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Lecture | Art of the Americas

nichsara
November 23, 2013

Lecture | Art of the Americas

nichsara

November 23, 2013
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  1. Art  of  the  Americas  
    Monument  List:  
    •  Colossal  Head,  La  Venta,  
    Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE.  
    •  Pyramid  of  the  Moon,  
    TeoDhuacan,  c.  50  CE-­‐250  CE  
    •  El  CasDllo,  (“The  Castle”),  
    Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  
    •  Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,  
    Bedford  Mound,  Pike  County,  
    Illinois,  Hopewell  Culture,  
    100-­‐400  CE.  
    •  Cliff  Palace,  Mesa  Verde,  
    Colorado,  Ancestral  Pueblo,  
    1150-­‐1300  CE.    
    Reading:  
    Feder,  “Myth  of  the  
    Moundbuilders”  
     
    Range:  
    12,000  BCE-­‐1400  CE  
    Olmec,  Teo6huacan,  Mayan  
     
    Terms/Concepts:  
    chacmool,  Mesoamerica,  
    divinaDon,  sacrifice,  jade,  
    greenstone,  Quetzalcoatl,  effigy,  
    roof  comb,  Xibalba,  Popol  Vuh,  
    codex  

    View full-size slide

  2. bear figures, these four categories account for
    about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures.
    In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000
    years ago) in Western Europe this situation
    appears to alter radically towards the heavy
    emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in
    later caves, though it persists somewhat longer
    in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of
    Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture.
    A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the
    Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date
    from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest
    dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows
    what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy
    head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The
    drawing seems to have been retouched at some
    stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs
    to resemble those of a human.
    P A C I F I C
    O C E A N
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    O C E A N
    Pedra Furada
    rock shelter;
    fallen fragments
    of painted wall
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    S O U T H
    A M E R I C A
    MESOAMERICA
    N G I A
    bison
    giant sloth
    GREENLAND
    1 Palaeolithic Art
    coastline at height of last
    Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago
    greatest extent of ice cover
    tundra
    steppe
    forest
    tropical forest
    desert
    main routes of colonization
    using land bridges
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    dominant animal,
    source of food and materials
    Grotte
    Chauvet
    Grotte
    Cosquer
    Rhône
    Loire
    Ardèche
    MEDITER
    R
    A
    N
    EAN
    SE
    A
    West European
    Palaeolithic Art
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    music and song leave no trace. So the surviving
    examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of
    the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of
    varied artistic activity which probably stretches
    back in time to the very first fossil humans.
    One particularly important find of recent
    years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg
    (Austria, between Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and
    Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and
    dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000
    years ago. Its lively pose, so different from
    those of later, more symmetrical and static
    female figurines, is quite remarkable.
    SUBJECT-MATTER
    Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is
    concerned – and for the moment this is the
    greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to
    this period – one noteworthy aspect that was
    already evident in the small but sophisticated
    ivory carvings from several sites in southwest
    Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle
    and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000
    years old), and in the later terracotta figurines
    from Central Europe is the marked emphasis
    on depictions of what might be called large,
    powerful or dangerous animals. This has really
    come to the fore through the discovery of the
    Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that
    would dominate in later Ice Age art were
    already present, but the art of Chauvet is
    dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big
    cats. When combined with the site's striking
    bear figures, these four categories account for
    about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures.
    In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000
    years ago) in Western Europe this situation
    appears to alter radically towards the heavy
    emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in
    later caves, though it persists somewhat longer
    in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of
    Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture.
    A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the
    Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date
    from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest
    dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows
    what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy
    head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The
    drawing seems to have been retouched at some
    stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs
    to resemble those of a human.
    his cave’s art suggest a later
    le art sites, several have
    us’ figurines, such as that
    ivory from Lespugue and the
    the ‘Venus with a horn’ from
    rate is a carved head of a
    assempouy.
    1 Palaeolithic Art
    coastline at height of last
    Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago
    greatest extent of ice cover
    tundra
    steppe
    forest
    tropical forest
    desert
    main routes of colonization
    using land bridges
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    dominant animal,
    source of food and materials
    Mesoamerica    
    Andean    
    North  America  

    View full-size slide

  3. Overview  of  Cultures  
    Mesoamerica  
    •  Olmec        1500  BCE  –  200  CE  
    •  TeoDhuacan      200  CE  –  650  CE  
    •  Maya        400  BCE  –  1521  C    
    North  America  
    •  Woodlands      100  BCE  –  550  CE  
    •  Mississippian      700  CE  –  1550  CE  
    •  Chaco  Canyon      200  CE  –  1250  CE  

    View full-size slide

  4. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE  

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  5. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE  

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  6. Site  Plan,  La  Venta,  
    Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE  
    Colossal  Heads,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE.  

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  7. Colossal  Head,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE.  

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  8. Great  Pyramid  and  Ball  Court,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  
    Olmec  Culture,  c.  900-­‐400  BCE  
    La  Venta,  Complex  Plan.  

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  9. Pyramid  
    Great  Pyramid,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE  
    La  Venta,  Complex  Plan.  

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  10. Offering  4,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  
    900-­‐400  BCE.  
    Offering  these  were  ceremonially  buried  
    and  reburied  in  the  Plaza.  

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  11. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE  
    Jade  (Greenstone)  
    Jade  Deposit  

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  12. TeoDhuacan  400  BCE  –  650  CE  

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  13. TeoDhuacan  400  BCE  –  650  CE  

    View full-size slide

  14. TeoDhuacan,  ReconstrucDon  (lei)  and  Plan
    (right).  

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  15. TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  Aerial  View,  50  
    CE-­‐250  CE  (Major  Structures).    
    Avenue  of  the  Dead  
    Pyramid  of  the  Moon  
    Pyramid  of  the  Sun  

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  16. Pyramid  of  the  Moon,  TeoDhuacan,  c.  50  CE-­‐250  CE  

    View full-size slide

  17. TeoDhuacan,  ReconstrucDon  (lei)  and  Plan
    (right).  

    View full-size slide

  18. TeDtla  apartment,  ReconstrucDon,  TeoDhuacan,  c.  650-­‐750  
    CE.  

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  19. Bloodlejng  Ritual,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment,  TeoDhuacan,  
    c.  650-­‐750  CE.  
    Maguey  Plant  

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  20. Goddess,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment  complex,  
    TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  650-­‐750  CE.  
    Bloodlejng  Ritual,  fresco,  
    TeDtla  apartment,  
    TeoDhuacan,  c.  650-­‐750  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  21. Goddess,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment  complex,  
    TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  650-­‐750  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  22. Maya  400  BCE  –  1521  CE  

    View full-size slide

  23. Chichen  Itza,  Aerial  View,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  
    Plan  

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  24. Chacmool,  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE  
    El  CasDllo,  (“The  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  25. 18-­‐17,  Chacmool,  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  26. El  CasDllo  (“The  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  27. El  CasDllo,  (“The  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  28. El  CasDllo  (“The  Castle”)  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  
    800-­‐900  CE.  

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  29. Heads  of  Kuklukan  (The  Feathered  Serpent  God),  El  CasDllo  
    (“the  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

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  30. The  Sacred  Cenote,  North  of  the  Temple  of  Kuklukan  
    (“El  CasDllo”),  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  31. I N D I A N
    O C E A N
    P A C I F I C
    O C E A N
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    A R C T I C O C E A N
    SPIAN
    SEA
    Mandu Mandu Creek
    rock shelter with
    shell-bead necklace
    e
    pieces of
    bone
    e
    alette
    Patne
    engraved
    ostrich
    eggshell
    Aq Kupruq
    carved stone head
    Mal‘ta
    gir
    ienki Tolbaga
    bone figurine
    evo
    Pedra Furada
    rock shelter;
    fallen fragments
    of painted wall
    Arnhem Land
    shelters with
    abundant ochre
    with ochre
    nd palettes
    Sandy Creek 2 /
    Walkunder Arch
    rock shelter
    with paintings
    Olary/Wharton Hill
    Koonalda Cave
    finger markings on
    ceilings and walls
    Carpenter‘s Gap
    rock shelter with fallen
    fragments of painted wall
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    S O U T H
    A M E R I C A
    MESOAMERICA
    B E R I N G I A
    NEW
    GUINEA
    JAVA
    BOR
    NEO
    SUMATRA
    PHILIPPINES
    moth
    ibex
    bison
    giant sloth
    kangaroo
    JAPAN
    GREENLAND
    C H I N A
    AUSTRALIA
    A S I A
    S I B E R I A
    MigraDon  Routes  
    Grotte
    Chauvet
    Grotte
    Cosquer
    Rhône
    Loire
    Ardèche
    MEDITER
    R
    A
    N
    EAN
    SE
    A
    West European
    Palaeolithic Art
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    2
    examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of
    the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of
    varied artistic activity which probably stretches
    back in time to the very first fossil humans.
    One particularly important find of recent
    years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg
    (Austria, between Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and
    Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and
    dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000
    years ago. Its lively pose, so different from
    those of later, more symmetrical and static
    female figurines, is quite remarkable.
    SUBJECT-MATTER
    Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is
    concerned – and for the moment this is the
    greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to
    this period – one noteworthy aspect that was
    already evident in the small but sophisticated
    ivory carvings from several sites in southwest
    Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle
    and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000
    years old), and in the later terracotta figurines
    from Central Europe is the marked emphasis
    on depictions of what might be called large,
    powerful or dangerous animals. This has really
    come to the fore through the discovery of the
    Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that
    would dominate in later Ice Age art were
    already present, but the art of Chauvet is
    dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big
    cats. When combined with the site's striking
    bear figures, these four categories account for
    about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures.
    In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000
    years ago) in Western Europe this situation
    appears to alter radically towards the heavy
    emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in
    later caves, though it persists somewhat longer
    in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of
    Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture.
    A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the
    Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date
    from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest
    dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows
    what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy
    head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The
    drawing seems to have been retouched at some
    stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs
    to resemble those of a human.
    this cave’s art suggest a later
    able art sites, several have
    nus’ figurines, such as that
    h ivory from Lespugue and the
    of the ‘Venus with a horn’ from
    orate is a carved head of a
    Brassempouy.
    1 Palaeolithic Art
    coastline at height of last
    Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago
    greatest extent of ice cover
    tundra
    steppe
    forest
    tropical forest
    desert
    main routes of colonization
    using land bridges
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    dominant animal,
    source of food and materials
    50k  
    16k  
    15k  
    60k   50k  

    View full-size slide

  32. bear figures, these four categories account for
    about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures.
    In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000
    years ago) in Western Europe this situation
    appears to alter radically towards the heavy
    emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in
    later caves, though it persists somewhat longer
    in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of
    Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture.
    A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the
    Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date
    from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest
    dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows
    what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy
    head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The
    drawing seems to have been retouched at some
    stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs
    to resemble those of a human.
    P A C I F I C
    O C E A N
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    O C E A N
    Pedra Furada
    rock shelter;
    fallen fragments
    of painted wall
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    S O U T H
    A M E R I C A
    MESOAMERICA
    N G I A
    bison
    giant sloth
    GREENLAND
    1 Palaeolithic Art
    coastline at height of last
    Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago
    greatest extent of ice cover
    tundra
    steppe
    forest
    tropical forest
    desert
    main routes of colonization
    using land bridges
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    dominant animal,
    source of food and materials
    Grotte
    Chauvet
    Grotte
    Cosquer
    Rhône
    Loire
    Ardèche
    MEDITER
    R
    A
    N
    EAN
    SE
    A
    West European
    Palaeolithic Art
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    music and song leave no trace. So the surviving
    examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of
    the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of
    varied artistic activity which probably stretches
    back in time to the very first fossil humans.
    One particularly important find of recent
    years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg
    (Austria, between Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and
    Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and
    dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000
    years ago. Its lively pose, so different from
    those of later, more symmetrical and static
    female figurines, is quite remarkable.
    SUBJECT-MATTER
    Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is
    concerned – and for the moment this is the
    greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to
    this period – one noteworthy aspect that was
    already evident in the small but sophisticated
    ivory carvings from several sites in southwest
    Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle
    and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000
    years old), and in the later terracotta figurines
    from Central Europe is the marked emphasis
    on depictions of what might be called large,
    powerful or dangerous animals. This has really
    come to the fore through the discovery of the
    Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that
    would dominate in later Ice Age art were
    already present, but the art of Chauvet is
    dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big
    cats. When combined with the site's striking
    bear figures, these four categories account for
    about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures.
    In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000
    years ago) in Western Europe this situation
    appears to alter radically towards the heavy
    emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in
    later caves, though it persists somewhat longer
    in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of
    Dolní Ve
    ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture.
    A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the
    Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date
    from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest
    dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows
    what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy
    head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The
    drawing seems to have been retouched at some
    stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs
    to resemble those of a human.
    his cave’s art suggest a later
    le art sites, several have
    us’ figurines, such as that
    ivory from Lespugue and the
    the ‘Venus with a horn’ from
    rate is a carved head of a
    assempouy.
    1 Palaeolithic Art
    coastline at height of last
    Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago
    greatest extent of ice cover
    tundra
    steppe
    forest
    tropical forest
    desert
    main routes of colonization
    using land bridges
    parietal art find site
    portable art find site
    dominant animal,
    source of food and materials
    Mesoamerica    
    Andean    
    North  America  

    View full-size slide

  33. Overview  of  Cultures  
    Mesoamerica  
    •  Olmec        1500  BCE  –  200  CE  
    •  TeoDhuacan      200  CE  –  650  CE  
    •  Maya        400  BCE  –  1521  CE  
    North  America  
    •  Woodlands      100  BCE  –  550  CE  
    •  Mississippian      700  CE  –  1550  CE  
    •  Chaco  Canyon      200  CE  –  1250  CE  

    View full-size slide

  34. 20˚
    30˚
    90˚
    80˚
    70˚
    60˚
    50˚
    40˚
    30˚
    Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valley/
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Step House
    Snaketown
    Patrick’s Point
    Port-aux-Choix
    Lonesome Creek
    Ozette
    Ipiutak
    ttle
    omede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    ing Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    Keatley
    Creek
    site
    Tuburon Hills
    Coso Range sites
    Little Harbor
    Gunther Island
    Marpole
    Rio Gra
    nde
    St. Lawrence
    L. Ontario
    Columbia
    Fraser
    Yukon
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    PA C I F I C
    O C E A N
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    GULF OF MEXICO
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    M
    O
    U
    N T A I N S
    GREAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    VANCOUVER
    ISLAND
    QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE
    ISLANDS
    SIERRA
    NEVADA
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    SONORAN
    DESERT
    MOJAVE DESERT
    ballcourt
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlock, cedar and spruce
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    distributi
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    1 Pikes Peak
    2 Toolesboro Mounds
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    N
    0
    0
    400 miles
    300 kms
    00
    NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600
    20˚
    30˚
    90˚
    80˚
    70˚
    60˚
    50˚
    40˚
    30˚
    Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valley/
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Step House
    Snaketown
    Patrick’s Point
    Port-aux-Choix
    Lonesome Creek
    Ozette
    St Lawrence
    Island sites Ipiutak
    Little
    Diomede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    Rolling Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    Keatley
    Creek
    site
    Tuburon Hills
    Coso Range sites
    Little Harbor
    Gunther Island
    Marpole
    Rio Gra
    nde
    St. Lawrence
    L. Ontario
    Columbia
    Fraser
    Yukon
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    PA C I F I C
    O C E A N
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    B E R I N G
    S E A
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    GULF OF MEXICO
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    M
    O
    U
    N T A I N S
    GREAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    Cape Nome
    VANCOUVER
    ISLAND
    KODIAK
    QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE
    ISLANDS
    SIERRA
    NEVADA
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    SONORAN
    DESERT
    MOJAVE DESERT
    ballcourt
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlock, cedar and spruce
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    distributi
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    distrib
    utionof Bearded
    and
    Ringed seals
    1 Pikes Peak
    2 Toolesboro Mounds
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    N
    0
    0
    400 miles
    300 kms
    Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing
    system. Architectural innovations such as the
    corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces,
    while roof combs raised the exterior space of
    plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop
    large platform pyramids built in tiers that often
    correlate with sacred numbers, such as the
    nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal
    and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal
    and Calakmul, were larger than others and may
    have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities
    controlled limited land and competed with
    adjacent city-states.
    LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA
    NORTH AMERICA
    Over much of North America after 500 BC
    pottery began to make its first appearance or
    was more widely accepted. Throughout the
    continent, groups used local resources to
    produce various regional traditions. Peoples in
    the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine
    resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales.
    Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears,
    humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler
    and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples
    mastered carving the abundant cedar from the
    coastal forests. In the American Southwest and
    Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves
    and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area
    Ch
    Ga
    M
    2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600
    areas of cultural influence:
    Hopewell
    Adena-Hopewell heartland
    Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi)
    Fremont
    Mogollon
    Hohokam
    Cosumnes tradition
    Hopewell site
    Adena site
    other archaeological site
    copper ornaments
    pictograph/petroglyph
    stone palettes
    stone pipes
    beaver pipes
    female effigy vessels/figurines
    male figurines
    antler/ivory/bone carvings
    shell ornaments
    mica ornaments
    raw materials:
    copper
    silver
    chert
    galena
    obsidian
    mica
    crystal
    chlorite
    whelk
    barracuda
    shark
    alligator
    whale
    salmon
    turtle shell
    shell
    Cu
    Woodlands:  1130  BCE—550  CE    

    View full-size slide

  35. Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    lon
    Lawn Valley/
    cave and
    rosa Cave
    Rio Gr
    St. L
    L. Ontario
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    A
    A
    IN
    S
    Hopewell:  c.  100  BCE-­‐550  CE  
    NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Port-aux-Choix
    Lonesome Creek
    Ipiutak
    Little
    Diomede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    olling Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    e
    Yukon
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    QUEEN
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlo
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    distributi
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    1 Pikes Peak
    2 Toolesboro Mounds
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    600

    View full-size slide

  36. Great  Bear  Mountain  Group,  Effigy  Mounds  NaDonal  
    Monument,  Allamakee  County,  Iowa.  

    View full-size slide

  37. Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    lon
    Lawn Valley/
    cave and
    rosa Cave
    Rio Gr
    St. L
    L. Ontario
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    A
    A
    IN
    S
    Hopewell:  c.  100  BCE-­‐550  CE  
    NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Port-aux-Choix
    Lonesome Creek
    Ipiutak
    Little
    Diomede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    olling Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    e
    Yukon
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    QUEEN
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlo
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    distributi
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    1 Pikes Peak
    2 Toolesboro Mounds
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    600
    Bedford  Mound  

    View full-size slide

  38. Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,  Bedford  Mound,  Pike  
    County,  Illinois,  Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  39. Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,  Bedford  Mound,  Pike  
    County,  Illinois,  Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  40. Animal  Effigy  Pipes,  Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  41. Effigy  of  a  hawk  claw  cut  from  sheet  mica,  
    Hopewell  Mound  Group,  Ohio,  Hopewell  
    culture,  100  BCE-­‐500  CE  
    Effigy  of  a  Human  Hand  cut  from  sheet  
    mica,  Ohio,  Hopewell  Culture,  100  
    BCE-­‐500  CE  

    View full-size slide

  42. Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    2 MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE centr
    on the Ohio River Valley, b
    there were many regional
    variations. Each of these h
    minor, but distinguishing,
    features. The spread of
    distinctive Mississippian
    cultural traits from Ohio to
    outlying regions was large
    40˚
    30˚
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    Knapp Mounds
    Spiro
    Chucalissa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Natchez
    Emerald
    Mound
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle Ocmulgee
    Lamar
    Kolomoki
    Lake Jackson
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    Old Fort
    Utz
    M
    ississippi
    Mis
    souri
    Ohio
    Red Ri
    ver
    Arkansas
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    G U L F O F
    M E X I C O
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    N
    0
    0
    300 miles
    450 kms
    2 Mississippian Temple
    Mound Sites, c.900
    Middle Mississippian
    South Appalachian
    Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    70˚
    50˚
    40˚
    80˚
    90˚
    Ag
    Ag
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    sa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    ort
    M
    ississippi
    s
    souri
    Ohio
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    

    View full-size slide

  43. M
    Grave Creek M
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    gel
    Hiwassee
    Ohio
    Lake Erie
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    2 Mississippian Temple
    Mound Sites, c.900
    Middle Mississippian
    South Appalachian
    Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    . In
    was
    ings,
    e of
    ng
    ily
    re the
    s,
    1500
    the
    clined,
    ble
    bia
    s a
    these
    l as
    70˚
    50˚
    40˚
    80˚
    90˚
    100˚
    Ag
    Ag
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    Knapp Mounds
    Spiro
    Chucalissa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Natchez
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle Ocmulgee
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    Old Fort
    Utz
    M
    ississippi
    Mis
    souri
    Ohio
    Red Ri
    Arkansas
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    NORTH AMERICA 600–150
    Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    

    View full-size slide

  44. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

    View full-size slide

  45. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

    View full-size slide

  46. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

    View full-size slide

  47. Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    2 MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE centr
    on the Ohio River Valley, b
    there were many regional
    variations. Each of these h
    minor, but distinguishing,
    features. The spread of
    distinctive Mississippian
    cultural traits from Ohio to
    outlying regions was large
    40˚
    30˚
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    Knapp Mounds
    Spiro
    Chucalissa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Natchez
    Emerald
    Mound
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle Ocmulgee
    Lamar
    Kolomoki
    Lake Jackson
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    Old Fort
    Utz
    M
    ississippi
    Mis
    souri
    Ohio
    Red Ri
    ver
    Arkansas
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    G U L F O F
    M E X I C O
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    N
    0
    0
    300 miles
    450 kms
    2 Mississippian Temple
    Mound Sites, c.900
    Middle Mississippian
    South Appalachian
    Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    70˚
    50˚
    40˚
    80˚
    90˚
    Ag
    Ag
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    sa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    ort
    M
    ississippi
    s
    souri
    Ohio
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    

    View full-size slide

  48. M
    Dickson
    Hopewe
    Fort
    Ancient
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    calissa
    Hiwassee
    ld Fort
    Utz
    Mis
    souri
    Ohio
    2 Mississippian Temple
    Mound Sites, c.900
    Middle Mississippian
    South Appalachian
    Mississippian
    Plaquemine Mississippian
    Caddoan Mississippian
    Fort Ancient
    Oneota
    temple mound site
    raw materials:
    obsidian
    grizzly bear teeth
    chalcedony
    flint
    silver
    copper
    pipestone
    mica
    marine shells
    shark/alligator teeth
    Cu
    M
    Ag
    . In
    was
    ings,
    e of
    ng
    ily
    re the
    s,
    1500
    the
    clined,
    ble
    bia
    s a
    these
    l as
    70˚
    50˚
    40˚
    80˚
    90˚
    100˚
    Ag
    Ag
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    M
    M
    M
    Dickson
    Grave Creek Mound
    Newark
    Adena
    Hopewell
    Fort
    Ancient
    Seip
    Great Serpent
    Mound
    Aztalan
    Cahokia
    Angel
    Kings
    Mound
    Towosahgy
    Knapp Mounds
    Spiro
    Chucalissa
    Owl Creek
    Moundville
    Winterville
    Natchez
    Shiloh
    Florence
    Scotts Lake
    Rock
    Eagle Ocmulgee
    Town Creek
    Hiwassee
    Island
    Etowah
    Old Fort
    Utz
    M
    ississippi
    Mis
    souri
    Ohio
    Red Ri
    Arkansas
    Lake
    Michigan
    Lake Erie
    APPALA
    C
    H
    IA
    N
    M
    TS
    NORTH AMERICA 600–150
    Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    

    View full-size slide

  49. Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE  

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  50. Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE  
    Monk’s  Mound  

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  51. Monk’s  Mound,  Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,  
    1000-­‐1300  CE  

    View full-size slide

  52. Main  Plaza,  View  from  Monk’s  Mound,  Cahokia,  East  
    St.  Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE  

    View full-size slide

  53. 20˚
    30˚
    Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valley/
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Step House
    Snaketown
    Patrick’s Point
    Port-aux-Choix
    Lonesome Creek
    Ozette
    ak
    and
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    wood Creek
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    Keatley
    Creek
    site
    Tuburon Hills
    Coso Range sites
    Little Harbor
    Gunther Island
    Marpole
    Rio Gra
    nde
    St. Lawrence
    L. Ontario
    Columbia
    Fraser
    Yukon
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    PA C I F I C
    O C E A N
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    GULF OF MEXICO
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    M
    O
    U
    N T A I N S
    GREAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    VANCOUVER
    ISLAND
    QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE
    ISLANDS
    SIERRA
    NEVADA
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    SONORAN
    DESERT
    MOJAVE DESERT
    ballcourt
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlock, cedar and spruce
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    distributi
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    1 Pikes Peak
    2 Toolesboro Mounds
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    N
    0
    0
    400 miles
    300 kms
    20˚
    30˚
    90˚
    80˚
    70˚
    60˚
    50˚
    40˚
    30˚
    Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valley/
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Step House
    Snaketown
    Patrick’s Point
    Port-aux-Choix
    Ozette
    St Lawrence
    Island sites Ipiutak
    Little
    Diomede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    Rolling Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    Keatley
    Creek
    site
    Tuburon Hills
    Coso Range sites
    Little Harbor
    Gunther Island
    Marpole
    Rio Gra
    nde
    St. Lawrence
    L. Ontario
    Columbia
    Fraser
    Yukon
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    PA C I F I C
    O C E A N
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    B E R I N G
    S E A
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    GULF OF MEXICO
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    M
    O
    U
    N T A I N S
    GREAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    Cape Nome
    VANCOUVER
    ISLAND
    KODIAK
    QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE
    ISLANDS
    SIERRA
    NEVADA
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    SONORAN
    DESERT
    MOJAVE DESERT
    ballcourt
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlock, cedar and spruce
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    i
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    distrib
    utionof Bearded
    and
    Ringed seals
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    N
    0
    0
    400 miles
    300 kms
    Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing
    system. Architectural innovations such as the
    corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces,
    while roof combs raised the exterior space of
    plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop
    large platform pyramids built in tiers that often
    correlate with sacred numbers, such as the
    nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal
    and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal
    and Calakmul, were larger than others and may
    have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities
    controlled limited land and competed with
    adjacent city-states.
    LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA
    While this region interacted with Mesoamerica
    NORTH AMERICA
    Over much of North America after 500 BC
    pottery began to make its first appearance or
    was more widely accepted. Throughout the
    continent, groups used local resources to
    produce various regional traditions. Peoples in
    the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine
    resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales.
    Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears,
    humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler
    and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples
    mastered carving the abundant cedar from the
    coastal forests. In the American Southwest and
    Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves
    and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area
    served as canvases for styles of pictographs and
    Ch
    Ga
    M
    2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600
    areas of cultural influence:
    Hopewell
    Adena-Hopewell heartland
    Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi)
    Fremont
    Mogollon
    Hohokam
    Cosumnes tradition
    Hopewell site
    Adena site
    other archaeological site
    copper ornaments
    pictograph/petroglyph
    stone palettes
    stone pipes
    beaver pipes
    female effigy vessels/figurines
    male figurines
    antler/ivory/bone carvings
    shell ornaments
    mica ornaments
    raw materials:
    copper
    silver
    chert
    galena
    obsidian
    mica
    crystal
    chlorite
    whelk
    barracuda
    shark
    alligator
    whale
    salmon
    turtle shell
    shell
    Cu
    Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  

    View full-size slide

  54. Fourc
    Sterns C
    B
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valle
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Step House
    I N S
    REAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    NEVADA
    SONORAN
    20˚
    30˚
    90˚
    80˚
    70˚
    60˚
    50˚
    40˚
    30˚
    Ga
    M Ch
    Cu
    Cu
    Cu
    Serpent
    Mound
    Squawkie Hill
    Crystal River
    Weeden Island
    Fort Center
    Mandeville
    Kolomoki
    Swift Creek
    Tremper
    Gaston
    Seip
    Wright
    Tunacunnhee
    Mcquorquodale
    Porter
    Helena
    Crossing
    Fourche Malines
    Marksville
    Bynum
    Miller
    Pinson
    Renner
    Sterns Creek
    Cahokia
    Knight
    Howard Lake
    Effigy Mounds
    Trempealeau 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    19
    16
    17
    18
    6
    Boone
    Cresap
    Grave Creek
    Abbott Farm
    Mann
    Grand Gulch
    Mogollon
    Pine Lawn Valley/
    Bat cave and
    Tularosa Cave
    Mesa Grande
    Talus Village
    Igloolik
    Gulf Hazard
    Tyara
    Step House
    Snaketown
    Patrick’s Point
    Port-aux-Choix
    Ozette
    St Lawrence
    Island sites Ipiutak
    Little
    Diomede Island
    Iyatayet
    Norton
    Walakpa
    Engigstciak
    Cottonwood Creek
    Rolling Bay
    Joss
    Dundas Island
    Keatley
    Creek
    site
    Tuburon Hills
    Coso Range sites
    Little Harbor
    Gunther Island
    Marpole
    Rio Gra
    nde
    St. Lawrence
    L. Ontario
    Columbia
    Fraser
    Yukon
    L. Superior
    L. Michigan
    L. Erie
    L. Huron
    PA C I F I C
    O C E A N
    HUDSON
    BAY
    BAFFIN
    BAY
    B E R I N G
    S E A
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    GULF OF MEXICO
    R
    O
    C
    K
    Y
    M
    O
    U
    N T A I N S
    GREAT
    PL
    A
    IN
    S
    Cape Nome
    VANCOUVER
    ISLAND
    KODIAK
    QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE
    ISLANDS
    SIERRA
    NEVADA
    N O R T H
    A M E R I C A
    SONORAN
    DESERT
    MOJAVE DESERT
    ballcourt
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    distribution of
    Beluga whales
    area of hemlock, cedar and spruce
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    i
    onof Bearded and Ringed seal
    s
    distrib
    ution
    of Bearded and Ring
    ed seals
    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r
    be
    ars
    u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s
    northe
    rn
    l
    imit of trees
    distrib
    utionof Bearded
    and
    Ringed seals
    3 Norton Mound
    4 Crab Orchard
    5 Mount Horeb
    6 Mound City
    7 Serpent Mound
    8 Fort Ancient
    9 Adena
    10 Hopewell
    11 Alum Creek
    12 Newark
    13 Robbins
    14 Turner
    15 Bedford
    16 Havana
    17 Goodall
    18 Jaketown
    19 Harness
    N
    0
    0
    400 miles
    300 kms
    Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing
    system. Architectural innovations such as the
    corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces,
    while roof combs raised the exterior space of
    plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop
    large platform pyramids built in tiers that often
    correlate with sacred numbers, such as the
    nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal
    and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal
    and Calakmul, were larger than others and may
    have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities
    controlled limited land and competed with
    adjacent city-states.
    LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA
    While this region interacted with Mesoamerica
    NORTH AMERICA
    Over much of North America after 500 BC
    pottery began to make its first appearance or
    was more widely accepted. Throughout the
    continent, groups used local resources to
    produce various regional traditions. Peoples in
    the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine
    resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales.
    Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears,
    humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler
    and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples
    mastered carving the abundant cedar from the
    coastal forests. In the American Southwest and
    Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves
    and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area
    served as canvases for styles of pictographs and
    Ch
    Ga
    M
    2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600
    areas of cultural influence:
    Hopewell
    Adena-Hopewell heartland
    Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi)
    Fremont
    Mogollon
    Hohokam
    Cosumnes tradition
    Hopewell site
    Adena site
    other archaeological site
    copper ornaments
    pictograph/petroglyph
    stone palettes
    stone pipes
    beaver pipes
    female effigy vessels/figurines
    male figurines
    antler/ivory/bone carvings
    shell ornaments
    mica ornaments
    raw materials:
    copper
    silver
    chert
    galena
    obsidian
    mica
    crystal
    chlorite
    whelk
    barracuda
    shark
    alligator
    whale
    salmon
    turtle shell
    shell
    Cu
    Ancestral  
    Puebloan  
    Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  

    View full-size slide

  55. Harris
    Alkali
    Ridge
    n Luis
    ispo
    Canyon de Chelly
    Wupatki
    Pinto
    Basin
    Gypsum
    Cave
    Naco
    Snaketown
    Casa
    Grande
    Lehner
    Montezuma
    Castle
    Bandelier
    Mimbres
    Folsom
    Pueblo
    Bonito
    Mesa Verde
    Quivira
    Olsen-Chubbo
    Lipscomb
    Sp
    Meserve
    Lubbock Aligates
    Quarry
    Midland
    Levi
    Bonfire
    Logan C
    Rio Grande
    Colorado
    GULF OF
    A
    nomy
    g in
    ing,
    80˚
    90˚
    20˚
    30˚
    120˚
    Harris
    Canyon de Chelly
    Wupatki
    Pinto
    Basin
    Naco
    Snaketown
    Casa
    Grande
    Lehner
    Montezuma
    Castle
    Bandelier
    Mimbres
    Folsom
    Pueblo
    Bonito
    Mesa Verde
    Quivira
    Olsen-Chubbock
    Lipscomb
    Marksville
    Spiro
    Jaketown
    Poverty Point
    Emerald
    Mound
    Lubbock Aligates
    Quarry
    Midland
    Levi
    Bonfire
    Modoc
    Dalton
    Graham Cave
    Newark
    Fort
    Ancient
    Angel
    Mound City
    Serpent
    Mound
    Cahokia
    Starved Rock
    Key Marco
    Weeden
    Island
    Turtle Mound
    Bilbo
    Hollywood
    Town
    Etowah
    Mandeville
    Moundville
    Rio Grande
    Mississippi
    Colorado
    Ohio
    souri
    P A C I F I C
    O C E A N
    G U L F O F M E X I C O
    GULF OF CALIFORNIA
    A
    P
    PA
    L
    A
    C
    H
    I A
    CALIFORNIA
    maritime economy
    on coast;
    acorn farming in
    interior, hunting,
    basketry,
    featherwork,
    some wood carving
    GRASSLANDS
    big game hunting;
    skin clothing, featherwork,
    buffalo robes, horn utensils,
    porcupine quillwork
    1 Major Archaeological Sites
    Inuit archaeological site, post-600
    late archaeological site
    extent of Mogollon tradition, c.300-1300
    extent of Fremont tradition, c.400-1150
    extent of Patayan tradition, c.500-1100
    extent of Anasazi tradition, c.500-1300
    extent of Hohokam tradition, c.600-1450
    AncestralPueblo  
    Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  

    View full-size slide

  56. Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  57. Walls,  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  58. Pueblo  Bonito,  ReconstrucDon,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  
    Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  59. Pueblo  Bonito,  ReconstrucDon,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  
    Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  60. The  “Great  Kiva,”  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  
    Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  61. Roads  from  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  
    Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

    View full-size slide

  62. Red-­‐on-­‐Black  Ware  (“White  Mountain  Red  Ware”),  
    Ancestral  Pueblo,  1125-­‐1200  CE.        

    View full-size slide

  63. Harris
    Alkali
    Ridge
    n Luis
    ispo
    Canyon de Chelly
    Wupatki
    Pinto
    Basin
    Gypsum
    Cave
    Naco
    Snaketown
    Casa
    Grande
    Lehner
    Montezuma
    Castle
    Bandelier
    Mimbres
    Folsom
    Pueblo
    Bonito
    Mesa Verde
    Quivira
    Olsen-Chubbo
    Lipscomb
    Sp
    Meserve
    Lubbock Aligates
    Quarry
    Midland
    Levi
    Bonfire
    Logan C
    Rio Grande
    Colorado
    GULF OF
    A
    nomy
    g in
    ing,
    80˚
    90˚
    20˚
    30˚
    120˚
    Harris
    Canyon de Chelly
    Wupatki
    Pinto
    Basin
    Naco
    Snaketown
    Casa
    Grande
    Lehner
    Montezuma
    Castle
    Bandelier
    Mimbres
    Folsom
    Pueblo
    Bonito
    Mesa Verde
    Quivira
    Olsen-Chubbock
    Lipscomb
    Marksville
    Spiro
    Jaketown
    Poverty Point
    Emerald
    Mound
    Lubbock Aligates
    Quarry
    Midland
    Levi
    Bonfire
    Modoc
    Dalton
    Graham Cave
    Newark
    Fort
    Ancient
    Angel
    Mound City
    Serpent
    Mound
    Cahokia
    Starved Rock
    Key Marco
    Weeden
    Island
    Turtle Mound
    Bilbo
    Hollywood
    Town
    Etowah
    Mandeville
    Moundville
    Rio Grande
    Mississippi
    Colorado
    Ohio
    souri
    P A C I F I C
    O C E A N
    G U L F O F M E X I C O
    GULF OF CALIFORNIA
    A
    P
    PA
    L
    A
    C
    H
    I A
    CALIFORNIA
    maritime economy
    on coast;
    acorn farming in
    interior, hunting,
    basketry,
    featherwork,
    some wood carving
    GRASSLANDS
    big game hunting;
    skin clothing, featherwork,
    buffalo robes, horn utensils,
    porcupine quillwork
    1 Major Archaeological Sites
    Inuit archaeological site, post-600
    late archaeological site
    extent of Mogollon tradition, c.300-1300
    extent of Fremont tradition, c.400-1150
    extent of Patayan tradition, c.500-1100
    extent of Anasazi tradition, c.500-1300
    extent of Hohokam tradition, c.600-1450
    Ancestral  
    Puebloan  
    A  drought  in  Chaco  Canyon  
    around  1150  may  have  caused  
    the  Ancestral  Pueblo  to  move  
    north.  

    View full-size slide

  64. Cliff  Palace,  Mesa  Verde,  Colorado,  Ancestral  Pueblo,  
    1150-­‐1300  CE.    

    View full-size slide