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Roman Architecture

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March 05, 2013

Roman Architecture



March 05, 2013


  1. Roman  Art:  Architecture   Reading:   Stokstad,  170-­‐204    

    Range:   200  BCE-­‐400  CE   Roman  Republican,  Roman  Imperial     Terms/Concepts:   axial,  aqueduct,  arch,  arcade,  vault,   keystone,  barrel  vault,  groin  vault,   voussoirs,  spandrels,  engaged   column,  doric,  ionic,  corinthian,   acanthus,  basilica,  calderium,   frigidarium,  tepidarium,  bread  and   circuses,  palaestra.   Monument  List:     6-­‐18,  Temple,  perhaps  dedicated   to  Portunus.  Roman  Republic,   Late  second  century  BCE.       6-­‐17,  Pont  du  Gard,  Nîmes   (France).    Imperial  Roman,  Late   first  century  BCE.       6-­‐39,  Flavian  Amphitheater  (the   Coliseum).  Imperial  Roman,  70-­‐80   CE.       6-­‐43,  Apollodorus  of  Damascus.     Forum  of  Trajan,  Imperial  Roman,   c.  112  CE.     6-­‐60,  Baths  of  Caracalla,  Rome,   Imperial  Roman,  c.211  CE.    
  2. ★Rome is known fundamentally as an urban civilization Model  of

     the  City  of  Imperial  Rome  
  3. None
  4. Seen from rear.

  5. None
  6. None
  7. None
  8. Nîmes

  9. •   Aqueduct:  An  arZficial  channel  for  transporZng  water  from  a

     distant  source   Water  
  10. 100  gallons  per  person   30  Miles  North   Channel

     would  have  been  covered  to  prevent   heaZng  and  contaminaZon  
  11. None
  12. Scaffolding  used  for   construcZon  and  repair.  

  13. •  Voussoir: A wedge- shaped block used in the construction

    of an arch •  The central voussoir is the keystone
  14. The  distribuZon  of  weight  on  an  arcade.  

  15. Titus    79-­‐80  CE   Vespasian    69-­‐79  CE  

  16. “Nero  fiddled  while  Rome  burned”  

  17. None
  18. Doric Ionic Corinthian Engaged columns ★Engaged  columns  only  give  the

     impression  of   support.    The  arcades  could  support  themselves.  
  19. Extensive  quarrying  of  the  façade.    

  20. Diagram of an arch Diagram of a barrel vault

  21. Barrel  Vault   Diagram  of  Barrel  Vault  

  22. Diagram of a barrel vault Diagram of a groin vault

    Groin  vaults  are  two  crossed  barrel  vaults.  
  23. Groin  Vault   Diagram  of  a  Groin  Vault  

  24. None
  25. Inaugural festivities by Emperor Titus: 100 days, in which 9,000

    animals and 2,000 gladiators were killed.
  26. None
  27. None
  28. Musicians  and  Costumed  Performers  

  29. Gladiator  vs.  Gladiator  

  30. Gladiator  vs.  Beast  

  31. Beast  vs.  Beast  

  32. ★ 80  exits  to  accommodate  50,000  spectators    

  33. Trajan    98-­‐117  CE   Dacia   Rome  

  34. Forum  of  Trajan  

  35. Temple  to  the  Divine  Trajan   Column  of  Trajan  

    Libraries   Basilica  Ulpia   M    a    r    k    e    t    s   Longitudinal  Axis  
  36. None
  37. None
  38. None
  39. *Merchants’  Stalls   *Taverns/Food  Stalls   *Communal  Space  

  40. None
  41. None
  42. Hadrian    117-­‐138  CE    

  43. ★ Temple dedicated to all the gods (pan=all and theion=gods)

    pediment porch   dome   cylindrical     drum  
  44. Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus. In the Cattle Market, Rome.

    Late second century BCE.
  45. Oculus   Coffer   ★ 143 feet ★60  feet  

    ★  20  feet  
  46. ★Niches  once  held  the  statues  of  gods,  but  were  replaced

      by  saints    in  609  by  Pope  Boniface  IV.  
  47. Caracalla  c. 211-217 CE

  48. None
  49. None
  50. None
  51. None
  52. None
  53. None
  54. CriZcal  Thinking  QuesZons   1.  What  is  the  importance  of

     construcZon  to   Roman  emperorship  and  empire-­‐building?   2.  What  were  some  of  the  major  structural  and   material  innovaZons  of  Roman  engineers?   3.  What  are  some  key  differences  between   Roman  temples  and  Greek  temples?   4.  What  does  the  term  “bread  and  circuses”   mean?    How  does  this  connect  to   architecture?