϦςΟ
    νʔϜॴଐ Ϡϑʔגࣜձࣾ044σϕϩούʔೝఆऀ

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  3. ຊ೔ͷ಺༰
    ࠓޙͷ)5514αʔϏεӡ༻Ͱ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖5-4ϓϩτίϧͷݱঢ়
    ͷ՝୊ͱ࠷৽ಈ޲ʹ͍ͭͯղઆ͠·͢ɻ͜Μͳٙ໰ʹ͓౴͑͠·͢ɻ
    w ͳͥશ෦)5514ʹ͠ͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍ͷʁ
    w ͏ͪγϚϯςοΫͷূ໌ॻ࢖͍ͬͯΔ͚ͲɺͲ͏ͳͬͪΌ͏ͷʁ
    w ͏ͪͷ)5514αʔόɺ͜ͷ··ͷઃఆͰ์͓͓͍ͬͯͯେৎ෉ʁ
    1. Ͳ͏ͯ͠HTTPSʹ͠ͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍ͷ͔ɻ
    2. ৴པੑͷཁɺτϥετΞϯΧʔΛΊ͙Δಈ͖(ೝূہରϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ)ɻ
    3. ࠓޙTLS1.0ΛͲ͏ͨ͠Β͍͍ͷ͔ɻ
    4. ҉߸ํࣜͷSPOFղফʹ޲͚ͯ(ඇNIST҉߸ͷಛ௃)ɻ
    5. TLS1.3ͰͲ͏มΘΔͷ͔ɻ
    6. QUICɺ଱ྔࢠ҉߸Λݟਾ͑ͯɻ

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  4. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    )5514FWFSZXIFSF࣌୅ͷεςʔΫϗϧμʔ
    )5514
    SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ

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  5. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    ̎ͭͷϙδγϣϯΛ࢖͍෼͚ͯ͠࿩Λ͠·͢
    )5514
    SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ
    HTTPS everywhere
    TLS 1.0ഇࢭ
    ҉߸ํࣜͷSPOFղফ
    TLS1.3ɺQUICɺ଱ྔࢠ҉߸
    ৴པੑͷཁɺτϥετΞ
    ϯΧʔΛΊ͙Δಈ͖
    /PEFίϛολʔͱͯ͠ͷཱ৔
    ϠϑʔαʔϏεఏڙɺ
    *&5'ࢀՃऀͱͯ͠ͷཱ৔

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  6. )5514&WFSZXIFSF

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  7. )5514ͷಋೖঢ়گ ಡΈࠐΈϖʔδׂ߹

    IUUQTMFUTFODSZQUPSHTUBUTQFSDFOUQBHFMPBET IUUQTUSBOTQBSFODZSFQPSUHPPHMFDPNIUUQTPWFSWJFX
    'JSFGPY
    $ISPNF


    64

    +BQBO

    ೔ຊ͸
    Χࠃத࠷௿

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  8. ͳͥશ෦)5514ʹ͠ͳ͍ͱ
    ͍͚ͳ͍ͷʁ
    w /4" $()2ʹΑΔࠃՈϨϕϧͷ޿ൣғͳ౪ௌߦҝ͕໌Β͔ʹ
    w ௨৴ΩϟϦΞͱڠྗ͠ɺ%$಺΍ΠϯλʔωοτόοΫϘʔϯ
    ʹ౪ௌɾվ͟Μͷ࢓ֻ͚Λ഑ஔ
    w ฏจ௨৴Λ.J5.Ͱվ͟Μ͠ະ஌ͷϚϧ΢ΣΞΛײછͤ͞Δ
    w ҉߸ͷඪ४Խ࢓༷ʹόοΫυΞΛ࢓ֻ͚͍ͯΔͱͷ࿩΋ ޙड़

    CC BY 3.0 https://www.youtube.com/user/TheWikiLeaksChannel
    ೥݄ɿΤυϫʔυɾεϊʔσϯࣄ݅

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  9. /4"ʹΑΔαΠόʔ߈ܸͷҰྫ
    26"/56.
    '09"$*%
    IUUQXXXFYBNQMFDPN
    XXXFYBNQMFDPN
    Ϛϧ΢ΣΞΛૹΓࠐΉ
    ్தܦ࿏Ͱվ͟ΜίϯςϯπΛૹ৴
    '09"$*%ʹ༠ಋ
    վ͟Μίϯςϯπ
    IUUQTXXXTDIOFJFSDPNCMPHBSDIJWFTIPX@UIF@OTB@BUUIUNM

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  10. *"#
    ʹΑΔΠϯλʔωοτͷ
    ৴པੑʹؔ͢Δએݴ

    w ৽͘͠ϓϩτίϧΛઃܭ͢Δࡍʹ͸ɺ҉߸ԽػೳΛඞ
    ਢͱ͢΂͖ɻ
    w ωοτϫʔΫӡ༻ऀ΍αʔϏεఏڙऀʹ҉߸Խ௨৴ͷ
    ಋೖΛਪਐ͢ΔΑ͏ڧ͘ٻΊΔɻ
    w ίϯςϯπϑΟϧλʔ΍*%4౳ฏจ௨৴͕ඞཁͳػೳ
    ʹ͍ͭͯ͸কདྷతʹ୅ସٕज़ͷ։ൃʹऔΓ૊Ήɻ
    *OUFSOFU"SDIJUFDUVSF#PBSE

    IUUQTXXXJBCPSHJBCTUBUFNFOUPOJOUFSOFUDPOpEFOUJBMJUZ

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  11. ͳͥશ෦)5514ʹ͠ͳ͍ͱ
    ͍͚ͳ͍ͷʁ
    w Πϯλʔωοτͷ݈શੑΛ֬อ͢ΔͨΊɻ͕͜͜༳Β͙
    ͱେखͷ8FCαʔϏεͷ৴པੑ͕ͳ͘ͳΔɻ
    w Ұ෦Ͱ΋ฏจ௨৴͕࢒͍ͬͯΔͱͦ͜Λಥ͔ΕΔՄೳੑ͕
    ͋Δɻ
    w ࣗ෼͸ؔ܎ͳ͍ͱࢥ͍ͬͯͯ΋஌Βͳ͍͏ͪʹ࢓ࠐ·Εͯ
    ར༻͞ΕΔڪΕ΋ɻ
    w ௕ظతͳࢹ఺Ͱ͸IUUQ͸ϑΣʔζΞ΢τͷํ޲Ͱ͢ɻ

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  12. τϥετΞϯΧʔΛΊ͙Δ
    ೤͖ઓ͍

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  13. 5-4ͷٕज़ཁૉ
    X509ূ໌ॻ
    PKI
    ରশ
    ҉߸
    ҉߸Ϟʔυ
    ެ։伴҉߸
    σδλϧॺ໊
    ཚ਺ੜ੒
    伴ަ׵
    ϝοηʔδೝূ
    Ұํ޲ϋογϡ

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  14. 5-4ηΩϡϦςΟͷ౔୆
    5-4ͷ
    ηΩϡϦςΟ
    ཚ਺ੜ੒
    1,*
    ൿີ伴ͷ
    ؅ཧ
    ҉߸ٕज़
    Τϯ
    τϩϐʔෆ଍
    ෆਖ਼
    ൃߦ
    ࿙Ӯ
    ΞϧΰϦζϜɾ
    ڧ౓ͷةຆԽ
    5-4͸ɺ͜ͷ̐ͭͷ֎෦ཁૉͷ্ͰΠϯλʔ
    ωοτͰ҆શͳ௨৴Λఏڙ͢Δ࢓૊ΈͰ͋Δɻ
    ٯʹݴ͑͹ɺͲΕ΄Ͳ׬ᘳͳ5-4ϓϩτίϧΛ࡞ͬͯ΋
    ͜ͷ̐ͭͷ֎෦ཁૉ͕ഁΒΕͨΒ҆શΛ֬อͰ͖ͳ͍ɻ

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  15. ৴པͷཁɺτϥετΞϯΧʔ
    αʔόূ໌ॻ
    தؒূ໌ॻ
    ϧʔτূ໌ॻ
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ಺

    ΫϥΠΞϯτެ։伴ૹ৴
    αʔόɾதؒূ໌ॻૹ৴
    5-4
    ϋϯυγΣΠΫ
    ʹΑΔαʔόೝূ
    ੺৭͸
    αʔό͔Βૹ৴
    τϥετΞϯΧʔ
    ॺ໊
    ॺ໊
    αʔόެ։伴ૹ৴ॺ໊

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  16. 5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτͱ04Ͱม
    ΘΔSPPU$"ͷࢀরઌ
    8JOEPXT .BD04 -JOVY "OESPJE
    *&&EHF 04ͷSPPU$" /" /" /"
    4BGBSJ /" 04ͷSPPU$" /" /"
    $ISPNF 04ͷSPPU$" 04ͷSPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"

    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"

    'JSFGPY
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    /PEFKT
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    .P[JMMBͷ
    SPPU$"
    /"
    EJTUSJCVUJPOఏڙͷDBCVOEMFQLHΛࢀর͢Δ৔߹΋͋Γ
    มߋɺमਖ਼͞Ε͍ͯΔՄೳੑ͋Γʣ
    .P[JMMBͷSPPU$"ϦετIUUQTIHNP[JMMBPSHNP[JMMBDFOUSBMSBXpMFUJQTFDVSJUZOTTMJCDLGXCVJMUJOTDFSUEBUBUYU

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  17. ϒϥ΢βʹΑͬͯҟͳΔྫ
    .BD04্ͷ$ISPNF
    .BD04্ͷ'JSFGPY

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  18. ϒϥ΢βʔWTೝূہ
    αʔόূ໌ॻ
    தؒূ໌ॻ
    ϧʔτূ໌ॻ
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ಺

    ॺ໊
    ॺ໊
    ಛఆͷϧʔτূ໌ॻͰॺ໊
    ͞Εͨূ໌ॻΛΤϥʔʹ
    ൃߦ೔࣌ͳͲͷ৚݅΋෇༩Մ
    04ͷSPPUূ໌ॻͷ؅ཧͱ͸ผʹΫϥΠΞϯτಠࣗͷ൑அͰϑΟϧλʔͰ͖Δɻ
    ۩ମతͳSPPU$"ͷ΍Β͔͠ࣄ݅฽͸ɺౡԬ͞ΜͷϓϨθϯͰ

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  19. )5514αʔόͷӡ༻
    ٕज़ෛ࠴
    ࠓޙ5-4ΛͲ͏ͨ͠Β͍͍ͷ͔ʁ

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  20. ·ͣ͸
    ࠓͷߏ੒Λ͔ͬ͠ΓνΣοΫ͠·͠ΐ͏

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  21. ٕज़ෛ࠴ͷฦࡁʹඋ͑Δ
    ग़యIUUQTXXXTMJEFTIBSFOFUUFDICMPHZBIPPXFCIUNMKIUNMKC
    Φϫίϯϓϩτίϧ 5-4

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  22. 5-4͸ɺͳͥΦϫίϯʁ
    w ೥ʹ࢓༷ࡦఆɻ΋ͱ΋ͱ͸44-ͷඪ४ԽΛ໨ࢦͨ͠΋ͷ
    w "&4બఆ ೥
    લͩͬͨͷͰ౰ॳ͸3$ͱ%&4ͷΈαϙʔτɻ3$
    ͸طʹةຆԽɺ%&4͸48&&5߈ܸΛड͚Δ͜ͱ͕஌ΒΕ͍ͯΔ
    w ϒϩοΫ҉߸Λ࢖͏ࡍͷॳظϕΫτϧͰ#&"45߈ܸΛड͚Δ͜ͱ͕஌
    ΒΕ͍ͯΔ ΫϥΠΞϯτଆͰཁରࡦ

    w $#$Ϟʔυͷ࣮૷͸աڈ਺ଟ͘ͷ੬ऑੑΛੜΈग़ͨ͠ͷͰ"&"% ೝূ
    ෇҉߸
    ΁ͷҠߦ͕ओྲྀʹ

    w ."$13' 伴ੜ੒
    Ͱ͸.%ͱ4)"Λ૊Έ߹Θͤͨ΋ͷɻ͜Ε͕͋
    ΔݶΓةຆԽ͞Εͨ.%ͷίʔυΛͳ͘͢͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍

    5-4ͱڞ௨߲໨

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  23. 5-4ϓϩτίϧͷൺֱ
    ࡦఆ
    ϒϩοΫ҉߸ͷ
    ॳظϕΫτϧ
    $#$
    Ϟʔυ
    "&"% ."$13'
    5-4 ೥ ͳ͠ ༗ ͳ͠ 4)" .%
    5-4 ೥ ༗ ༗ ͳ͠ 4)" .%
    5-4 ೥ ༗ ༗ ༗ 4)"Ҏ্
    5-4 ࢓༷ࡦఆத ഇࢭ ഇࢭ ඞਢ
    ),%'
    4)"Ҏ্
    1$*%44
    ېࢭʙ
    ਪ঑

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  24. ϓϩτίϧͷഇࢭ͸೉͍͠
    w ΋ͱ΋ͱ1$*%44͸೥݄೔ʹ5-4Λഇࢭ༧ఆ
    ͩͬͨɻͦΕΛ̎೥Ԇظɻ
    w େख 4BMFT'PSDF *#. 0SBDMF
    ͷαʔϏε͸طʹରԠࡁɻ͕ͩ
    Ҡߦ࡞ۀ͸Ͳ͜΋Ұ౓͸ࣦഊͯ͠ϩʔϧόοΫ͍ͯ͠Δɻ
    w "OESPJEYͷඪ४ϒϥ΢βʔَ͕໳ɻ"1*ར༻ͳͲ͸ΫϥΠΞ
    ϯτଆͷվमͱ͔ඞཁɻ
    w ࣄલʹϢʔβ΁ͷೝ஌͕೉͍͠ɻഇࢭޙ͸Τϥʔը໘ʹɻ
    w 44-͸100%-&੬ऑੑͷެදͰΨϥέʔରԠΛؚΊഇࢭͰ͖
    ͨɻ5-4͸ಉ͡Α͏ʹͳΔͷ͔ɺͳΒͳ͍ͷ͔ɻ

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  25. Ͱ͸Ͳ͏͢Ε͹ʁ
    w ·ͣ͸Ϟχλʔ
    w 5-4όʔδϣϯΛΞΫηεϩάʹग़͢
    w ׂ߹΍6"ɺTSDJQ౳ͷ܏޲Λ೺Ѳ
    w Πϯγσϯτൃੜ࣌ʹӨڹ౓Λ೺ѲͰ͖ΔΑ͏४උ͕େ
    ࣄɻ

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  26. ҉߸ํࣜͷ410'ղফ
    ʹ޲͚ͯ

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  27. ҉߸ํࣜͷ410'
    70.3%
    25.0%
    4.2%
    0.2% 0.2%
    0.1%
    0.0% 0.0%
    TLS CipherSuite
    ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
    ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256
    ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
    DES-CBC3-SHA
    AES128-SHA
    AES128-GCM-SHA256
    ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
    ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384
    ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
    伴ަ׵ʹECDHE
    ೝূʹRSA
    ରশ҉߸ʹ128bit伴௕ͷAES
    ҉߸ϞʔυʹGCM(AEAD)
    PRFϋογϡʹSHA256
    ग़యIUUQTXXXTMJEFTIBSFOFUUFDICMPHZBIPPXFCIUNMKIUNMKC

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  28. 5-4ͷ҉߸ํࣜͷݱঢ়
    410'ͷଘࡏ
    伴ަ׵ 34"
    'PSXBSE4FDSFDZ
    %)&
    &$%)&
    /*451
    &$%)&
    Y
    σδλϧॺ໊ 34"
    %44
    %4"

    &$%4"
    &E%4"
    ʢ࢓༷Խத

    ରশ҉߸ %&43$ %&4 "&4 $IB$IB ͦͷଞ
    ҉߸Ϟʔυ $#$
    "&"%
    $$. ($. 1PMZ
    ϝοηʔδೝূ
    13'
    .% 4)" 4)" 4)"
    ஫ҙ͸ɺ҉߸ֶత஫ҙͱকདྷతʹීٴ͕ݟࠐ·Εͳ͍஫ҙ΋ؚ·Ε·͢

    ੺ةݥ ԫ஫ҙ ྘҆શ ੨͜Ε͔Β

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  29. 5-4҉߸ํࣜͷݱঢ় 伴ަ׵

    伴ަ׵ 34"
    'PSXBSE4FDSFDZ
    %)&
    &$%)&
    /*451
    &$%)&
    Y
    34"伴ަ׵'4Ͱͳ͍ͷͰඇਪ঑ɻͰ΋اۀ಺ɺ%$಺Ͱඞཁͱͷ੠͕͋Γɻ
    %)&伴ަ׵҉߸ڧ౓ͷަ׵͕ෆՄɻ
    &$%)& /*451
    Ұ൪ීٴ͍ͯ͠Δɻ/4"όοΫυΞͷٙٛ
    &$%)& Y
    ΍ͬͱओྲྀϒϥ΢βͰαϙʔτ։࢝ɻ͜Ε͔Βීٴ͕ݟࠐ·ΕΔɻ
    IUUQTDTSDOJTUHPW/FXT5SBOTJUJPO1MBOTGPS,FZ&TUBCMJTINFOU4DIFNFT
    /*45ඪ४ͱͯ͠Y͕࠾༻͞ΕΔݟࠐΈ͕࠷ۙ໌Β͔ʹ
    /*451ʹԿ͔͋ͬͨΒΊͪΌ΍͹͍

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  30. 5-4҉߸ํࣜͷݱঢ় ॺ໊

    σδλϧॺ໊ 34"
    %44
    %4"

    &$%4"
    &E%4"
    ʢ࢓༷Խத

    34"ॺ໊1,$4Wํ͕ࣜओྲྀ͕ͩ҆શੑ͕ূ໌͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ɻ144΁ͷҠߦ͕՝୊
    %4"΄ͱΜͲීٴͤͣɻੑೳతϝϦοτ΋ͳ͍ͨΊഇࢭͷํ޲
    &$%4" /*451
    &$$ূ໌ॻ͕কདྷ΋ͬͱීٴ͢Δ͔ʁ
    &E%4" FE
    ࢓༷Խத ޙड़

    ੈͷதͷূ໌ॻ͕΄ͱΜͲ34"ॺ໊
    1,$4WʹͳΜ͔͋ͬͨΒΊͪΌ΍͹͍

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  31. /*451
    QSJNFW TFDQS

    9 &E
    TIPSUϫΠΤϧγϡτϥεۂઢ
    ZYBYC
    ϞϯΰϝϦۂઢ
    CZYʴBYY
    UXJTUFEΤυϫʔζۂઢ
    BYZYʴEYZ
    ஫ɿఏ͍ࣔͯ͠Δάϥϑ͸ܗ͕ݟ΍͍͢ύϥϝʔλΛ࢖ͬͨପԁۂઢΛॻ͍͓ͯΓɺ࣮ࡍʹ࢖ΘΕΔପԁۂઢ҉߸ͷάϥϑͱҟͳΓ·͢ɻʣ
    ૒༗ཧಉ
    5-4Ͱ࢖͏ପԁۂઢ҉߸ͷछྨ Ұྫ

    3'$ 3'$
    '*14
    伴ަ׵ɾॺ໊
    ʢ&$%)&ɾ&$%4"

    伴ަ׵
    &$%)&

    ॺ໊
    &E%4"

    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

    View full-size slide

  32. &$%4"/*451 &E%4"&E
    ηΩϡϦςΟڧ౓ CJUT
    ପԁۂઢɾૉ਺
    ZYY

    YZ
    YZ
    rr
    ެ։伴ॻࣜɾαΠζ
    VODPNQSFTT
    CZUFT
    DPNQSFTT Z࠲ඪ

    CZUFT
    ॺ໊αΠζ CZUFT
    ಛ௃
    ॺ໊ຖʹཚ਺͕ඞཁ
    ಉҰൿີ伴ɾσʔλΛར༻͢ΔͱTJHOBUVSF͕
    ಉҰ
    ϋογϡͱ૊Έ߹Θͤ 4)"ͷϋογϡॲཧΛ಺෦Ͱ࣋ͭ
    ϋογϡিಥ଱ੑ ϋογϡিಥ଱ੑ伴ِ଄଱ੑ
    ཁແݶ఺ॲཧ ແݶ఺ॲཧ͕ඞཁͳ͍
    *6' *OQVU6QEBUF'JOJTI
    "1* *6'Ͱͳ͍
    ߴੑೳ͔ͭ҆શͳ࣮૷Λ͢Δͷ͕େม
    αΠυνϟωϧ΍ΩϟογϡλΠϛϯά߈ܸΛ
    ൺֱతड͚ʹ͍͘
    ূ໌ॻ 3'$ɺൃߦೝূہ͋Γ ESBGUDVSEMFQLJY࢓༷Խத
    ո͍͠
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

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  33. &$%4"&E%4"ॲཧͷҧ͍
    σʔλ
    ൿີ伴 ެ։伴
    ཚ਺
    &$%4"
    TJHO

    S T
    4JHOBUVSF
    &$%4"
    WFSJGZ

    )BTI
    USVF
    PS
    GBMTF
    σʔλ
    ॺ໊ ݕূ
    σʔλ
    ൿີ伴 ެ։伴
    &E%4"
    TJHO

    3T T
    4JHOBUVSF
    &E%4"
    WFSJGZ

    USVF
    PS
    GBMTF
    σʔλ
    )BTI
    ॺ໊࣌ʹཚ਺ෆཁɺϋογϡॲཧ͸಺෦ʹ
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

    View full-size slide

  34. 5-4҉߸ํࣜͷݱঢ়
    ରশ҉߸ɾ҉߸Ϟʔυ
    ରশ҉߸ %&43$ %&4 "&4 $IB$IB ͦͷଞ
    ҉߸Ϟʔυ $#$
    "&"%
    $$. ($. 1PMZ
    %&43$طʹةຆԽɻར༻ېࢭ
    %&44XFFU߈ܸΛड͚ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Γɻ
    "&4$#$աڈ$#$ͷύσΟϯάॲཧͰ࣮૷ͷ੬ऑੑ͕͋Γ
    "&4$$.଎౓తͳϝϦοτ͕ͳ͍ͨΊීٴͤͣ
    "&4($.ݱࡏҰൠతʹ࢖ΘΕ͍ͯΔҰ୒ɻ)8ॲཧͰߴੑೳɻ
    $IB$IB1PMZɿϒϥ΢βʔαϙʔτ͕૿͑ɺ͜Ε͔ΒීٴͷݟࠐΈɻ
    ੈͷத΄ͱΜͲ"&4
    "&4ʹԿ͔͋ͬͨΒϝνϟ΍͹͍

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  35. ରশ҉߸ੑೳൺ
    w *OUFM"&4/*΍"3.W&ODSZQUJPOΤϯδϯͳͲ)8҉߸ΞΫηϥϨʔγϣϯΛ࣋ͭ
    $16Ͱ͸"&4($.ͷ଎౓͕ඇৗʹ଎͍
    w )8҉߸ΞΫηϥϨʔγϣϯ͕ͳ͍$16 "3.W
    ͳͲͰ͸$IB$IB1PMZ͕
    ଎͍
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

    View full-size slide

  36. 5-4҉߸ํࣜͷݱঢ়
    ϝοηʔδೝূɾ13'
    ϝοηʔδೝূ
    13'
    .% 4)" 4)" 4)"
    .%طʹ༰қʹিಥܭࢉ͕Մೳɻར༻ېࢭɻ
    4)"ͬͨ͢΋Μͩͷ຤ɺ4DBUUFSͰτυϝΛࢗ͞Εഇࢭʹɻ
    4)" Ұ൪ීٴ͍ͯ͠Δɻ౰໘҆શͱݟΒΕ͍ͯΔɻ
    4)"଎౓తͳϝϦοτ͕ͳ͍ͨΊ5-4΁ͷಋೖػӡ͸ߴ·͍ͬͯͳ͍ɻ4)"
    ܥͱΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ҟͳΓɺ৳௕߈ܸ଱ੑ͕͋ΔͷͰόοΫΞοϓΞϧΰϦζϜͱ͠
    ͯͷظ଴͸͋Δɻ
    4)"͕ବ໨ͳΒ4)"͕͋Δ͞

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  37. ҉߸ํࣜͷ410'ղফʹ޲͚ͯ
    w $IB$IB1PMZ Yͷϒϥ΢βʔαϙʔτ͕
    ॆ࣮͖ͯͨ͠ɻ
    w 0QFO44-ϕʔεͰ͸྆ํαϙʔτ͞Ε͍ͯΔɻ
    w ೥݄೔ʹ0QFO44-͕&04-ʹͳΔɻ
    w XJLJMFBLT͔Βεϊʔσϯจॻʹ/*451ͷόοΫυΞ
    ͷৄࡉ͕΋͠ग़Α͏΋ͷͳΒେύχοΫʹͳΔɻͦͷલ
    ʹY΁ͷҠߦΛɻ

    View full-size slide

  38. কདྷʹඋ͑Δ
    5-4
    ࠷৽৘ใɾͲ͏൑அ͢΂͖͸ύωϧͰ

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  39. 5-4͕ٻΊΒΕΔഎܠ
    ৗ࣌5-4࣌୅Λܴ͑Δʹ͋ͨͬͯɺ͔ͬ͠Γͨ͠ϓ
    ϩτίϧ͕ඞཁ
    5-4ͷݶք
    w ༷ʑͳٕज़ෛ࠴ͷ஝ੵ
    ௕ظʹ࢖͑ΔΑΓ҆શͰߴੑೳͳ5-4ϓϩτίϧΛ࡞Δ

    View full-size slide

  40. 5-4ͷݶք
    w ݱࡏͷ5-4Ͱఆٛ͞Ε͍ͯΔػೳͷ
    Ұ෦͸ɺطʹར༻͢ΔͱةݥͰ͋Δɻ
    w աڈ༷ʑͳ5-4ͷ߈ܸख๏΍੬ऑੑ͕ެ
    ։͞Εɺͦͷ౎౓ରࡦ͕औΒΕ͖ͯͨɻ
    w ͔͠͠Ұ࣌తͳରԠͰࠜຊతɾൈຊతͳ
    ରࡦʹͳ͍ͬͯͳ͍΋ͷ΋ଟ͍ɻ
    ຊདྷ͜ͷΑ͏ͳΨΠυϥΠ
    ϯ͕ͳͯ͘ࡁΉͷ͕๬·͍͠

    View full-size slide

  41. 5-4ͷಛ௃
    ༷ʑͳػೳɺ߲໨ͷݟ௚͠ɾഇࢭ
    ࣌୅ʹ߹Θͳ͘ͳͬͨ΋ͷɺΑΓޮ཰తʹมߋमਖ਼Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷΛ5-4
    ͔Βػೳɾ߲໨Λ਺ଟ͘ഇࢭ
    ΑΓηΩϡΞʹ
    ฏจ௨৴͕ඞཁͳ෦෼Λۃྗগͳͯ͘͠৘ใΛൿಗ
    ͜Ε·Ͱ߈ܸର৅ͱͳͬͨػೳΛۃྗഉআ͠কདྷతͳ߈ܸʹඋ͑Δ
    ੑೳ޲্
    ॳظ઀ଓͷ୹ॖʹΑΔੑೳ޲্
    த਎తʹ͸5-4Ϩϕϧͷେมߋ

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  42. 5-4ʹ࢈ۀք ۚ༥ۀք
    ͔Βͷݒ೦ද໌
    w ʮ*OEVTUSZ$BODFSOTBCPVU5-4ʯIUUQTXXXJFUGPSHNBJM
    BSDIJWFXFCUMTDVSSFOUNTHIUNM
    w 'JOBODJBM4FSWJDF3PVOEUBCMFͷٕज़෦໳#*54୲౰ऀ͔Β5-48(ϝʔϦ
    ϯάϦετ΁ͷ౤ߘ
    w 34"伴ަ׵͕5-4Ͱഇࢭ͞ΕΔͱɺۚ༥ۀքͰݱঢ়ඞཁͱ͞ΕΔཁ݅ʹ
    ߹Θͳ͘ͳΔڪΕ͕͋Δɻ
    w 34"伴ަ׵αʔόͷൿີ伴Λ͍࣋ͬͯΕ͹5-4௨৴σʔλΛ෮߸Խ͢Δ͜
    ͱ͕Մೳɻ5-4Ͱ͸ഇࢭ༧ఆɻ
    w 1'4 1FSGFDU'PSXBSE4FDVSFDZ
    Ұ࣌తʹ༗ޮͳ伴Λަ׵ɻޙ͔Β௨৴
    σʔλΛ෮߸Խ͢Δ͜ͱ͸೉͘͠ͳΔɻ5-4͸&$%)&%)&ͷΈ༗ޮɻ

    View full-size slide

  43. 5-4ʹ࢈ۀք ۚ༥ۀք
    ͔Βͷݒ೦ද໌
    ʢଓ͖ʣ
    w ؂ࢹɾϞχλʔɿۚ༥ۀքͰ͸๏తʹैۀһͷ௨৴σʔλ
    Λอશ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ
    w τϥϒϧγϡʔτΞϓϦ૚ͷΤϥʔͳͲ5-4σʔλͷத
    ਎Λσʔληϯλʔ಺Ͱղੳͯ͠ো֐ௐࠪΛߦ͍ͬͯΔɻ
    w Ϛϧ΢ΣΞɺ%%P4ରࡦ5-4σʔλͷத਎Λௐ΂ͯݕ஌
    ͯ͠ηΩϡϦςΟରࡦ͕ߦΘΕ͍ͯΔɻ
    ্هػೳͷӡ༻͸ɺݱࡏ34"伴ަ׵ΛલఏʹγεςϜ͕ߏ੒͞Ε͓ͯΓɺ5-4Ͱ34"
    伴ަ׵͕ഇࢭ͞ΕΔͱେ͖ͳӨڹΛड͚Δɻٞ࿦தͰ͕͢ɺ͜ͷ··ߦ͖ͦ͏Ͱ͢ɻ

    View full-size slide

  44. 355ͷBOUJSFQMBZ
    w 5-4Ͱ͸ϋϯυγΣΠΫ࣌ʹ14, 1SF4IBSFE,FZ
    Λ࡞੒͠ɺ
    ࠶઀ଓ࣌ʹϋϯυγΣΠΫͱσʔλΛಉ࣌ʹૹ৴͢Δ355ػ
    ೳ͕໨ۄͱͯ͠ఆٛ͞Ε͍ͯΔɻ
    w 355ػೳʹΑΔσʔλ௨৴ͷߴ଎Խ͕ظ଴͞Ε͍ͯΔ͕ɺ
    355ͷσʔλΛதؒ߈ܸऀ͕ෳ੡ͯ͠αʔόʹૹ৴͢Δ3FQMBZ߈
    ܸʹऑ͍ͱ͍͏ऑ఺͕ଘࡏ͢Δɻ
    w 355ͷSFQMBZ߈ܸ๷ޚͷख๏ͱͯ͠͸)551Ͱ͸ႈ౳ੑͷ͋Δ
    ϦΫΤετʹݶఆ͢Δͱ͍ͬͨΑ͏ʹΞϓϦଆͷରԠ͕ඞཁʹͳ
    ΔݟࠐΈͰ͋Δɻ

    View full-size slide

  45. 5-4ͷϋϯυγΣΠΫ355
    ClientHello+νέοτ
    ApplicationData
    end_of_early_data
    Finished
    ServerHello
    EncryptedExtension
    ServerConfiguration
    Certificate
    CertificateVerify
    Finished
    ApplicationData
    355
    355
    ҉߸Խ
    355
    1SF4IBSFE
    ,FZ
    1SF4IBSFE
    ,FZ
    ࠷ॳͷϋϯυγΣΠΫ
    νέοτ
    ࠶઀ଓ
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

    View full-size slide

  46. $MJFOU)FMMP355
    ྫɿ1045ೖֹۚۚʣ
    5-4αʔόΫϥελʔ
    ೖۚ
    ೖۚ
    ೖۚ
    ೖۚ
    5-4355ͷڴҖ
    SFQMBZ߈ܸͷҰྫ

    View full-size slide

  47. ΞϓϦ։ൃऀ΍αʔό؅ཧऀ͕ԿΛؾΛ
    ͚ͭΕ͹͍͍ͷ͔ʁ
    w ӡ༻తͳ՝୊
    w 5-4͕༗ޮʹͳΔ͜ͱͰϛυϧϘοΫεɺ'8ɺ*%4*14ͳ
    Ͳதؒ௨৴૷ஔͷো֐΍ػೳఀࢭͳͲͷӨڹ͸ͳ͍͔ʁ
    w 5-4ͰഇࢭʹͳΔػೳ ಛʹ34"伴ަ׵
    Λલఏͱͨ͠γε
    ςϜͷػೳΛ࢖͍ͬͯͳ͍͔ʁ
    w ٕज़తͳ՝୊
    w 355Λຊ౰ʹ҆શʹར༻͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ʁ
    w 355Λ࢖Θͳ͔ͬͨ৔߹ʹ໰୊͸ൃੜ͠ͳ͍ͷ͔ʁ

    View full-size slide

  48. ҠߦͷλΠϛϯάͳͲ
    w 5-4΁ͷҠߦλΠϛϯάʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɺ5-4ʹԿΛٻΊΔ͔ʹΑͬͯ
    ҟͳΔɻ
    w কདྷతͳηΩϡϦςΟϦεΫͷ௿ݮˠ5-4
    w 355Λ࢖ͬͨߴ଎௨৴ͷ࣮ݱˠ5-4
    w 26*$ɺ8FC35$ͳͲ৽͍͠ϓϩτίϧͷಋೖˠ5-4
    w 5-4ͷ࢓༷ԽʹΑͬͯ5-4͕ഇࢭ͞ΕΔ͜ͱ͸ͳ͍ɻ5-4Λܧ
    ଓͯ͠࢖͍ଓ͚Δͷ΋Ұͭͷબ୒ࢶɻ5-4͸λΠϛϯάΛݟͯഇ
    ࢭ͞ΕΔ͔΋͠Εͳ͍ɻ
    w 5-4Λ࢖͍ଓ͚Δ͜ͱͷσϝϦοτϚʔέοτతʹ͸5-4Λਪਐ
    ͍ͯͩ͘͠Ζ͏ɻ5-4ݻ༗ͷ໰୊͕ൃݟ͞Εͨ৔߹ʹͲ͏ͳΔ͔ʁ

    View full-size slide

  49. কདྷʹඋ͑Δ
    26*$
    ࠷৽৘ใɾͲ͏൑அ͢΂͖͸ύωϧͰ

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  50. 26*$ͱ͸
    ■ 6%1্Ͱ5$1
    5-4 )551ͷҰ
    ෦Λ࣮ݱ͢Δϓϩτίϧɻ
    ■ (PPHMF͕։ൃɺ೥͔Β*&5'
    ඪ४Խ͕࢝·Δɻ
    ■ ݱࡏ(PPHMF͔Βग़ΔτϥϑΟοΫ
    ͷҎ্͕26*$ɻ͜Ε͸Πϯ
    λʔωοτશମͷ͓Αͦ૬౰ɻ
    Ϣʔβʔϥϯυ࣮૷WTLFSOFM࣮૷

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  51. 26*$ͷϝϦοτ
    ύέοτϩεʹڧ͍

    ճઢ᫔᫓

    View full-size slide

  52. 26*$ͷϝϦοτʢߴ଎઀ଓ

    ͞Βʹʂ 355Ͱ΋ͬͱߴ଎ʹ
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

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  53. (PPHMFʹΑΔ26*$ੑೳվળ
    ■ ݕࡧϨεϙϯεͷվળׂ߹ ݕࡧจࣈΛೖྗ͔ͯ͠Β݁Ռ͕දࣔ͞ΕΔ·Ͱͷ࣌ؒ

    ग़యɿIUUQEMBDNPSHDJUBUJPODGN JE
    (PPHMF͸Ҏ্ಁա͍ͯ͠Δͱݴ͏͕26*$੾ͬͨ
    Β$ISPNF͕ܰ͘ͳͬͨͱ͍͏੠΋νϥϗϥ
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

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  54. কདྷʹඋ͑Δ
    ଱ྔࢠ҉߸

    View full-size slide

  55. ଱ྔࢠ҉߸
    w ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ͕#V[[XPSEԽͦ͠͏Ͱ͢ɻ
    w ·ͩ·ͩઌͷ࿩ͱͷ੠΋͋Γ·͕͢ɺ࣮༻Խ͞ΕͨΒݱ
    ࡏͷ҉߸ٕज़ͷڴҖʹͳΓ·͢ɻ
    w طʹྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ࣮༻ޙʹ޲͚ͯͷ४උ͕࢝·͍ͬͯ
    ·͢ɻ
    w ͍ͨͣΒʹෆ҆ΛἤΓཱͯΒΕͳ͍Α͏ɺࠓ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂
    ͖͜ͱΛ੔ཧ͠·͢ɻ

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  56. ϙετྔࢠWT଱ྔࢠ
    w QPTURVBOUVNDSZQUPHSBQIZ೥ʹ%+#͕ఏএ͠
    ࢝ΊΔɻ12$ͷུশ΋޿·͍ͬͯΔɻ
    w RVBOUVNSFTJTUBOUDSZQUPRVBOUVNTBGFDSZQUP౳ผ
    ໊΋ఏҊ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͕ɺ·ͩ౷Ұ͕ਤΒΕ͍ͯͳ͍ɻ
    w ͋Δ҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ͦͷ࣌఺Ͱྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλʹର
    ͯ҆͠શͱΈͳ͞Εͯ΋ɺͦͷޙ΋ͣͬͱ҆શͰ͋Δอূ
    ͸ͳ͍ɻྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ࣮༻ޙʹඞཁͳηΩϡϦςΟ
    ϨϕϧΛࢦඪͱ͍ͯ͠ΔͷͰQPTURVBOUVNͩ CZEKC

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  57. ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͱ͸
    w ྔࢠϏοτ RVCJU
    cПЋcЌcͱͷॏͶ߹Θͤͨঢ়
    ଶΛ࣋ͭ
    w ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλྔࢠϏοτΛ࢖ͬͨԋࢉΛߦ͏૷ஔ
    ྔࢠήʔτํࣜྔࢠϏοτΛૢ࡞͢Δجૅతͳճ࿏Λ૊Έ
    ߹Θͤͯ൚༻తͳԋࢉΛߦ͏ྔࢠճ࿏Λ࣮ݱ͢Δํࣜɻ͍
    ͔ͭ͘ͷྔࢠΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ఏএ͞Ε͍ͯΔ ޙड़
    ɻ*#.ɺ
    *OUFMɺ.4౳͕औΓ૊ΜͰ͍Δɻ
    ྔࢠΞχʔϦϯάํࣜྔࢠϏοτؒͷ૬ޓ࡞༻Λ࢖ͬͯج
    ఈঢ়ଶΛ୳͠ग़͢ํࣜɻ૊Έ߹Θͤ࠷దԽܭࢉʹಛԽɻΧ
    φμ%8BWFࣾͳͲ͕੡඼Խɻݱࡏ஫໨גɻ
    ஫্هҎ֎ͷํࣜ΋ݚڀ։ൃதͰ͢ɻ

    View full-size slide

  58. ྔࢠΞϧΰϦζϜ
    ྔࢠήʔτํࣜͰߟҊ͞Ε͍ͯΔྔࢠΞϧΰϦζϜͷҰྫ
    w (SPWFSͷ୳ࡧΞϧΰϦζϜ
    ྔࢠϏοτૢ࡞Λ܁Γฦͯ֬͠཰ৼ෯Λऩଋͤ͞ɺ/ݸͷσʔλ͔Β
    /?
    ͷΦʔμʔͰσʔλΛ୳ࡧͰ͖ΔΞϧΰϦζϜɻରশ҉߸ͷڞ༗
    伴୳ࡧʹԠ༻Մೳɻ
    w 4DIPSͷૉҼ਺෼ղΞϧΰϦζϜ
    ΂͖৐৒༨ܭࢉΛྔࢠϑʔϦΤม׵Λ࢖ͬͯղ͖ɺૉҼ਺෼ղΛߦ͏Ξ
    ϧΰϦζϜɻ༗ݶମ্ͷ཭ࢄର਺໰୊ %)
    ΍ପԁۂઢ҉߸ &$%)
    ͷղ
    ಡʹ΋Ԡ༻Մೳɻ

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  59. ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷ
    ҉߸ٕज़ʹର͢ΔڴҖ
    ग़య http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8105
    ҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜ ํࣜ ༻్ େܕྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷӨڹ
    "&4 ରশ伴҉߸ ҉߸Խ 伴௕Λେ͖͘͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    4)" 4)" ϋογϡ
    ϋογϡαΠζΛେ͖͘͢Δ
    ඞཁ͕͋Δ
    34" ެ։伴҉߸ ॺ໊ɾ伴ަ׵ ҆શͰͳ͍
    &$%4" &$%)
    ପԁۂઢ҉߸

    ެ։伴҉߸ ॺ໊ɾ伴ަ׵ ҆શͰͳ͍
    %4"
    ཭ࢄର਺໰୊Λϕʔεͱ
    ͨ͠༗ݶମ҉߸

    ެ։伴҉߸ ॺ໊ɾ伴ަ׵ ҆શͰͳ͍

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  60. ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ͍ͭͰ͖Δʁ
    w ࣮༻తͳྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷ࣮ݱ·Ͱ͍͍ͩͨ೥͙Β͍
    ͔͔ΔͩΖ͏ͱݴΘΕ͍ͯΔɻ
    w *#.͸ɺRVCJUͷϓϩηοαʔΛ׬੒
    ɻ਺ଟ
    ͘ͷاۀɾػ͕ؔେྔͷࢿۚΛ౤ͯ͡։ൃதɻ
    w %+#͸ɺ೥·Ͱʹ34"͕ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͰҼ
    ਺෼ղ͞ΕΔͷʹ64%ΛṌ͚͍ͯΔ
    ɻ
    w ॳظͷྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷීٴͰɺ৽ͨͳྔࢠΞϧΰϦζ
    Ϝ΍ྔࢠϓϩάϥϛϯάݴޠͷ։ൃ͕ਐΉՄೳੑ΋ɻ

    IUUQTDSZQUPUBMLTTMJEFTEKCRVBOUVNYQEG

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  61. ݱࡏͷ5-4ʹର͢ΔڴҖ
    ClientHello
    ServerHello
    Certificate
    ServerKeyExchange
    ServerHelloDone
    ClientKeyExchange
    ChangeCipherSpec
    Finished
    ChangeCipherSpec
    Finished
    Application Data
    Application Data
    5-4ϋϯυγΣΠΫΛؚΉશ҉߸
    σʔλΛอଘ
    99೥ޙେܕྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ࣮ݱ
    4FSWFS,FZ&YDIBOHFதͷҰ࣌త
    ެ։伴σʔλ͔Β4DIPSͷΞϧΰ
    ϦζϜΛ࢖ͬͯྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ
    ͔ΒҰ࣌తൿີ伴৘ใΛܭࢉ
    $MJFOU,FZ&YDIBOHFதͷҰ࣌తެ
    ։伴ͱ૊Έ߹Θͤͯ
    QSF@NBTUFS@TFDSFUΛܭࢉ
    ҉߸Խ͞Εͨ"QQMJDBUJPO%BUBͰ
    ࢖ΘΕ͍ͯΔରশ҉߸ͷڞ௨伴Λ
    ܭࢉɻ"QQMJDBUJPO%BUBΛ෮߸͠
    ͯฏจ৘ใΛऔಘɻ

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  62. ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷ࣮ݱલʹ
    ରԠΛ
    w ݱࡏ5-4Ͱ΍ΓऔΓ͞ΕΔ҉߸σʔλ͸ɺϋϯυγΣΠΫ
    ·Ͱอ؅͞Ε͍ͯΔͱ99೥ޙʹ͸ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͰฏ
    จ͕Θ͔ͬͯ͠·͍·͢ɻ
    w ଱ྔࢠ҉߸ͳ伴ަ׵ΞϧΰϦζϜ͸ɺྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλͷ
    ࣮ݱલʹಋೖ͓ͯ͘͠ඞཁ͕͋Δɻ
    w ৽͍͠҉߸ํ͕ࣜීٴ͢Δ·Ͱ͔ͳΓ࣌ؒʢ਺೥୯Ґʣ
    ͕͔͔Γ·͢ɻ
    ݱࡏ
    େܕྔࢠίϯϐϡʔ
    λͷ࣮༻Խ
    ଱ྔࢠ伴ަ
    ׵ͷಋೖ
    5-4σʔλͷอޢ

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  63. (PPHMFʹΑΔ$&$12ࢼݧ
    w $&$12$PNCJOFE&MMJQUJD$VSWFBOE1PTU2VBOUVN
    w ପԁۂઢ҉߸ͷYͱ଱ྔࢠ҉߸3-8& 3JOH-FBSOJOH8JUI
    &SSPS
    ͷ/FX)PQFΛ૊Έ߹Θͤͯ$ISPNFͷ5-4伴ަ׵Λࢼݧ
    w Y͸όΠτɺ/FX)PQF͸όΠτͷެ։伴ɻ߹ܭό
    Πτ௕ͷ伴ަ׵͸௨ৗΑΓେ͖͍ͨΊӨڹΛਤΔͷ͕໨త
    w /*45ͷબߟ ޙड़
    ͕։࢝͞ΕΔ͠ɺ$ISPNFͷࢼݧ͕σϑΝΫτͳͬ
    ͯ͠·͏ͷΛආ͚ΔͨΊऴྃɻ೥݄ʙ೥݄
    w ઀ଓϨΠςϯγʔ͕਺ϛϦඵ஗͘ͳͬͨɻ஗͍઀ଓ΄ͲͦͷӨڹ͕͓
    େ͖͍͜ͱ͕൑໌ɻ
    IUUQTTFDVSJUZHPPHMFCMPHDPNFYQFSJNFOUJOHXJUIQPTURVBOUVNIUNM
    IUUQTXXXJNQFSJBMWJPMFUPSHDFDQRIUNM
    ࣌ؒͷؔ܎্εΩοϓ

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  64. /*45ʹΑΔ1PTU2VBOUVN
    $SZQUPHSBQIZ4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPO
    $PNQFUJUJPO ҰͭΛܾΊΔΘ͚
    Ͱ͸ͳ͍ɻෳ਺ΞϧΰϦζ
    Ϝͷ༏ྼͳͲධՁ͢Δ͜ͱʹͳΔɻ
    w Ԡื։࢝
    w ԠืకΊ੾Γ
    w ʙ೥෼ੳϑΣʔζ
    w ೥ޙ%SBGU4UBOEBSE͕׬੒
    IUUQTDTSDOJTUHPWQSPKFDUTQPTURVBOUVNDSZQUPHSBQIZ

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  65. ଱ྔࢠ҉߸ީิ
    ҉߸ํࣜ ར༻͍ͯ͠Δٕज़
    ϋογϡϕʔεॺ໊ ϫϯλΠϜϋογϡͷΈར༻
    ֨ࢠ҉߸ ࠷୹ϕΫτϧ୳ࠪ໰୊
    ίʔυϕʔε҉߸ ޡΓగਖ਼ූ߸ཧ࿦
    ଟม਺҉߸ ༗ݶମ্ͷଟม਺࿈ཱ࣍ํఔࣜ
    ಉछࣸ૾҉߸ ௒ಛҟପԁۂઢ

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  66. ҙࣝߴ͍ܥ্͔࢘Βͷ໰͍ʹඋ͑Δ
    ྔࢠήʔτํࣜʁ
    ྔࢠίϯϐϡʔλ͕Ͱ͖ΔΒ͍ͧ͠ɻ5-4௨৴͸Ͳ͏ͳΔΜͩʁ
    ਺ઍRVCJUҎ্ʁ
    ೥Ҏ಺ʁ
    :FT
    /P
    :FT
    :FT
    /P
    /P
    େৎ෉Ͱ͢ɻ%8BWF౳ͷྔࢠΞχʔϦϯάํࣜ͸
    ૊Έ߹Θͤ࠷దԽܭࢉʹಛԽͨ͠΋ͷͰ͢ɻ
    େৎ෉Ͱ͢ɻ34"͕·ͩഁΒΕͳ͍ఔ౓Ͱ͢ɻ
    େৎ෉Ͱ͢ɻ/*45ͷ଱ྔࢠ҉߸ඪ४͕ग़Δ·Ͱ଴ͪ
    ·͠ΐ͏ɻͨͩ͠೥Ҏ্อޢ͕ඞཁͳ5-4௨৴
    σʔλ͸कΕͳ͍Ͱ͢ɻ
    ͋͊ɺ͖͋ΒΊ·͠ΐ͏PS[

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  67. ύωϧσΟεΧογϣϯ
    ʙ8FCαʔόӡ༻ͷ؍఺Ͱʙ
    *OUFSOFU8FFL
    ೥݄೔
    େ௡ൟथ
    Ϡϑʔגࣜձࣾ
    ஌Βͳ͍ͱࠔΔʁʂೝূہͱ)5514ͷ࠷৽ٕज़ಈ޲

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  68. *&5'ޙͷ
    5-4ͷ࠷৽ಈ޲

    w ٕज़࢓༷͸ɺ΄΅֬ఆ
    w ్தͷNJEEMFCPY͕5-4Λ੾அ͢Δಁաੑͷ໰୊͕໌Β͔
    ʹɻ
    w (PPHMF.P[JMMB͕֤छύλʔϯΛࢼͯ͠ಁաੑΛ਺ϲ݄ଌఆ
    w 5-4ʹͦͬ͘Γʹ͢ΔΑ͏ ҙຯͷͳ͍
    σʔλΛ෇༩ͤ͞Δ
    ͱಁա཰͕޲্͢ΔݟࠐΈͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕Θ͔Δɻ
    w ࢓༷Λߋ৽ɺ࠶౓ଌఆ̏͠ճ໨ͷ-BTU$BMMʹɻ͜ΕͰຊ౰ʹ֬
    ఆ͢ΔݟࠐΈɻ

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  69. αʔόϓϩάϥϜ୲౰ऀʹ
    5-4Λ࢖͍͍ͨͱݴΘΕͨΒ
    w 5-4ಋೖϙΠϯτͷεϥΠυ ΞϓϦ։ൃऀ΍αʔό؅ཧऀ͕Կ
    ΛؾΛ͚ͭΕ͹͍͍ͷ͔ʁɺҠߦͷλΠϛϯάͳͲʣΛνΣοΫ
    w 5-4ͷ࢓༷Խޙ͸֤छϒϥ΢βͰ͙͢αϙʔτ༧ఆɻ0QFO44-
    ͷϦϦʔε΋5-4׬ྃ଴ͪɻ
    w /*45ΨΠυϥΠϯҊIUUQTDTSDOJTUHPWQVCMJDBUJPOTEFUBJM
    TQSFWESBGU
    w ೥݄೔·Ͱʹ5-4΁ͷҠߦΛٻΊΔɻ
    ࠓޙٸ଎ʹ5-4ͷීٴ͕ݟࠐ·ΕΔͷͰ֮ޛΛ

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  70. *&5'ޙͷ
    *&5'26*$ͷ࠷৽ಈ޲

    w ೥݄ͷجຊ࢓༷ͷࡦఆ׬ྃ༧ఆΛ೥݄ʹԆ
    ظ͢Δɻ
    w ࠓޙͷ*&5'26*$ͷόʔδϣϯΞοϓͰมΘΒͳ͍෦෼Λ
    ֬ఆͤ͞Δɻ
    w *&5'26*$W͸)551ରԠʹݶఆɻͨͩ͠কདྷతʹ)551
    Ҏ֎΋࢖͑Δ͜ͱ΋഑ྀ͢Δɻ
    w ϓϩτλΠϐϯά΍தؒձٞͰ΋ͬͱ࢓༷Խ࡞ۀΛ΋ͬͱ
    ͢͢ΊΔɻ

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  71. αʔόϓϩάϥϜ୲౰ऀʹ26*$
    Λ࢖͍͍ͨͱݴΘΕͨΒ
    w *&5'26*$ͱ(PPHMF26*$ͷҧ͍Θ͔ͬͯΔʁ
    w (PPHMF26*$͸Ἒͷಓ
    w *&5'26*$͸ࠓ·͞ʹ࢓༷Խ࡞ۀத

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  72. αʔόϓϩάϥϜ୲౰ऀ͔Βͷཁ๬උ͑Δ
    *&5'PS(PPHMFʁ
    26*$Λ࢖͍͍ͨ
    )551ʁ
    ೥݄Ҏલʁ
    *&5'
    (PPHMF
    :FT
    :FT
    /P
    /P
    *&5'26*$Wͷର৅ൣғ֎ͳͷͰ౰໘ແཧͰ͢ɻ
    ΍ΔͳΒࣗ෼ͰESBGUͱ࣮૷ॻ͍ͯఏҊ͠·͠ΐ͏ɻ
    26*$Wͷ࢓༷Խ͕׬ྃ͠ɺ֤छϒϥ΢βʔ΍044ɺ
    $%/αʔϏε͕ग़ͯ͘Δ·Ͱ଴ͪ·͠ΐ͏ɻ
    26*$8(ʹࢀՃͯ͠ϓϩτλΠϓΛ࡞Γ·͠ΐ͏ɻ
    $ISPNFͷ։ൃ͕׆ൃͰ26*$ͷόʔδϣϯΞοϓ͕
    ࣍ʑߦΘΕΔͷͰ௥ਵ͢Δͷ͕େมΑɻ

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  73. ࠓޙͲ͏ͳ͍ͬͯ͘ͷ͔

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  74. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    )5514FWFSZXIFSF࣌୅ͷεςʔΫϗϧμʔ
    )5514 SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ

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  75. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    $%/αʔϏε
    )5514FWFSZXIFSF
    XJUI$MPVE$%/࣌୅ͷεςʔΫϗϧμʔ
    )5514 SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    ίϯςϯπ
    "LBNBJ $MPVEqBSF
    'BTUMZ FUD

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  76. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    $%/αʔϏε
    )5514FWFSZXIFSF
    XJUI$MPVE$%/࣌୅ͷ"NB[POͷઓུ
    )5514 SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    ίϯςϯπ
    "84
    "NB[PO$FSUJpDBUF.BOBHFS
    "NB[PO5SVTU
    4FSWJDFT
    *P5
    SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ΫϥΠΞϯτূ໌ॻʁ

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  77. Ϣʔβʔʢ͓٬༷ʣ
    04ɾϒϥ΢βϕϯμʔ
    5-4ΫϥΠΞϯτ։ൃऀ
    ೝূہ
    $%/αʔϏε
    )5514FWFSZXIFSF
    XJUI$MPVE$%/࣌୅ͷ(PPHMFͷઓུ
    )5514 SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞఏڙ
    ࣦޮ֬ೝ
    ূ໌ॻఏڙ
    8FCαʔϏεఏڙऀ
    ίϯςϯπ
    (PPHMF$ISPNF
    ($1("&
    (PPHMF5SVTU
    4FSWJDFT
    *P5
    SPPUূ໌ॻ
    ΫϥΠΞϯτূ໌ॻʁ

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