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Real-Time APIs for Serverless and Beyond

Real-Time APIs for Serverless and Beyond

Mercure is a protocol allowing to push data updates to web browsers and other HTTP clients in a convenient, fast, reliable and battery-efficient way. It is especially useful to publish real-time updates of resources served through web APIs, to reactive web and mobile apps. The protocol is designed for serverless, HTTP/2+, hypermedia and GraphQL, and is fully-featured: auto-discoverable, authorization, re-connection, state reconciliation...

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Kévin Dunglas

July 16, 2019
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  1. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Real-Time APIs for Serverless and Beyond

  2. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Kévin Dunglas ❏ Founder of Les-Tilleuls.coop ❏

    Creator of Mercure, API Platform… ❏ Symfony Core Team @dunglas
  3. @dunglas - mercure.rocks API and cloud experts ✊ Self-managed, 100%

    employee-owned 40 people, 1,000% growth in 6 years contact@les-tilleuls.coop Les-Tilleuls.coop
  4. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Real-Time APIs?!

  5. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Mercure: Push from Server to Clients ❏

    Push notifications ❏ Synchronize connected devices in real-time ❏ Collaborative editing (Google Docs-like) ❏ Notify users when an async task has finished Modern and high level alternative to WebSocket
  6. @dunglas - mercure.rocks

  7. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Why a New Protocol?

  8. © Ilya Grigorik High Performance Browser Networking (O'Reilly)

  9. @dunglas - mercure.rocks WebSocket (RFC 6455) Benefits over SSE: ❏

    Full-duplex communication ❏ Low level: full control Drawbacks over SSE: ❏ Low level: no native ❏ auth ❏ re-connection ❏ state reconciliation ❏ events history ❏ Obsoleted by HTTP/2 & 3 ❏ Hard to secure
  10. @dunglas - mercure.rocks The Persistent Connections Problem ❏ WebSocket and

    SSE rely on persistent connections ❏ Serverless platforms (AWS Lambda, Cloud Run, Azure functions…), PHP, FastCGI…
 are designed for short-lived connections ❏ Persistent, long-lived, concurrent connections are better handled by
 dedicated and optimized software and hardware
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  12. @dunglas - mercure.rocks The Mercure Protocol

  13. @dunglas - mercure.rocks

  14. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Mercure, at a Glance ❏ Full-duplex, but

    plain old HTTP ❏ Publish: HTTP POST ❏ Subscribe: SSE ❏ Built-in: reconnection, retrieving of lost messages, history ❏ Auto-discoverable: designed for REST and GraphQL ❏ JWT-based authorization mechanism (private updates) ❏ Designed for serverless, PHP, FastCGI… ❏ End-2-End encryption support
  15. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Stream Events to Clients

  16. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Internet Draft: draft-dunglas-mercure

  17. None
  18. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Mercure and HTTP/2+

  19. @dunglas - mercure.rocks © Narayan Prusty What is Multiplexing in

    HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Multiplexing
  20. @dunglas - mercure.rocks HTTP/2 support: 92% of all users ...and

    SSEs also work with HTTP/1.x
  21. @dunglas - mercure.rocks SSE support: 93% of all users and

    there is a polyfill for IE 5.5+
  22. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Publishing

  23. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Publishing

  24. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Subscribing

  25. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Subscribing: Basic Usage

  26. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Subscribing: Several Topics

  27. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Subscribing: URI Templates

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  29. @dunglas - mercure.rocks The Discovery Mechanism

  30. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Discovery Mechanism Web Linking: RFC 5988

  31. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Authorization

  32. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Authorization ❏ Uses JSON Web Token (JWT

    - RFC 7519) ❏ An update can be intended for one or several targets ❏ Publisher: must be authenticated ❏ Subscriber: ❏ Can be anonymous (if allowed by the config) ❏ Must be authenticated to receive private updates ❏ Two transports: cookie and Authorization header
  33. @dunglas - mercure.rocks

  34. @dunglas - mercure.rocks The Mercure Hub

  35. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Reference Implementation ❏ Implements 100% of the

    Mercure protocol ❏ Fast, written in Go ❏ Works everywhere: static binaries and Docker ❏ Automatic HTTP/2 and HTTPS (Let’s Encrypt) ❏ CORS support, CSRF protection ❏ Cloud Native (12Factor App) ❏ Open source (AGPL) ❏ Optional: a server can implement directly the protocol
  36. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Reference Implementation https://mercure.rocks

  37. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Starting the Hub https://mercure.rocks

  38. @dunglas - mercure.rocks On a Kubernetes Cluster

  39. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Alternative Implementations ❏ No hubs: the hub

    is optional ❏ Go library (AGPL) ❏ Node.js library (GPL) ❏ HA version (managed and on premise)
 in private beta: dunglas@gmail.com
  40. @dunglas - mercure.rocks iGraal / Glory4Gamers Benchmarks ❏ Open Source

    version (EC2 t3.micro) ❏ 40k concurrent connections ❏ HA version (on premise) ❏ 200k concurrent connections
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  42. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Integrations

  43. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Integrations ❏ Official integrations: ❏ Symfony, API

    Platform ❏ Community integrations: ❏ Laravel ❏ Official examples: ❏ JS, Python, Go, Ruby, PHP
  44. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Example using
 API Platform & React

  45. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Create a Mercure-enabled Web API api-platform.com

  46. You get a fully-featured API supporting: ❏ JSON-LD + Hydra

    + schema.org ❏ GraphQL, JSON:API, HAL ❏ OpenAPI ❏ auth, pagination, filters, validation, HTTP/2 push, test framework… ❏ and Mercure support! MIT license
  47. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Scaffold Mercure-Enabled Clients api-platform.com

  48. @dunglas - mercure.rocks Try it! bit.ly/2H17hN3

  49. @dunglas - mercure.rocks

  50. @dunglas les-tilleuls.coop .rocks