Romanesque and Gothic Architecture

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November 08, 2013

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture

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November 08, 2013
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  1. Romanesque  and  Gothic  Architecture   Reading:   Nigel  Spivey,  “Seeing

     the  Invisible”  pp.   201-­‐210,  225-­‐244.       Range:   1000-­‐1400   Romanesque,  Gothic     Terms/Concepts:   MonasGcism,  BenedicGne,  Cistercian,   barrel  vault,  groin  vault,  oblates,  novices,   postulants,  cloister,  historiated  column,   trumeau,  tympanum,  jambs,  pier   buKress,  flying  buKress,  scholasGcism,   jambs,  sedes  sapienGae,  seven  liberal   arts,  tree  of  Jesse,       Monument  List:     Cluny  Plan,  France,  1088-­‐1130.     Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.   1115.     Cistercian  Abbey  at  Fontenay,   France,  1139-­‐1147.     Façade,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.     Chartres  Cathedral,  France,   1140-­‐1144,  1194-­‐1220.  
  2. 2 Art and Trade border of Holy Roman Empire, c.1095

    sources of: silver copper iron lead tin trade centre for Viking sculpture (wood/stone/bone) and metalwork centres of metalwork centres of alabaster centres of ivory-working export of alabaster trade route Cu Pb 109 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Pb Pb Cu Cu Cu Limerick Cork Dublin Wexford York Durham Cammin (Kamien) Gdansk ´ ´ Lund Vejrum Lade Urnes Borbjerg Trondheim Lincoln Norwich King’s Lynn Hull London Paderborn Utrecht Hamburg Bruges Paris Tours Vienna Florence Venice Barcelona Perpignan Gerona Valencia Palma Toledo Seville Lisbon Cartagena Zurich Naples Rome Basle Milan Pavia Genoa Siena Pisa Avignon Limoges Bordeaux Fuenterrabia Aviles Morella Nantes Ecaquelon Kermaria Chatelaudren Roscoff Cologne Toulouse Montpellier Santiago de Compostela Burgos Zamora Silos Palermo Messina Catania Otok Prague Buda Kiev Novgorod Waterford Winchester Tutbury Dartmouth Bristol St Albans Poole Evreux Southampton Wolin Zuchau Gross-Grönau Ribe Kaupang Oseberg Flatalunga Dorestad Sigtuna Po Danube Dnieper Dvina Volga Rhône Loire Sein e E lbe Od er Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BAY O F B I S C AY BALT IC SEA B L A C K S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA PYRENEES A L P S HARZ MTS SICILY CORSICA SARDINIA NORWAY ICELAND SWEDEN POLAND ENGLAND FRANCE NORMANDY SCOTLAND IRISH KINGDOMS WELSH PRINCIPALITIES HUNGARY KINGDOM OF ITALY BYZANTINE EMPIRE KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF GERMANY DENMARK S E L J U K E M P I R E S FIN N O -U G RIA N S T U R K I C P E O P L E S carved wood carved wood N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms 2 THE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS was essential for art production. In Germany and in England, local stone was in good supply and was a perfect source for buildings and sculpture, while in Scandinavia patrons and artists exploited the rich timber resources. Rare materials like alabaster and metal were exploited at source and then exported to other regions. Trade, a crucial factor in the growing European economy, fuelled the arts. In turn, trade routes contributed to the dispersal of craftsmen and their methods. their newly found positions of power by patronizing the arts. They constructed castles cathedrals. The monasteries that dotted the landscape were also important centres of much of the intellectual creativity was concentrated on devotional subjects.
  3. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  4. Saint-­‐MarGn-­‐du-­‐Canigou,  French  Pyrenees,   1001-­‐1026.  

  5. Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.     ★

    The  Romans  were  known  for  their   advancements  in  arch  and  vault  technology.  
  6. Groin  Vault   Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Interior   Vaults,  Rome,

     72-­‐80  BCE.     ★ Roman  vaults  were  typically  made  with   concrete,  which  is  lighter  and  easier  to   form  than  stone.  
  7. ★  The  knowledge  to  make  concrete  was  lost  to  

    Medieval  Europe.   Saint-­‐MarGn-­‐du-­‐Canigou,  French  Pyrenees,   1001-­‐1026.   Groin  Vault  
  8. 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ Toulouse Périgueux Aniane Narbonne Lérins Gerona

    Poitiers Saintes St Maixent Vienne Chalon Arles Gellone Urgel Liebana Bordeaux Aix-en-Provence London Paris Fleury Milan Bobbio Monza Ratisbon Freising Mondsee Salzburg St Gall Chur Müstair Constance Verona Venice Aquileia Ravenna Lucca Nonantola Rome Monte Cassino Farfa Naples Lyon Barcelona 25 Utrecht York Cividale Lorsch Strasbourg Jarrow Whitby Bangor Nendrum Monasterboice Glendalough Clonard St Mullin’s Lindisfarne Monkwearmouth Jouarre Echternach Reims Dol Corbie Aachen Cologne Stavelot 1 2 3 9 10 8 22 14 11 12 4 Murbach 5 6 7 16 Flavigny 18 21 19 17 15 13 24 Metz Trier Lobbes Laon 20 Essen Nivelles Péronne St Vaast d’Arras 23 Basle Reichenau Dijon Luxeuil Disentis Augsburg St Wandrille Léhon Redon Le Mans Nantes Noirmoutier St Philibert-de-Grand-Lieu Landévennec Jumieges St Bertin Liège Osnabrück Münster Bremen Hamburg Verden Minden Gandersheim Hersfeld Fulda Mainz Würzburg Amorbach Melrose Ruthwell Ripon Iona Clonmacnoise Armagh Malmesbury St Denis Orléans Tours Benevento San Vincenzo Salerno Vivarium Pavia Canterbury Langres Bourges Rhône Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA A D R I A T I C S E A BA L T I C S E A A L P S PYRE N E E S B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY 2 Monasteries, Writing Centres and Artistic Work Carolingian schools/scriptoria/literary centres important monasteries founded 4th-7th century monasteries founded 6th-9th century probable centres of manuscript illumination distribution of objects decorated in the Tassilo chalice style N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1. Prüm 2. Weissenburg 3. Faremoutiers 4. Troyes 5. Chiemsee 6. Tegernsee 7. Benediktbeuern 8. St Amand 9. Meaux 10. Amiens 11. Whithorn 12. Hexham 13. Sens 14. Chelles 15. Auxerre 16. Autun 17. St Germigny-des-Prés 18. Ferrières 19. Nevers 20. Maastricht 21. St Germain-des-Prés 22. Rouen 23. St Riquier 24. Hauvillers 25. Werden 2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local with the support of local aristocraci also by missionaries, often coming f Isles. A few were large and wealthy, many small and poor ones required implements of valued materials and along with reliquaries and books. A engaged in production, but all prov for artistic works. similarly incorporated in liturgica luxury bookbindings. The Roman tradition survived and through Christianity, Rome b contemporaries not the city of Ca Augustus but of saints Peter and great churches built in late Antiq Constantine and his followers co use, but during this period only o building was converted for Christ Hadrian’s domed Pantheon was r S. Maria ad Martyres in 609. In a f new phenomenon, large painted panels representing Christ or his created and displayed in many ch sometimes carried in processions city, for example the so-called Ch kept in the Lateran chapel of the Sanctorum (‘the Holy of Holies’) at least the end of the eighth cen Greco-Roman civilization was culture in which books played a l their role was both altered and in through the emergence and trium Christianity and Islam (establishe the 8th century). Each of them ha book at its core and both develop of decorated book commonly refe ‘illuminated’. Even in late Antiquit MonasGcism:  1000-­‐1200   •  Extensive  Reforms   around  the   BenedicGne  Order.   •  New  Orders  Formed   •  Thousands  of   buildings  built  and   remodeled.  
  9. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  10. Cluny  Plan   Cluny  Plan,  France,  1088-­‐1130.  

  11. Cluny  ReconstrucGon,  France,  1088-­‐1130.  

  12. Restored  View  of  the  third  abbey  church  (Cluny  III),  Cluny,

      France,  1088-­‐1130.  
  13. Cluny  Nave,   ReconstrucGon,   France,  1088-­‐1130.  

  14. None
  15. Cluny  Today  Archaeological  Park,  2010.    

  16. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  17. Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.  

  18. South  Portal,  Priory  Church,  Moissac,   France,  c.  1115.  

  19. Diagram of Romanesque portal. Tympanum   South portal of Saint-Pierre.

    Moissac, France. c.1115.
  20. Christ in Majesty, South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115.

    MaKhew   Mark   Luke   John   Twenty-­‐Four  Elders  
  21. Trumeau   South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115.

  22. Trumeau, South Portal Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or

    Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23) Trumeau, South Portal, Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115.
  23. Trumeau, South Portal, Lions (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre,

    Moissac, France, c.1115
  24. South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115-1135.

  25. Vices/Lazarus,  Porch,  South   Portal,  Priory  Church  at   Moissac,

     France,  c.  1115.    
  26. Lazarus  and  Dives,  Porch,  South  Portal,   Priory  Church  at

     Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.           Dives         Lazarus  the  Leper     Soul     Soul  
  27. Death   of  a   Miser   Torment  of  

    Avarice   Torment   of  Lust   Scene  of   Torment  
  28. Historiated  Column   Cloister,  Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.  

    1115.  
  29. Cloister  Relief   “Dove  Capital,”  Cloister,  Moissac,  France,  c.  

    1115.  
  30. The  Followers  of  Jesus,  Historiated  Capital,   Cloister,  Moissac,  France,

     c.  1115.   “Monsters”  
  31. Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,

     France,  c.  1115.   Lions’  Heads   Griffons  aKacking  lions  
  32. Purse  Cover,  SuKon  Hoo,  England,  7th  century  CE.   Historiated

     Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,  Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.   1100-­‐1115.  
  33. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  34. Cistercian  Abbey  at  Fontenay,  France,   1139-­‐1147.  

  35. Fontenay  Abbey,  Plan,  France,  1139-­‐1147.    

  36. Portal,  Fontenay  Abbey   Portal,  Priory  Church,  Moissac   Façade,

     Fontenay  Abbey,  France,   1139-­‐1147.  
  37. “immoderate  height  of  [Cluniac]  churches…their   immoderate  length,  their  excessive

     width,   sumptuous  decoraGon  and  finely  executed   pictures,  which  divert  the  aKenGon  of  those   who  are  praying.”     –  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Apologia.     Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,   France,  1139-­‐1147.   Nave,  Monastery  at  Cluny,   France,  1088-­‐1130.  
  38. Capital  Detail   Capital  Detail   Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,  

    France,  1139-­‐1147   Cloister,  Priory  Church,   Moissac,    
  39. “What  profit  is  there  in  those  ridiculous  monsters,  in  

    that  marvelous  and  deformed  comeliness,  that   comely  deformity?...So  many  and  so  marvelous  are   the  varieGes  of  divers  shapes  on  every  hand  that  we   are  more  tempted  to  read  in  the  marble  than  in  our   books,  and  spend  the  whole  day  in  wondering  at   these  things  than  in  meditaGng  upon  the  law  of  God.     For  God’s  sake,  if  men  are  not  ashamed  of  these   follies,  why  at  least  do  they  not  shrink  from  the   expense?”     –Bernard  of  Clairvaux   Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.  
  40. Example  of  Cistercian  ProporGons   Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,  France,  1139-­‐1147.

     
  41. Example  of  Cistercian  ProporGons   Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,  France,  1139-­‐1147.

       
  42. None
  43. None
  44. Façade,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

    Plan  
  45. Statue  of  St.  Denis,   Notre  Dame  of  Paris,  

      Façade,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  
  46. “Delight  in  the  beauty  of  the  house  of   God…call

     him  away  from  external   cares…dwelling  in  some  strange  region   of  the  universe  which  neither  exists   enGrely  in  the  slime  of  the  earth  nor   enGrely  in  the  purity  of  heaven… transported  from  this  inferior  to  that   higher  world.”     “We  profess  that  we  must  do  homage   through  the  outward  ornaments  of   sacred  vessels,  and  to  nothing  in  the   world  in  an  equal  degree  to  the  service   of  the  Holy  Sacrifice,  with  all  inner   purity  and  with  all  outward  splendor.”   Abbot  Suger,  Jesse  Window,  St.   Denis,  c.  13th  century.    
  47. Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Upper  Rhein,   c.  1450.   “Money

     is  won  with  such  skill  that  it  may  be   mulGplied.    It  is  expended  so  that  it  may  be   increased,  and  pouring  it  out  produces   abundance.    The  Reason  is  that  the  very  sight   of  these  costly  but  wonderful  illusions  inflames   the  men  more  to  give  than  to  pray.”   “To  me  [golden  images]  somehow  represent   the  ancient  rite  of  the  Jews…  Or  is  it  that  since   we  have  been  mingled  with  the  genGles,   perhaps  we  have  also  adopted  their  ways  and   even  serve  their  idols.”   “O  vanity  of  vaniGes,  but  no  more  vain  than   insane!    The  Church  is  radiant  in  its  walls  and   desGtute  in  its  poor.    It  dresses  its  stones  in   gold  and  it  abandons  its  children  naked.    It   serves  the  eyes  of  the  rich  at  the  expense  of   the  poor.    The  curious  find  that  which  may   delight  them,  but  those  in  need  do  not  find   that  which  should  sustain  them.”  
  48. Tomb  of  Queen  Arnegunde,  at  St.  Denis,  Paris,   580-­‐590

     CE.  
  49. Sarcophagi,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

  50. Sarcophagus  Detail,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,   France,  1140-­‐1144.

     
  51. Sarcophagi,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

  52. Nave,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

    “And  what  of  the  sun’s  rays?    Light  comes  from  the  good,  and  light  is  an   image  of  this  archetypal  Good.    Thus  the  Good  is  also  by  the  name   “Light,”  just  as  an  archetype  is  real  in  its  image.    The  goodness  of  the   transcendent  God  reaches  from  the  highest  and  most  perfect  forms  of   being  to  the  very  lowest.    And  yet  it  remains  above  and  beyond  them  all,   superior  to  the  highest  and  yet  stretching  out  to  the  lowliest.    It  gives   light  to  everything  capable  of  receiving  it,  it  creates  them,  keeps  them   alive,  preserves  and  perfects  them.    Everything  looks  to  it  for  measure,   eternity,  number,  order.    It  is  the  power,  which  embraces  the  universe.     It  is  the  Cause  of  the  universe  and  its  end.”  –Pseudo  Dionysus    
  53. Nave,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

    “Elegant  and  praiseworthy   extension  in  [the  form  of]  a   circular  string  of  chapels,  by   virtue  of  which  the  whole   [church]  would  shine  with  the   wonderful  and  uninterrupted   light  of  most  sacred  windows,   pervading  in  the  interior   beauty.”—Abbot  Suger  
  54. Romanesque  vs.  Gothic  VaulGng   Nave,  Abbey  Church  of  St.

     Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  
  55. Romanesque  vs.  Gothic  VaulGng   Ribs   Vaults  of  the

     ambulatory  and  apsidal  chapels,  abbey   church.    Saint-­‐Denis.    1140-­‐1144.    
  56. 17-­‐2,  Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,   Abbey  Church  of  St.

     Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  57. Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,   France,  1140-­‐1144.

      Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  
  58. Jesse   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  59. Jesse   “Then  a  shoot  will  spring  from  the  stem

      of  Jesse,  And  a  branch  from  his  roots   will  bear  fruit.”     Isaiah  11:1     Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  60. David   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  61. King   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  62. King   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  63. Virgin   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  64. Christ   Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of

     St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.   The  naGons  will  resort  to  the  root  of  Jesse,   Who  will  stand  as  a  signal  for  the  peoples;   And  His  resGng  place  will  be  glorious.    
  65. Christ   Doves  =     Gius  of  the  Holy

     Spirit   The  Spirit  of  the  LORD  will  rest  on  Him,   The  spirit  of  wisdom  and  understanding,   The  spirit  of  counsel  and  strength,   The  spirit  of  knowledge  and  the  fear  of  the  LORD.     Tree  of  Jesse,  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  66. Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,

     France,   1140-­‐1144  .   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  67. Rose,  Transept,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,   France,  1140-­‐1144.

     
  68. None
  69. Jesse   Christ   Rose,  Transept,  Abbey  Church  of  St.

     Denis,   France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  70. Sarcophagi,  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Denis,  France,   1140-­‐1144.  

  71. None
  72. 17-­‐4,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  1140-­‐1144.   Chartres  Cathedral,

     France,  1140-­‐1144,   1194-­‐1220.  
  73. 17-­‐5,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155.

     
  74. Central  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.

     1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).  
  75. Chartres   (Gothic)   Moissac   (Romanesque)  

  76. Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,  Chartres  Cathedral,   c.  1145-­‐1155.  

  77. Right  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.

     1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).   NaGvity   PresentaGon  at  the  Temple   Sede  SapienGae  =  Throne  of  Wisdom  
  78. Central  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.

     1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).   Seven  Liberal  Arts  
  79. Rhetoric   Grammar   Music   Right  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,

     West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).  
  80. Aristotle   Pythagoras   Right  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,

      Chartres  Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).   ScholasGcism  =  the  synthesis  of  classical  philosophy  and   ChrisGan  theology  
  81. 17-­‐5,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155.

     
  82. Leu  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.

     1145-­‐1155  (See  17-­‐5).   Ascension  
  83. 17-­‐5,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155.

     
  84. 17-­‐6,  Old  Testament  Kings  and  Queens,  Royal  Portal,   West

     Façade,  Chartres  Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155.  
  85. 17-­‐4,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  France,  1140-­‐1145.   Virgin

     and  Child  and  angels  (Notre  Dame  de   la  Belle  Verrière).    Window  at  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.1170.       Notre  Dame  de  la  Belle  Verrière  =  Our  Lady  of   the  BeauFful  Window  
  86. Virgin  and  Child  and  angels  (Notre  Dame  de  la  

    Belle  Verrière),    Window  at  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.1170.      
  87. Virgin  and  Child  and  angels  (Notre  Dame  de  la  

    Belle  Verrière),    Window  at  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.1170.      
  88. Virgin  and  Child  and  angels  (Notre  Dame  de  la  

    Belle  Verrière),    Window  at  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.1170.      
  89. Chartres  Cathedral,  North  Façade,  auer   1194.  

  90. Rose  Window   Lancets   Rose  Window  and  Lancets,  North

      Transept,  Chartres  Cathedral,   France,  1230-­‐1235.  
  91. Melchizedek   David   Anna   Solomon   Aaron  

    Lancets,  North  Transept,  Chartres  Cathedral,  France,  1230-­‐1235.  
  92. Castles  =  CasGle   Fleur-­‐de-­‐Lis  =  France   e  Window,

     North  Transept,  Chartres  Cathedral,  France,  1230-­‐1235.  
  93. Rose  Window  and  Lancets,  North  Transept,  Chartres  Cathedral,  France,  

    1230-­‐1235.  
  94. “Invisible  Art”   Rose  Window  and  Lancets,  North  Transept,  Chartres

     Cathedral,  France,   1230-­‐1235.  
  95. Chartres  Cathedral,  North  Façade,  auer   1194.  

  96. Chartres  Cathedral,  North  Façade,  auer   1194.  

  97. Flying  BuKresses,  Chartres  Cathedral,  East   Façade  (Apse),  auer  1194.

     
  98. Pier  BuKresses,  Chartres  Cathedral,  North   Façade,  auer  1194.