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Cognitive (Im)plausibility of Large Language Models

tatsuki kuribayashi
March 19, 2024
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Cognitive (Im)plausibility of Large Language Models

Talk at CBS seminar in Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (2024/3/19)

tatsuki kuribayashi

March 19, 2024
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  1. Hello! • Tatsuki Kuribayashi • Postdoc in NLP department MBZUAI@Abu

    Dhabi • Rapidly growing international NLP team! (ranked 18th in the world in NLP; 14 faculties) • Ph.D. at Tohoku University, Japan • Check Tohoku NLP Group • Organizer of CMCL 2024@ALC 2024 (workshop on cognitive modeling and computational linguistics) • Emmanuele was the past organizer • Visited Hong Kong in EMNLP 2019! 2
  2. • Cognitive modeling w/ NLP techniques • Lower perplexity is

    not always human-like [Kuribayashi+,ACL2021] • Context limitations make neural language models more human-like [Kuribayash+,EMNLP2022] • Psychometric predictive power of large language models [Kuribayashi+,Findings NAACL2024] • Emeregent word order universals from cognitively-motivated language models [Kuribayashi+,arXiv] • Writing assistance • Human-machine collaborative writing tool [Ito+,EMNLP 2019 demo][Ito+,UIST2023] • Parsing argumentative texts [Kuribayashi+,ACL2019] • Model interpretability • Mechanistic understandings of Transformers [Kobayashi+,EMNLP2020][Kobayashi+,EMNLP2021][Kobayashi+,ICLR2024] • Japanese-focused research • Word-order preferences [Kuribayashi+,ACL2020] • Topicalization preferences [Fujihara+,COLING2022] • Ellipsis preferences [Ishiduki+,COLING2024] My research https://kuribayashi4.github.io/ 3 Linguistics NLP What is reading cost? What do humans compute during reading? of NLP models and humans ------
  3. Motivatin from artificial intelligence field • Going back to “artificial

    intelligence field” in dictionary [Shapiro, 2008] 4 1. Machine intelligence---…push outwards the frontier of what we know how to program on computers, especially in the direction of tasks that, although we don’t know how to program them, people can perform… progressed e.g., better machine translation, chatbot
  4. Motivatin from artificial intelligence field • Going back to “artificial

    intelligence field” in dictionary [Shapiro, 2008] 5 1. Machine intelligence---…push outwards the frontier of what we know how to program on computers, especially in the direction of tasks that, although we don’t know how to program them, people can perform… progressed progressed e.g., better machine translation, chatbot 2. Computational philosophy---…form a computational understanding of human- level intelligent behavior, without being restricted to the algorithms and data structures that the human mind actually does (or conceivably might) use... e.g., scaling Transformer LMs
  5. Motivatin from artificial intelligence field • Going back to “artificial

    intelligence field” in dictionary [Shapiro, 2008] 6 1. Machine intelligence---…push outwards the frontier of what we know how to program on computers, especially in the direction of tasks that, although we don’t know how to program them, people can perform… progressed progressed e.g., better machine translation, chatbot 2. Computational philosophy---…form a computational understanding of human- level intelligent behavior, without being restricted to the algorithms and data structures that the human mind actually does (or conceivably might) use... 3. Computational psychology---…understand human intelligent behavior by creating computer programs that behave in the same way that people do. For this goal it is important that the algorithm expressed by the program be the same algorithm that people actually use, and the data structure… often unstated, but pivotal goal e.g., scaling Transformer LMs (orthogonal merits to other approaches such as introspection e.g., ensuring objectivity, quantitativity…)
  6. Human sentence processing • Sentence processing (i.e., sentence comprehension, online

    reading) • What do humans compute during reading and how (ultimately, why)? • What model/metric can exaplin the word-by-word cogntive load? 7 If you were to journey to the North of England, … If you were to journey to the North of Cognitive load humans 𝒙=tokens 𝒚=reading behavior (typically token-by-token) 𝒚 = 𝑓! (𝒙)
  7. Reading behavior data (𝒙, 𝒚) • Self-paced reading time [Smith&Levy,13][Futrell,+18]…

    • Eye-tracking data [Kennedy+,03] [Luke&Christianson,18][Hollestein+,20]… • Longer reading time indicates heavier cogntive load 8 If you were to journey to the North of Reading time Simply referred as “reading time” in this talk Out of scope today Electrocorticography (ECoG) [Fedrorenko+,16]… Magnetoencephalography (MEG) [Brennan&Pylkkanen,17] Electroencephalogram (EEG) [Thornhill+,12][Frank+,13][Frank+,15][Hale+,18][Hollestein+,20][Michaelov+,23]… Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) [Whebe+,14][Blank+,14][Brennan+,16][Pereira+,18][Shain+,20][Schrimpf+,21]…
  8. Computational approach • Testing hypotheses via computaional simulation (implementation&evaluation) •

    i.e., exploring a computational model that simulates humans well 9 Measure. A Measure. B If you were to journey to the North of England, … Model 1 If you were to journey to the North of England, Reading time humans More similar Model 2 Humans would compute the measurement B in the way computes it Pred. Pred. what how
  9. What do humans compute?―Surprisal theory • Processing cost of a

    word is propotional to its surprisal [Levy,08][Smith&Levy,13][Shain+,22] • When a word is unpredictable from context, humans exhibit more cognitive loads • What=surprisal, how=? 10 Although my friends left the party I enjoyed Although my friends left the party continues to… My hobby is reading a book, and… My hobby is reading a music sheet, and… ❗ ❗ (NP/Z ambiguity) − log 𝑝(word|context) [Smith&Levy,13] surprisal surprisal (tentatively) Model A Model B Next-word prediction If you were to
  10. What models can compute human-like surprisals? • Probabilistic earley parser

    [Hale,01] • Linear/hierarchical model [Frank&Bob,11]… • Simple RNN vs. PCFG estimation • Lexicalized/unelxicalized surprisal [Fossum&Levy,12]… • PoS-based vs. token-based estimation • RNN?LSTM?Transformer? [Aurnhammer&Frank,19] [Wilcox+,20] [Merkx&Frank,21] • Simply accurate language models (LMs) are more human-like…? [Frank&Bob,11] [Fossum&Levy,12] [Goodkind&Bicknell,18] 11 [Goodkind&Bicknell,18] A model trained to predict the next word given a context Paris is the capital of ___ France Algeria Morocco Haiti [Merkx&Frank,21] better Next-word prediction accuracy better
  11. Accurate next-word preditcion ∝ cognitively plausibility? • Large (>GPT2-small) LMs

    poorly explain human reading behavior • Language-dependent results (scaling does not appear in Japanese) [Kuribayashi+,21] • Even in English, way large LMs (e.g., OPT, GPT2-Neo, GPT-3) are less human-like [Oh&Schler,23][Shain+,23] • Probably, superhuman prediction ability of LMs (i.e., human expectation is noisy) 12 💡Scaling does hold cross-lingually at least when using a small (6layers) Transformer and varying the training data size [Wilcox+,23] [Kuribayashi+,21] [Oh&Schler,23] Better PPL Less human-like Better PPL Less human-like How accurate the LM’s prediction is How well surprisal explains human reading behavior
  12. Exploring “human-likeness” through filling the LM-human gaps Actively explored: •

    Superhuman prediction in specific words (named entity [Oh&Schler,23], low-frequent words [Oh+,24]) • Superhuman context-access of LMs? [Futrell+,20][Kuribayashi+,22] • Cognitive plausibility of LM tokenization? [Nair&Resnik,23] • Contaminatin of reading time corpus? [Wilcox+,23] • Need for re-analysis (slow, syntactic) system? [van Schijndel&Linzen,21][Wilcox+,21][Huang+,24] 13 humans LMs Diff = distinctiveness of human langauge processing How can one close LMs to humans? AI-alignment problem Orthogonal/related theories (will give a hint?) - Dependency locality theory (DLT) [Gibson,98] - Long dependency incurs more costs - Lossy-context surprisal [Futrell+,20][Kuribayashi+,22] - Anti-locality theory [Konieczny,00] - Cue-based retrieval theory [Lewis+,06] - Direct retrieval of context information during reading - Connection to Transformer architecture [Merkx&Frank,21]
  13. Psychometric predictive power of large language models [Kuribayashi+,24] • More

    exploring human-LLM gaps in sentence processing (with some curiosities) • Do instruction-tuned LMs offer human-like surprisals? • Do some prompts alleviate this gap? • Is a particular LLM family more human-like? • No evidence these advancement (or specific modern LMs) provide better measuremts for cognitive modeling than bare probability from base LMs • Human expectation-based reading seems to be simply tuned to corpus statistics • Kind of position paper towards AI-human alignment • Stimulate (typically engineering-oriented, young) LLM community to have interests to cognitive modeling 14 (within our experiments) humans LLMs AI-alignment problem
  14. Experiment 1: instruction tuning • Does instruction tuning of LMs

    improve the fit of their surprisal to human reading behavior? • Yes probably because • Human readres predict upcoming texts generally preferred by humans (e.g., less hallucination) • No probably because • Human reading is just tuned to corpus statistics (surprisal, frequency); additional tuning may collapse the LMs’ next-word distribution • Instruction-tuning objective is to create a superhuman chatbot, not aligned with the goal of cognitive modeling 15 Which is likely? Surprisal Surprisal Base LMs Instruction-tuned LMs https://openai.com/research/instruction-following
  15. Experimental setting • Explain reading time with surprisal and baseline

    factors • Metrics • Increase in loglikelihood (model fit; psychometric predictive power; PPP) between the regression models with and without the surprisal factor • 2 corpora • Dundee corpus: eye-tracking (first-pass gaze duration) [Kennedy,+03] • Natural Stories corpus: self-paced reading [Futrell,+18] • 3 measurements • Surprisal, shannon entropy, and renyi rentropy (α=0.5) [Wilcox+,23][Liu+,23] • 26 models • GPT2 (177M-1.5B), OPT (125M-66B), GPT3 (bebbage-002, davinci-002), GPT-3.5 (text-davinci-002/003), Llama-2 (7-70B), Llama-2-instruct (7B-70B), Falcon (7B, 40B), Falcon-instruct (7B, 40B) 16 Reading_time (word) ~ surprisal (word) + baseline_factors(word) Word frequency and length of t, t-1, and t-2 tokens [Wilcox+,23]
  16. Experiment 1: instruction tuning results • Instrucion tuning frequently hurt

    the PPP (not always, though) • No clear trends of specific LLM family having a high PPP 17 No evidence for the positive effects of instruction tuning in cog. modeling information-theoretic values using intra-sentential context since we are interested in sentence-level syntactic processing in this study. 2.2 Experimental settings Models: We examined 26 LLMs as candidate models ✓ to compute information-theoretic val- ues: four GPT-2 (Radford et al., 2019), four GPT- 3/3.5 (Ouyang et al., 2022)5, six LLaMA-2 (Tou- vron et al., 2023), four Falcon (Almazrouei et al., 2023), and eight OPT (Zhang et al., 2022) models with different sizes and instruction tuning settings (see Appendix A for details). Among them, two GPT-3.5, two LLaMA-2, and two Falcon models were fine-tuned with instruction tuning (models with X in the “IT” column in Table 1 are IT-LLMs), and the others are “base LLMs.” Entropy metrics are omitted from the GPT-3/3.5 results since their APIs do not provide the probability distribution across their entire vocabulary. Data: We use the Dundee Corpus (DC) (Kennedy et al., 2003) and Natural Stories Corpus (NS) (Futrell et al., 2018) for reading time data.6 3 Experiment 1: PPP of LLMs We first observe the PPP of base LLMs (§3.1) and then analyze the PPP of IT-LLMs (§3.2). We ex- plore prompting in §4 and §5. DC NS Model IT h " H "H0.5 " PPL # h " H "H0.5 " PPL # GPT-2 177M 15.2312.32 15.55209.3715.6110.20 18.19 93.81 GPT-2 355M 9.6311.20 15.37222.1713.62 8.91 16.96 75.67 GPT-2 774M 10.98 9.66 14.79165.8112.04 7.01 14.52 66.87 GPT-2 1.5B 10.18 - 14.15158.7510.94 6.99 14.69 65.14 GPT-3 B2 12.47 - -108.7710.58 - - 57.91 GPT-3 D2 9.93 - - 79.65 6.45 - - 44.79 GPT-3.5 D2 X 9.35 - - 72.95 5.30 - - 38.23 GPT-3.5 D3 X 8.91 - - 84.17 5.83 - - 44.38 LLaMA-2 7B 10.33 8.58 13.45 76.40 6.41 3.06 9.97 45.21 LLaMA-2 7B X 8.97 5.57 12.03153.46 7.07 2.42 8.33 63.74 LLaMA-2 13B 9.44 8.04 13.77 75.28 5.44 2.44 9.23 41.62 LLaMA-2 13BX 9.13 5.30 11.97123.35 5.93 1.99 7.53 56.05 LLaMA-2 70B 8.21 5.14 10.47 78.28 4.51 1.80 6.79 37.61 LLaMA-2 70BX 8.67 4.53 10.67112.07 5.60 1.75 7.34 52.05 Falcon 7B 9.08 7.75 11.81 97.86 7.61 3.95 12.17 49.64 Falcon 7B X11.18 8.57 12.31131.53 8.54 4.38 12.63 62.99 Falcon 40B 8.53 6.93 10.99 77.72 5.35 2.41 9.36 41.46 Falcon 40B X 9.06 6.76 10.43 92.53 5.49 2.89 8.49 47.27 OPT 125M 15.6513.72 17.18231.8015.5412.27 19.41109.11 OPT 350M 14.8111.89 16.07196.0214.8610.35 18.11 94.51 OPT 1.3B 10.5110.16 15.55160.9511.81 7.43 16.53 67.59 OPT 2.7B 9.52 9.65 14.38150.7811.66 6.60 15.51 63.98 OPT 6.7B 9.43 9.06 13.63130.01 9.59 5.56 13.64 57.86 OPT 13B 9.06 8.57 13.15130.44 9.51 4.96 12.84 56.74 OPT 30B 9.62 8.58 13.17119.42 8.55 4.16 10.39 54.91 OPT 66B 10.30 7.42 12.73 94.15 7.78 4.33 11.92 49.11 Table 1: The PPL and PPP scores of tested LMs. The “IT” column denotes whether the instruction tuning is applied. The columns h, H, and H0.5 indicate surprisal, Shannon entropy, and Rényi entropy (↵ = 0.5) settings, respectively. The colors of cells for instruction tuning indicate if the PPP increased or decreased compared to its non-instruction-tuned version (GPT-3.5 models are compared to GPT-3s).
  17. Experiment 1: results • Instruction-tuned models can not balance the

    PPL and PPP • Replicated the inverse PPL-PPP scaling • Instruction-tuned LLMs are always below the PPL—PPP trade-off line in base models 18 Dundee Corpus Natural Stories Corpus LLaMA-2 Falcon GPT-3/3.5 OPT Model family Instruction-tuning Model size Tuned (IT) Not-tuned (Base) smaller larger GPT-2 worse better better worse Figure 2: The relationship between PPL and PPP (see exact scores in Table 1). Each point corresponds to each LM, and those with a black edge line are IT-LLMs. The regression line is estimated by base LLMs, and the colored area presents a 95% confidence interval. IT-LLMs were relatively poor (below the line) at balancing PPL and PPP. Better PPL Less human-like
  18. Experiment 2: prompting • How is human sentence processing biased?

    • What kind of prompts fill the LM-human gap? 19 RT∝− log 𝑝(word|context, human_bias) RT∝− log 𝑝(word|context, prompt) insights humans Instruction-tuned LMs How can we close LMs to humans? Generate a grammatically simple sentence Prompt-conditioned surprisal [Brown+20]
  19. Experiment 2: prompting 20 Please complete the following sentence to

    make it as grammatically simple as possible: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence with a careful on grammar: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence to make it as grammatically complex as possible: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence using the simplest vocabulary possible: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence with a careful focus on word choice: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence using the most difficult vocabulary possible: 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence in a human-like manner. It has been reported that human ability to predict next words is weaker than language models and that humans often make noisy predictions, such as careless grammatical errors. 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" Please complete the following sentence. We are trying to reproduce human reading times with the word prediction probabilities you calculate, so please predict the next word like a human. It has been reported that human ability to predict next words is weaker than language models and that humans often make noisy predictions, such as careless grammatical errors. 𝑤! , 𝑤" … , 𝑤#$" RT∝− log 𝑝(word|context, prompt) Grammar (syntax) Vocabulary Task-oriented
  20. Preliminary analysis: prompting • Does prompting properly bias the generation?

    21 Dependency length Sentence length Word frequency ---at least within our observation, yes
  21. Experiment 2: prompting • Particular prompts improve the fit to

    reading time • Mentioning about grammar and/or simplicity 22 DC NS ID Prompt h " H " H0.5 " h " H " H0.5 " 1 Please complete the following sentence to make it as grammatically simple as possible:\n w0, · · · , wt 1 8.23 7.46 12.26 6.55 2.62 8.26 2 Please complete the following sentence with a careful focus on grammar: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 8.24 7.19 11.99 6.20 2.99 8.72 3 Please complete the following sentence to make it as grammatically complex as possible: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 7.77 6.99 11.74 5.66 2.54 7.75 4 Please complete the following sentence using the simplest vocabulary possible: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 7.82 7.48 12.15 5.70 3.11 8.90 5 Please complete the following sentence with a careful focus on word choice: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 7.87 6.86 11.50 6.06 2.94 8.60 6 Please complete the following sentence using the most difficult vocabulary possible: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 7.31 6.71 11.38 4.73 2.43 7.57 7 Please complete the following sentence in a human-like manner. It has been reported that human ability to predict next words is weaker than language models and that humans often make noisy predictions, such as careless grammatical errors.\n w0, · · · , wt 1 7.86 7.30 12.34 4.60 3.03 8.78 8 Please complete the following sentence. We are trying to reproduce human reading times with the word prediction probabilities you calculate, so please predict the next word like a human. It has been reported that human ability to predict next words is weaker than language models and that humans often make noisy predictions, such as careless grammatical errors.\n w0, · · · , wt 1 8.17 7.36 12.42 4.83 3.11 8.73 9 Please complete the following sentence: \n w0, · · · , wt 1 8.34 7.12 11.88 5.77 3.01 8.74 10 w/o prompting 9.32 6.15 11.48 6.25 2.69 8.86 Table 2: The PPP scores when using each prompt for different LLMs (the highest scores other than baseline ones for each corpus/metric are in boldface). Scores are averaged across the seven IT-LLMs. The columns h, H, and H0.5 indicate surprisal, Shannon entropy, and Rényi entropy (↵ = 0.5) settings, respectively. Grammar (syntax) Vocabulary Task-oriented simplicity simplicity (consistent with theories such as good-enough processing) Averaged PPPs
  22. LLaMA-2 Falcon GPT-3/3.5 OPT Model family Instruction-tuning Model size Tuned

    (IT) Not-tuned (Base) smaller larger Tuned&Prompt Dundee Corpus Natural Stories Corpus GPT-2 worse better better worse Experiment 2: prompting • Prompt-conditioned surprisal (red-lined) can not outperform base LLMs with a similar PPL 23
  23. Experiment 3: meta-linguistic prompting Hey LLMs, tell me the reading

    time/suprisal of this word in this sentence 24 (this may not work, though…) Suppose humans read the following sentence: "’No, it’s fine. I love it,’ said Lucy knowing that affording the phone had been no small thing for her mother." List the tokens and their IDs in order of their reading cost (high to low) during sentence processing. Token ID: 0: ’No„ 1: it’s, 2: fine., 3: I, 4: love, 5: it,’, 6: said, 7: Lucy, 8: knowing, 9: that, 10: affording, 11: the, 12: phone, 13: had, 14: been, 15: no, 16: small, 17: thing, 18: for, 19: her, 20: mother., Answer: 20: mother., 10: affording, 6: said, 11: the, 0: ’No„ 7: Lucy, 1: it’s, 9: that, 17: thing, 5: it,’, 2: fine., 15: no, 14: been, 3: I, 13: had, 8: knowing, 12: phone, 19: her, 16: small, 4: love, 18: for, Suppose humans read the following sentence: "A clear and joyous day it was and out on the wide open sea, thousands upon thousands of sparkling water drops, excited by getting to play in the ocean, danced all around." List the tokens and their IDs in order of their reading cost (high to low) during sentence processing. Token ID: 0: A, 1: clear, 2: and, 3: joyous, 4: day, 5: it, 6: was, 7: and, 8: out, 9: on, 10: the, 11: wide, 12: open, 13: sea„ 14: thousands, 15: 3-shot setting … [Hu&Levy,23] Simplified as a token-sorting problem in the order of their processing costs 1-shot
  24. Experiment 3: meta-linguistic prompting • Results: no correlation between model’s

    prediction and actual reading time • Spearman’s r • Even only using the first-three tokens listed by the models yielded no correlation 25 Method (simplified prompts) Model DC " NS " Suppose humans read the following sentence: [SENT]. List the tokens in order of their reading cost (high to low) during sentence processing. LLaMA-2 7B 0.09±0.02 -0.04±0.06 LLaMA-2 13B 0.06±0.02 -0.03±0.06 Falcon 7B 0.12±0.01 0.01±0.09 Falcon 40B 0.03±0.04 -0.03±0.11 GPT3.5 D2 0.05±0.03 0.05±0.03 GPT3.5 D3 0.08±0.03 0.03±0.02 Suppose you read the following sentence: [SENT]. List the tokens in order of their probability in context (low to high). LLaMA-2 7B 0.05±0.06 0.00±0.02 LLaMA-2 13B 0.04±0.03 0.06±0.04 Falcon 7B 0.08±0.05 0.05±0.02 Falcon 40B 0.02±0.07 0.13±0.10 GPT3.5 D2 0.03±0.00 0.02±0.00 GPT3.5 D3 -0.01±0.02 0.06±0.03 Surprisal-based estimation LLaMa-2 7B 0.28 0.19 LLaMa-2 13B 0.27 0.19 Falcon 7B 0.32 0.18 Falcon 40B 0.28 0.17 GPT3.5 D2 0.28 0.16 GPT3.5 D3 0.25 0.17 Table 3: Rank correlations between estimated cognitive load and reading time of words. body o of IT-L human Promp in LL paradi LLMs et al., 2 guš et 2023). ability promp and Le ically ancy t tinctio lem is
  25. Experiment 3: meta-linguistic prompting Hey LLMs, tell me the surprisal

    of this word in this sentence Analysis: weak correlation between generated and their actual surprisals • Lack of meta-cognition of their own surprisal 26 Surprisal-based estimation LLaMa-2 13B 0.27 0.19 Falcon 7B 0.32 0.18 Falcon 40B 0.28 0.17 GPT3.5 D2 0.28 0.16 GPT3.5 D3 0.25 0.17 Table 3: Rank correlations between estimated cognitive load and reading time of words. Model DC " NS " LLaMA-2 7B 0.12±0.13 0.15±0.08 LLaMA-2 13B 0.02±0.10 0.06±0.07 Falcon 7B 0.15±0.08 0.30±0.09 Falcon 40B 0.09±0.09 0.17±0.00 GPT3.5 D2 0.15±0.02 0.22±0.07 GPT3.5 D3 0.18±0.05 0.24±0.02 Table 4: Rank correlations between the word probability (rank) estimated by the prompt and the actual surprisal values computed by the corresponding model. about word probability is again not an accurate measure of actual surprisal.
  26. Summary • Current advancement of LLMs does not offer a

    better measurements for cognitive modeling than simple bare word probability • Human-AI alignment has been argued, but the perspective of cognitive modeling was overlooked • Cognitive plausibility of direct probability measurement by base LM has been supported • Humans seem to be simply tuned to lanaguge statistics in corpus • At least within our experiments (naturallistic reading) 27 In other words (accumulated linguistic exposures)
  27. Open questions • What is additionally needed to fill the

    gap between accurate surprisal and human reading behavior? • What type of instruction-tuning affects which words’ surprisal? • Is this gap truly from the inherent limitations of surprisal theory+LLMs or perhaps from some technical issues? (e.g., tokenization) • Representational alignment vs. behavioral alignment [Aw+,23] 28 Let’s explore the intersection of NLP and cognitive modeling
  28. CMCL 2024 • CMCL 2024 will be co-located with the

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2024). • The research interests/questions include, but are not limited to: • Human-like language acquisition/learning: How is language acquisition of language models (LMs) (dis)similar to humans, and why? • Contrasting/aligning NLP models with human behavior data: What do humans compute during language comprehension/production, and how/why? • Linguistic probing of NLP models: How well do current language models understand/represent/generalize language behaviorally/internally? • Linguistically-motivated data modeling/analysis: How can one quantify a particular aspect of language? • Emergent communication/language: What are the sufficient conditions for the emergence of language? • Important Dates • May 17, 2024: Paper submission/commitment deadline (cf. May 15, 2024: notification of ACL 2024) • June 17, 2024: Notification of acceptance • July 1, 2024: Camera-ready paper due • August 15, 2024: Workshop dates Deadlines are at 11:59 pm AOE 29 https://cmclorg.github.io/
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