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Lecture | Art of the Americas

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November 23, 2013

Lecture | Art of the Americas

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nichsara

November 23, 2013
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  1. Art  of  the  Americas   Monument  List:   •  Colossal

     Head,  La  Venta,   Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.   900-­‐400  BCE.   •  Pyramid  of  the  Moon,   TeoDhuacan,  c.  50  CE-­‐250  CE   •  El  CasDllo,  (“The  Castle”),   Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.   •  Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,   Bedford  Mound,  Pike  County,   Illinois,  Hopewell  Culture,   100-­‐400  CE.   •  Cliff  Palace,  Mesa  Verde,   Colorado,  Ancestral  Pueblo,   1150-­‐1300  CE.     Reading:   Feder,  “Myth  of  the   Moundbuilders”     Range:   12,000  BCE-­‐1400  CE   Olmec,  Teo6huacan,  Mayan     Terms/Concepts:   chacmool,  Mesoamerica,   divinaDon,  sacrifice,  jade,   greenstone,  Quetzalcoatl,  effigy,   roof  comb,  Xibalba,  Popol  Vuh,   codex  
  2. bear figures, these four categories account for about two-thirds of

    the cave’s animal figures. In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000 years ago) in Western Europe this situation appears to alter radically towards the heavy emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in later caves, though it persists somewhat longer in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture. A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The drawing seems to have been retouched at some stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs to resemble those of a human. P A C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N O C E A N Pedra Furada rock shelter; fallen fragments of painted wall N O R T H A M E R I C A S O U T H A M E R I C A MESOAMERICA N G I A bison giant sloth GREENLAND 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials Grotte Chauvet Grotte Cosquer Rhône Loire Ardèche MEDITER R A N EAN SE A West European Palaeolithic Art parietal art find site portable art find site music and song leave no trace. So the surviving examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of varied artistic activity which probably stretches back in time to the very first fossil humans. One particularly important find of recent years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg (Austria, between Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000 years ago. Its lively pose, so different from those of later, more symmetrical and static female figurines, is quite remarkable. SUBJECT-MATTER Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is concerned – and for the moment this is the greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to this period – one noteworthy aspect that was already evident in the small but sophisticated ivory carvings from several sites in southwest Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000 years old), and in the later terracotta figurines from Central Europe is the marked emphasis on depictions of what might be called large, powerful or dangerous animals. This has really come to the fore through the discovery of the Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that would dominate in later Ice Age art were already present, but the art of Chauvet is dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big cats. When combined with the site's striking bear figures, these four categories account for about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures. In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000 years ago) in Western Europe this situation appears to alter radically towards the heavy emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in later caves, though it persists somewhat longer in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture. A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The drawing seems to have been retouched at some stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs to resemble those of a human. his cave’s art suggest a later le art sites, several have us’ figurines, such as that ivory from Lespugue and the the ‘Venus with a horn’ from rate is a carved head of a assempouy. 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials Mesoamerica     Andean     North  America  
  3. Overview  of  Cultures   Mesoamerica   •  Olmec    

       1500  BCE  –  200  CE   •  TeoDhuacan      200  CE  –  650  CE   •  Maya        400  BCE  –  1521  C     North  America   •  Woodlands      100  BCE  –  550  CE   •  Mississippian      700  CE  –  1550  CE   •  Chaco  Canyon      200  CE  –  1250  CE  
  4. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE  

  5. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE  

  6. Site  Plan,  La  Venta,   Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.  

    900-­‐400  BCE   Colossal  Heads,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.   900-­‐400  BCE.  
  7. Colossal  Head,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.   900-­‐400

     BCE.  
  8. Great  Pyramid  and  Ball  Court,  La  Venta,  Mexico,   Olmec

     Culture,  c.  900-­‐400  BCE   La  Venta,  Complex  Plan.  
  9. Pyramid   Great  Pyramid,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.

      900-­‐400  BCE   La  Venta,  Complex  Plan.  
  10. Offering  4,  La  Venta,  Mexico,  Olmec  Culture,  c.   900-­‐400

     BCE.   Offering  these  were  ceremonially  buried   and  reburied  in  the  Plaza.  
  11. Olmec:  1500  BCE-­‐200  CE   Jade  (Greenstone)   Jade  Deposit

     
  12. TeoDhuacan  400  BCE  –  650  CE  

  13. TeoDhuacan  400  BCE  –  650  CE  

  14. TeoDhuacan,  ReconstrucDon  (lei)  and  Plan (right).  

  15. TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  Aerial  View,  50   CE-­‐250  CE  (Major  Structures).

        Avenue  of  the  Dead   Pyramid  of  the  Moon   Pyramid  of  the  Sun  
  16. Pyramid  of  the  Moon,  TeoDhuacan,  c.  50  CE-­‐250  CE  

  17. TeoDhuacan,  ReconstrucDon  (lei)  and  Plan (right).  

  18. TeDtla  apartment,  ReconstrucDon,  TeoDhuacan,  c.  650-­‐750   CE.  

  19. Bloodlejng  Ritual,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment,  TeoDhuacan,   c.  650-­‐750  CE.

      Maguey  Plant  
  20. Goddess,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment  complex,   TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  650-­‐750  CE.

      Bloodlejng  Ritual,  fresco,   TeDtla  apartment,   TeoDhuacan,  c.  650-­‐750  CE.  
  21. Goddess,  fresco,  TeDtla  apartment  complex,   TeoDhuacan,  Mexico,  650-­‐750  CE.

     
  22. Maya  400  BCE  –  1521  CE  

  23. None
  24. None
  25. None
  26. Chichen  Itza,  Aerial  View,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.   Plan

     
  27. Chacmool,  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE   El  CasDllo,  (“The

     Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  
  28. 18-­‐17,  Chacmool,  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

  29. El  CasDllo  (“The  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

  30. El  CasDllo,  (“The  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  

  31. El  CasDllo  (“The  Castle”)  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.   800-­‐900

     CE.  
  32. Heads  of  Kuklukan  (The  Feathered  Serpent  God),  El  CasDllo  

    (“the  Castle”),  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  
  33. The  Sacred  Cenote,  North  of  the  Temple  of  Kuklukan  

    (“El  CasDllo”),  Chichen  Itza,  Mexico,  c.  800-­‐900  CE.  
  34. I N D I A N O C E A

    N P A C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N A R C T I C O C E A N SPIAN SEA Mandu Mandu Creek rock shelter with shell-bead necklace e pieces of bone e alette Patne engraved ostrich eggshell Aq Kupruq carved stone head Mal‘ta gir ienki Tolbaga bone figurine evo Pedra Furada rock shelter; fallen fragments of painted wall Arnhem Land shelters with abundant ochre with ochre nd palettes Sandy Creek 2 / Walkunder Arch rock shelter with paintings Olary/Wharton Hill Koonalda Cave finger markings on ceilings and walls Carpenter‘s Gap rock shelter with fallen fragments of painted wall N O R T H A M E R I C A S O U T H A M E R I C A MESOAMERICA B E R I N G I A NEW GUINEA JAVA BOR NEO SUMATRA PHILIPPINES moth ibex bison giant sloth kangaroo JAPAN GREENLAND C H I N A AUSTRALIA A S I A S I B E R I A MigraDon  Routes   Grotte Chauvet Grotte Cosquer Rhône Loire Ardèche MEDITER R A N EAN SE A West European Palaeolithic Art parietal art find site portable art find site 2 examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of varied artistic activity which probably stretches back in time to the very first fossil humans. One particularly important find of recent years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg (Austria, between Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000 years ago. Its lively pose, so different from those of later, more symmetrical and static female figurines, is quite remarkable. SUBJECT-MATTER Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is concerned – and for the moment this is the greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to this period – one noteworthy aspect that was already evident in the small but sophisticated ivory carvings from several sites in southwest Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000 years old), and in the later terracotta figurines from Central Europe is the marked emphasis on depictions of what might be called large, powerful or dangerous animals. This has really come to the fore through the discovery of the Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that would dominate in later Ice Age art were already present, but the art of Chauvet is dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big cats. When combined with the site's striking bear figures, these four categories account for about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures. In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000 years ago) in Western Europe this situation appears to alter radically towards the heavy emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in later caves, though it persists somewhat longer in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture. A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The drawing seems to have been retouched at some stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs to resemble those of a human. this cave’s art suggest a later able art sites, several have nus’ figurines, such as that h ivory from Lespugue and the of the ‘Venus with a horn’ from orate is a carved head of a Brassempouy. 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials 50k   16k   15k   60k   50k  
  35. bear figures, these four categories account for about two-thirds of

    the cave’s animal figures. In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000 years ago) in Western Europe this situation appears to alter radically towards the heavy emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in later caves, though it persists somewhat longer in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture. A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The drawing seems to have been retouched at some stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs to resemble those of a human. P A C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N O C E A N Pedra Furada rock shelter; fallen fragments of painted wall N O R T H A M E R I C A S O U T H A M E R I C A MESOAMERICA N G I A bison giant sloth GREENLAND 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials Grotte Chauvet Grotte Cosquer Rhône Loire Ardèche MEDITER R A N EAN SE A West European Palaeolithic Art parietal art find site portable art find site music and song leave no trace. So the surviving examples of Early Ice Age art are merely the tip of the iceberg, a tantalizing glimpse of a wealth of varied artistic activity which probably stretches back in time to the very first fossil humans. One particularly important find of recent years is the small ‘Venus’ of Galgenberg (Austria, between Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Willendorf), carved in green serpentine, and dated by charcoal around it to c.31,000–32,000 years ago. Its lively pose, so different from those of later, more symmetrical and static female figurines, is quite remarkable. SUBJECT-MATTER Where the Early Ice Age art of Eurasia is concerned – and for the moment this is the greater part of the corpus that is reliably dated to this period – one noteworthy aspect that was already evident in the small but sophisticated ivory carvings from several sites in southwest Germany (Vogelherd, and nearby Geissenklösterle and Hohlenstein-Stadel, all more than 30,000 years old), and in the later terracotta figurines from Central Europe is the marked emphasis on depictions of what might be called large, powerful or dangerous animals. This has really come to the fore through the discovery of the Chauvet Cave. The horse, bison and deer that would dominate in later Ice Age art were already present, but the art of Chauvet is dominated by rhinoceros, mammoths and big cats. When combined with the site's striking bear figures, these four categories account for about two-thirds of the cave’s animal figures. In the Gravettian period (c.25,000–20,000 years ago) in Western Europe this situation appears to alter radically towards the heavy emphasis on herbivores that is so well-known in later caves, though it persists somewhat longer in Central Europe, as seen in the portable art of Dolní Ve ˘stonice and Russia’s Kostienki Culture. A CHARCOAL DRAWING of an animal-human from the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia. The rock slabs date from about 25,000 years ago and are the earliest dated rock paintings in Africa. This one shows what appears to be a feline creature with a heavy head, deep chest and thin tapering legs. The drawing seems to have been retouched at some stage, with the possible alteration of the hind legs to resemble those of a human. his cave’s art suggest a later le art sites, several have us’ figurines, such as that ivory from Lespugue and the the ‘Venus with a horn’ from rate is a carved head of a assempouy. 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials Mesoamerica     Andean     North  America  
  36. Overview  of  Cultures   Mesoamerica   •  Olmec    

       1500  BCE  –  200  CE   •  TeoDhuacan      200  CE  –  650  CE   •  Maya        400  BCE  –  1521  CE   North  America   •  Woodlands      100  BCE  –  550  CE   •  Mississippian      700  CE  –  1550  CE   •  Chaco  Canyon      200  CE  –  1250  CE  
  37. 20˚ 30˚ 90˚ 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ga

    M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valley/ Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Step House Snaketown Patrick’s Point Port-aux-Choix Lonesome Creek Ozette Ipiutak ttle omede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek ing Bay Joss Dundas Island Keatley Creek site Tuburon Hills Coso Range sites Little Harbor Gunther Island Marpole Rio Gra nde St. Lawrence L. Ontario Columbia Fraser Yukon L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron PA C I F I C O C E A N HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY A T L A N T I C O C E A N GULF OF MEXICO R O C K Y M O U N T A I N S GREAT PL A IN S VANCOUVER ISLAND QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS SIERRA NEVADA N O R T H A M E R I C A SONORAN DESERT MOJAVE DESERT ballcourt distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlock, cedar and spruce d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s distributi onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees 1 Pikes Peak 2 Toolesboro Mounds 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness N 0 0 400 miles 300 kms 00 NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600 20˚ 30˚ 90˚ 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valley/ Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Step House Snaketown Patrick’s Point Port-aux-Choix Lonesome Creek Ozette St Lawrence Island sites Ipiutak Little Diomede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek Rolling Bay Joss Dundas Island Keatley Creek site Tuburon Hills Coso Range sites Little Harbor Gunther Island Marpole Rio Gra nde St. Lawrence L. Ontario Columbia Fraser Yukon L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron PA C I F I C O C E A N HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY B E R I N G S E A A T L A N T I C O C E A N GULF OF MEXICO R O C K Y M O U N T A I N S GREAT PL A IN S Cape Nome VANCOUVER ISLAND KODIAK QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS SIERRA NEVADA N O R T H A M E R I C A SONORAN DESERT MOJAVE DESERT ballcourt distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlock, cedar and spruce d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s distributi onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees distrib utionof Bearded and Ringed seals 1 Pikes Peak 2 Toolesboro Mounds 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness N 0 0 400 miles 300 kms Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing system. Architectural innovations such as the corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces, while roof combs raised the exterior space of plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop large platform pyramids built in tiers that often correlate with sacred numbers, such as the nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal and Calakmul, were larger than others and may have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities controlled limited land and competed with adjacent city-states. LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA NORTH AMERICA Over much of North America after 500 BC pottery began to make its first appearance or was more widely accepted. Throughout the continent, groups used local resources to produce various regional traditions. Peoples in the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales. Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears, humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples mastered carving the abundant cedar from the coastal forests. In the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area Ch Ga M 2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600 areas of cultural influence: Hopewell Adena-Hopewell heartland Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) Fremont Mogollon Hohokam Cosumnes tradition Hopewell site Adena site other archaeological site copper ornaments pictograph/petroglyph stone palettes stone pipes beaver pipes female effigy vessels/figurines male figurines antler/ivory/bone carvings shell ornaments mica ornaments raw materials: copper silver chert galena obsidian mica crystal chlorite whelk barracuda shark alligator whale salmon turtle shell shell Cu Woodlands:  1130  BCE—550  CE    
  38. Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill

    Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann lon Lawn Valley/ cave and rosa Cave Rio Gr St. L L. Ontario L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron A A IN S Hopewell:  c.  100  BCE-­‐550  CE   NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600 Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Port-aux-Choix Lonesome Creek Ipiutak Little Diomede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek olling Bay Joss Dundas Island e Yukon HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY R O C K Y QUEEN distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlo d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s distributi onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees 1 Pikes Peak 2 Toolesboro Mounds 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness 600
  39. Great  Bear  Mountain  Group,  Effigy  Mounds  NaDonal   Monument,  Allamakee

     County,  Iowa.  
  40. Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill

    Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann lon Lawn Valley/ cave and rosa Cave Rio Gr St. L L. Ontario L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron A A IN S Hopewell:  c.  100  BCE-­‐550  CE   NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 500 BC–AD 600 Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Port-aux-Choix Lonesome Creek Ipiutak Little Diomede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek olling Bay Joss Dundas Island e Yukon HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY R O C K Y QUEEN distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlo d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s distributi onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees 1 Pikes Peak 2 Toolesboro Mounds 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness 600 Bedford  Mound  
  41. Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,  Bedford  Mound,  Pike   County,  Illinois,

     Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  
  42. Beaver  Effigy  PlaQorm  Pipe,  Bedford  Mound,  Pike   County,  Illinois,

     Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  
  43. Animal  Effigy  Pipes,  Hopewell  Culture,  100-­‐400  CE.  

  44. Effigy  of  a  hawk  claw  cut  from  sheet  mica,  

    Hopewell  Mound  Group,  Ohio,  Hopewell   culture,  100  BCE-­‐500  CE   Effigy  of  a  Human  Hand  cut  from  sheet   mica,  Ohio,  Hopewell  Culture,  100   BCE-­‐500  CE  
  45. Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound

    site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag 2 MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE centr on the Ohio River Valley, b there were many regional variations. Each of these h minor, but distinguishing, features. The spread of distinctive Mississippian cultural traits from Ohio to outlying regions was large 40˚ 30˚ Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy Knapp Mounds Spiro Chucalissa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Natchez Emerald Mound Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Ocmulgee Lamar Kolomoki Lake Jackson Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah Old Fort Utz M ississippi Mis souri Ohio Red Ri ver Arkansas Lake Michigan Lake Erie G U L F O F M E X I C O A T L A N T I C O C E A N APPALA C H IA N M TS N 0 0 300 miles 450 kms 2 Mississippian Temple Mound Sites, c.900 Middle Mississippian South Appalachian Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag 70˚ 50˚ 40˚ 80˚ 90˚ Ag Ag Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy sa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah ort M ississippi s souri Ohio Lake Michigan Lake Erie APPALA C H IA N M TS Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    
  46. M Grave Creek M Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip

    Great Serpent Mound gel Hiwassee Ohio Lake Erie IA N M TS 2 Mississippian Temple Mound Sites, c.900 Middle Mississippian South Appalachian Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag . In was ings, e of ng ily re the s, 1500 the clined, ble bia s a these l as 70˚ 50˚ 40˚ 80˚ 90˚ 100˚ Ag Ag Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy Knapp Mounds Spiro Chucalissa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Natchez Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Ocmulgee Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah Old Fort Utz M ississippi Mis souri Ohio Red Ri Arkansas Lake Michigan Lake Erie APPALA C H IA N M TS NORTH AMERICA 600–150 Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    
  47. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

  48. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

  49. Great  Serpent  Mound,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  c.  1070  CE  

  50. Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound

    site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag 2 MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE centr on the Ohio River Valley, b there were many regional variations. Each of these h minor, but distinguishing, features. The spread of distinctive Mississippian cultural traits from Ohio to outlying regions was large 40˚ 30˚ Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy Knapp Mounds Spiro Chucalissa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Natchez Emerald Mound Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Ocmulgee Lamar Kolomoki Lake Jackson Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah Old Fort Utz M ississippi Mis souri Ohio Red Ri ver Arkansas Lake Michigan Lake Erie G U L F O F M E X I C O A T L A N T I C O C E A N APPALA C H IA N M TS N 0 0 300 miles 450 kms 2 Mississippian Temple Mound Sites, c.900 Middle Mississippian South Appalachian Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag 70˚ 50˚ 40˚ 80˚ 90˚ Ag Ag Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy sa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah ort M ississippi s souri Ohio Lake Michigan Lake Erie APPALA C H IA N M TS Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    
  51. M Dickson Hopewe Fort Ancient Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy

    calissa Hiwassee ld Fort Utz Mis souri Ohio 2 Mississippian Temple Mound Sites, c.900 Middle Mississippian South Appalachian Mississippian Plaquemine Mississippian Caddoan Mississippian Fort Ancient Oneota temple mound site raw materials: obsidian grizzly bear teeth chalcedony flint silver copper pipestone mica marine shells shark/alligator teeth Cu M Ag . In was ings, e of ng ily re the s, 1500 the clined, ble bia s a these l as 70˚ 50˚ 40˚ 80˚ 90˚ 100˚ Ag Ag Cu Cu Cu Cu M M M Dickson Grave Creek Mound Newark Adena Hopewell Fort Ancient Seip Great Serpent Mound Aztalan Cahokia Angel Kings Mound Towosahgy Knapp Mounds Spiro Chucalissa Owl Creek Moundville Winterville Natchez Shiloh Florence Scotts Lake Rock Eagle Ocmulgee Town Creek Hiwassee Island Etowah Old Fort Utz M ississippi Mis souri Ohio Red Ri Arkansas Lake Michigan Lake Erie APPALA C H IA N M TS NORTH AMERICA 600–150 Mississippian:  700-­‐1550  CE    
  52. Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE  

  53. Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE   Monk’s  Mound

     
  54. Monk’s  Mound,  Cahokia,  East  St.  Louis,  Illinois,   1000-­‐1300  CE

     
  55. Main  Plaza,  View  from  Monk’s  Mound,  Cahokia,  East   St.

     Louis,  Illinois,  1000-­‐1300  CE  
  56. 20˚ 30˚ Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound

    Squawkie Hill Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valley/ Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Step House Snaketown Patrick’s Point Port-aux-Choix Lonesome Creek Ozette ak and Walakpa Engigstciak wood Creek Joss Dundas Island Keatley Creek site Tuburon Hills Coso Range sites Little Harbor Gunther Island Marpole Rio Gra nde St. Lawrence L. Ontario Columbia Fraser Yukon L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron PA C I F I C O C E A N HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY A T L A N T I C O C E A N GULF OF MEXICO R O C K Y M O U N T A I N S GREAT PL A IN S VANCOUVER ISLAND QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS SIERRA NEVADA N O R T H A M E R I C A SONORAN DESERT MOJAVE DESERT ballcourt distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlock, cedar and spruce d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s distributi onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees 1 Pikes Peak 2 Toolesboro Mounds 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness N 0 0 400 miles 300 kms 20˚ 30˚ 90˚ 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valley/ Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Step House Snaketown Patrick’s Point Port-aux-Choix Ozette St Lawrence Island sites Ipiutak Little Diomede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek Rolling Bay Joss Dundas Island Keatley Creek site Tuburon Hills Coso Range sites Little Harbor Gunther Island Marpole Rio Gra nde St. Lawrence L. Ontario Columbia Fraser Yukon L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron PA C I F I C O C E A N HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY B E R I N G S E A A T L A N T I C O C E A N GULF OF MEXICO R O C K Y M O U N T A I N S GREAT PL A IN S Cape Nome VANCOUVER ISLAND KODIAK QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS SIERRA NEVADA N O R T H A M E R I C A SONORAN DESERT MOJAVE DESERT ballcourt distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlock, cedar and spruce d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s i onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees distrib utionof Bearded and Ringed seals 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness N 0 0 400 miles 300 kms Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing system. Architectural innovations such as the corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces, while roof combs raised the exterior space of plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop large platform pyramids built in tiers that often correlate with sacred numbers, such as the nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal and Calakmul, were larger than others and may have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities controlled limited land and competed with adjacent city-states. LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA While this region interacted with Mesoamerica NORTH AMERICA Over much of North America after 500 BC pottery began to make its first appearance or was more widely accepted. Throughout the continent, groups used local resources to produce various regional traditions. Peoples in the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales. Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears, humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples mastered carving the abundant cedar from the coastal forests. In the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area served as canvases for styles of pictographs and Ch Ga M 2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600 areas of cultural influence: Hopewell Adena-Hopewell heartland Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) Fremont Mogollon Hohokam Cosumnes tradition Hopewell site Adena site other archaeological site copper ornaments pictograph/petroglyph stone palettes stone pipes beaver pipes female effigy vessels/figurines male figurines antler/ivory/bone carvings shell ornaments mica ornaments raw materials: copper silver chert galena obsidian mica crystal chlorite whelk barracuda shark alligator whale salmon turtle shell shell Cu Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  
  57. Fourc Sterns C B Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valle

    Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Step House I N S REAT PL A IN S NEVADA SONORAN 20˚ 30˚ 90˚ 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ga M Ch Cu Cu Cu Serpent Mound Squawkie Hill Crystal River Weeden Island Fort Center Mandeville Kolomoki Swift Creek Tremper Gaston Seip Wright Tunacunnhee Mcquorquodale Porter Helena Crossing Fourche Malines Marksville Bynum Miller Pinson Renner Sterns Creek Cahokia Knight Howard Lake Effigy Mounds Trempealeau 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 6 Boone Cresap Grave Creek Abbott Farm Mann Grand Gulch Mogollon Pine Lawn Valley/ Bat cave and Tularosa Cave Mesa Grande Talus Village Igloolik Gulf Hazard Tyara Step House Snaketown Patrick’s Point Port-aux-Choix Ozette St Lawrence Island sites Ipiutak Little Diomede Island Iyatayet Norton Walakpa Engigstciak Cottonwood Creek Rolling Bay Joss Dundas Island Keatley Creek site Tuburon Hills Coso Range sites Little Harbor Gunther Island Marpole Rio Gra nde St. Lawrence L. Ontario Columbia Fraser Yukon L. Superior L. Michigan L. Erie L. Huron PA C I F I C O C E A N HUDSON BAY BAFFIN BAY B E R I N G S E A A T L A N T I C O C E A N GULF OF MEXICO R O C K Y M O U N T A I N S GREAT PL A IN S Cape Nome VANCOUVER ISLAND KODIAK QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS SIERRA NEVADA N O R T H A M E R I C A SONORAN DESERT MOJAVE DESERT ballcourt distribution of Beluga whales distribution of Beluga whales area of hemlock, cedar and spruce d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s i onof Bearded and Ringed seal s distrib ution of Bearded and Ring ed seals d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l a r be ars u t i o n o f p o l a r b e a r s northe rn l imit of trees distrib utionof Bearded and Ringed seals 3 Norton Mound 4 Crab Orchard 5 Mount Horeb 6 Mound City 7 Serpent Mound 8 Fort Ancient 9 Adena 10 Hopewell 11 Alum Creek 12 Newark 13 Robbins 14 Turner 15 Bedford 16 Havana 17 Goodall 18 Jaketown 19 Harness N 0 0 400 miles 300 kms Mirador by their complex logophonetic writing system. Architectural innovations such as the corbel vault opened up narrow interior spaces, while roof combs raised the exterior space of plastered palaces and temples. These sat atop large platform pyramids built in tiers that often correlate with sacred numbers, such as the nine levels (of the underworld) seen at Tikal and Palenque. While some cities, such as Tikal and Calakmul, were larger than others and may have formed ‘superstates’, most Mayan cities controlled limited land and competed with adjacent city-states. LOWER CENTRAL AMERICA While this region interacted with Mesoamerica NORTH AMERICA Over much of North America after 500 BC pottery began to make its first appearance or was more widely accepted. Throughout the continent, groups used local resources to produce various regional traditions. Peoples in the Arctic and Subarctic focused on marine resources, primarily seals, walruses and whales. Artists from Ipiutak carved walruses, bears, humans and fantastic creatures on bone, antler and ivory. By AD 600 Northwest coast peoples mastered carving the abundant cedar from the coastal forests. In the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico the large rocks of the caves and canyons in this semi-arid/desert area served as canvases for styles of pictographs and Ch Ga M 2 North America, 500 BC-AD 600 areas of cultural influence: Hopewell Adena-Hopewell heartland Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) Fremont Mogollon Hohokam Cosumnes tradition Hopewell site Adena site other archaeological site copper ornaments pictograph/petroglyph stone palettes stone pipes beaver pipes female effigy vessels/figurines male figurines antler/ivory/bone carvings shell ornaments mica ornaments raw materials: copper silver chert galena obsidian mica crystal chlorite whelk barracuda shark alligator whale salmon turtle shell shell Cu Ancestral   Puebloan   Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  
  58. Harris Alkali Ridge n Luis ispo Canyon de Chelly Wupatki

    Pinto Basin Gypsum Cave Naco Snaketown Casa Grande Lehner Montezuma Castle Bandelier Mimbres Folsom Pueblo Bonito Mesa Verde Quivira Olsen-Chubbo Lipscomb Sp Meserve Lubbock Aligates Quarry Midland Levi Bonfire Logan C Rio Grande Colorado GULF OF A nomy g in ing, 80˚ 90˚ 20˚ 30˚ 120˚ Harris Canyon de Chelly Wupatki Pinto Basin Naco Snaketown Casa Grande Lehner Montezuma Castle Bandelier Mimbres Folsom Pueblo Bonito Mesa Verde Quivira Olsen-Chubbock Lipscomb Marksville Spiro Jaketown Poverty Point Emerald Mound Lubbock Aligates Quarry Midland Levi Bonfire Modoc Dalton Graham Cave Newark Fort Ancient Angel Mound City Serpent Mound Cahokia Starved Rock Key Marco Weeden Island Turtle Mound Bilbo Hollywood Town Etowah Mandeville Moundville Rio Grande Mississippi Colorado Ohio souri P A C I F I C O C E A N G U L F O F M E X I C O GULF OF CALIFORNIA A P PA L A C H I A CALIFORNIA maritime economy on coast; acorn farming in interior, hunting, basketry, featherwork, some wood carving GRASSLANDS big game hunting; skin clothing, featherwork, buffalo robes, horn utensils, porcupine quillwork 1 Major Archaeological Sites Inuit archaeological site, post-600 late archaeological site extent of Mogollon tradition, c.300-1300 extent of Fremont tradition, c.400-1150 extent of Patayan tradition, c.500-1100 extent of Anasazi tradition, c.500-1300 extent of Hohokam tradition, c.600-1450 AncestralPueblo   Ancestral  Pueblo:  500  CE—1500  CE  
  59. Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

  60. Walls,  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New  Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.  

  61. Pueblo  Bonito,  ReconstrucDon,  Chaco  Canyon,  New   Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.

     
  62. Pueblo  Bonito,  ReconstrucDon,  Chaco  Canyon,  New   Mexico,  830-­‐1050  CE.

     
  63. The  “Great  Kiva,”  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New   Mexico,

     830-­‐1050  CE.  
  64. Roads  from  Pueblo  Bonito,  Chaco  Canyon,  New   Mexico,  830-­‐1050

     CE.  
  65. Red-­‐on-­‐Black  Ware  (“White  Mountain  Red  Ware”),   Ancestral  Pueblo,  1125-­‐1200

     CE.        
  66. Harris Alkali Ridge n Luis ispo Canyon de Chelly Wupatki

    Pinto Basin Gypsum Cave Naco Snaketown Casa Grande Lehner Montezuma Castle Bandelier Mimbres Folsom Pueblo Bonito Mesa Verde Quivira Olsen-Chubbo Lipscomb Sp Meserve Lubbock Aligates Quarry Midland Levi Bonfire Logan C Rio Grande Colorado GULF OF A nomy g in ing, 80˚ 90˚ 20˚ 30˚ 120˚ Harris Canyon de Chelly Wupatki Pinto Basin Naco Snaketown Casa Grande Lehner Montezuma Castle Bandelier Mimbres Folsom Pueblo Bonito Mesa Verde Quivira Olsen-Chubbock Lipscomb Marksville Spiro Jaketown Poverty Point Emerald Mound Lubbock Aligates Quarry Midland Levi Bonfire Modoc Dalton Graham Cave Newark Fort Ancient Angel Mound City Serpent Mound Cahokia Starved Rock Key Marco Weeden Island Turtle Mound Bilbo Hollywood Town Etowah Mandeville Moundville Rio Grande Mississippi Colorado Ohio souri P A C I F I C O C E A N G U L F O F M E X I C O GULF OF CALIFORNIA A P PA L A C H I A CALIFORNIA maritime economy on coast; acorn farming in interior, hunting, basketry, featherwork, some wood carving GRASSLANDS big game hunting; skin clothing, featherwork, buffalo robes, horn utensils, porcupine quillwork 1 Major Archaeological Sites Inuit archaeological site, post-600 late archaeological site extent of Mogollon tradition, c.300-1300 extent of Fremont tradition, c.400-1150 extent of Patayan tradition, c.500-1100 extent of Anasazi tradition, c.500-1300 extent of Hohokam tradition, c.600-1450 Ancestral   Puebloan   A  drought  in  Chaco  Canyon   around  1150  may  have  caused   the  Ancestral  Pueblo  to  move   north.  
  67. Cliff  Palace,  Mesa  Verde,  Colorado,  Ancestral  Pueblo,   1150-­‐1300  CE.