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Mapping the Cosmos: Buddhist and Hindu Art in Southeast Asia

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December 06, 2013

Mapping the Cosmos: Buddhist and Hindu Art in Southeast Asia

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

December 06, 2013
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  1. Art  of  Southeast  Asia   Reading:     Denise  Patry

     Leidy,  “Place  and  Process:   Mandala  Imagery  in  the  Buddhist  Art  of   Asia,”  pp.  16-­‐45.     Range:     c.  4000  BCE—1500  CE   Pakistan,  India     Terms/Concepts:   Aniconic,  Samsara,  Yogi,  Siddhartha,   Mudra,  Enlightenment,  Buddha,   aniconism,  Axis  Mundi,  Mandala,  Chakra,   Yakshi,  ChaMra,  Harmika,  Stupa,   Reliquary,     Monument  List:     Nude  Male  Torso,  Harappan   Civiliza,on,  2600-­‐1900  BCE     Lion  Capital  of  Ashoka,  Maurya   Period  India,  c.  250  BCE     The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,   Maurya  Period  India,  3rd   century  BCE  to  1st  century  CE.       Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of   the  Dance),  Thanjavur,   India,  12th  century  CE  
  2. Samsara  =  The  Cycle  of  Life,  Death,  and  Rebirth  

    Fer^lity   Medita^ve  Breathing/Yoga  
  3. Nude  Male  Torso,  from  Harappa,   Pakistan,  c.  2000-­‐1900  BCE.

     
  4. None
  5. Great  Bath  (looking  northeast),  Mohenjo-­‐daro,  Pakistan,  c.   2600-­‐1900  BCE.

     
  6. 15-­‐3,  Great  Bath  (looking  northeast),  Mohenjo-­‐daro,   Pakistan,  c.  2600-­‐1900

     BCE.  
  7. Seal  with  seated  figure  in  yogic   posture,  from  Mohenjo-­‐daro,

      Pakistan,  c.  2300-­‐1700  BCE.  
  8. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   Life  of  the  Buddha  
  9. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,   and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.     Life  of  the  Buddha  
  10. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,   and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.     598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests   under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,   becoming  the  Buddha.   Life  of  the  Buddha  
  11. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,   and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.     598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests   under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,   becoming  the  Buddha.   598  BCE:  Buddha  gives  his  first   sermon  at  Sarnath.   Life  of  the  Buddha  
  12. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,   and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.     598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests   under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,   becoming  the  Buddha.   598  BCE:  Buddha  gives  his  first   sermon  at  Sarnath.   Life  of  the  Buddha   598-­‐643  BCE:  Buddha  wanders  northern  India   spreading  his  teachings  un^l  his  death  at   Kushingara.  
  13. Buddhism:  Major  Concepts     3  Trainings   •  Sila:

     Virtue   •  Samadhi:  Medita^on   •  Prajna:   Enlightenment   4  Noble  Truths   •  The  World  is  Suffering   •  Suffering  has  a  cause   •  There  is  an  end  to   suffering   •  That  is  achieving  non-­‐ aMachment.   5  Precepts   •  Do  not  harm   •  Do  not  steal   •  Do  not  lie   •  Do  not  misuse   sex   •  Do  not  consume   mind-­‐altering   substances   8-­‐Fold  Path   •  Proper   understanding  of   the  4  noble  truths   •  Right  Thinking   •  Right  Speech   •  Right  Conduct   •  Right  Livelihood   •  Right  Effort   •  Right  Mindfulness   •  Right  Concentra^on  
  14. The  Beloved  of  the  Gods  [Ashoka],   conqueror  of  the

     Kalingas,  is  moved  to   remorse  now.    For  he  has  felt  profound   sorrow  and  regret  because  of  the  conquest   of  people  previously  unconquered  involves   slaughter,  death,  and  deporta^on…[King   Ashoka]  now  thinks  that  even  a  person  who   wrongs  him  must  be  forgiven…[and  he]   considers  moral  conquests  [conquest  by   dharma]  the  most  important  conquest.    He   has  achieved  this  moral  conquest   repeatedly  both  here  and  among  the   peoples  living  beyond  the  borders  of  his   kingdom…Even  in  countries  which  [King   Ashoka’s]  envoys  have  not  reached,  people   have  heard  about  dharma  and  about  [the   king’s]  ordinances  and  instruc^ons  in   dharma…This  edict  on  dharma  has  been   inscribed  so  that  my  sons  and  great-­‐ grandsons  who  may  come  aler  me  should   not  think  new  conquests  worth  achieving… Let  them  consider  moral  conquest  the  only   true  conquest.”    
  15. What is Abstraction? Ashokan  Capital,  250-­‐246  BCE  

  16. Ashokan  Capital,  Sarnath,   India,  c.  250-­‐246  BCE   Lotus

      Chakra/Wheel   4  Animals:  Elephant,  Bull,  Lion,  Horse   4  Lions  
  17. 80˚ 85˚ 90˚ 95˚ 30˚ 25˚ 20˚ 15˚ 10˚ 5˚

    1 2 3 4 Bamiyan Peshawar Rangmahal Hadda Akhnur Srinagar Harvan Taxila Mirpur Khas Mathura Ahar Bhitargaon Pawaya Deogarh Varanasi Nachnakuthara Tigawa Ramtek Nalanda Sultanganj Kurkihar Pandu Rajar Dhibi Vaishali Elephanta Kondapur Ter Anuradhapura Sigiriya Kanchipuram Nagapattinam Amaravati Udayagiri Bhattiprolu Ghantasala Goli Nagarjunakonda Jaggayyapeta Sanchi Akota Ellora Aihole Kolhapur Brahmagiri Bagh Ajanta Dwarka Barygaza Phophnar Noh Gop Sarnath Kannauj Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Ma hanadi Godava ri Ka veri Krishna Ganges Yamuna Sutlej Indus Indus Jhelu m Chen ab Ravi Brahmaputra A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S EASTERN GHATS WESTERN GHATS D E C C A N H I N D U K U S H T H A R D E S E R T KSHATRAPA W ESTERN A N D H R A S S A T A V A H A N A S G U P T A S H U N A S IKSHVAKUS P A L L A V A S CHOLAS PANDYAS CHERAS VAKATAKAS S A S S A N I A N S H E P H T H A L I T E S K U S H A N A S Southwestern ports: clothing/linen, copper, tin, lead, semi-precious stones, coins, glass, wheat, wine Eastern ports: muslin, pearls, ivory, cinnamon Indus ports: semi-precious stones, furs/skins, indigo/other dyes, cotton, silk Southeastern ports: muslin, semi-precious stones, pearls, tortoise shell N 0 0 2 India, AD 100-600 area of Gupta overlordship major dynasty, 1st-3rd centuries AD major dynasty, 3rd-6th centuries AD route of Faxian, AD 399-414 probable route of Xuanzang, AD 629-645 painting pillar monastery remains stupa cave: sculpted or painted temple structure bronze sculpture stone sculpture terracotta/stucco imagery ivory carving jewellery coins imports exports ANDHRAS GUPTAS - Indus ports (imports): silver/gold plate, semi-precious stones, glassware, clothing/linen, wine - Barygaza ports (exports): semi-precious stones, cotton/silk cloth, yarn, pepper, ivory - Southwestern ports (exports): precious/semi-precious stones, tortoise shell, silk cloth, cinnamon, pepper, ivory - Barygaza ports (imports): silverware, gold/silver coins, copper, tin,lead, glass, clothing, wine 1 2 3 4 300 miles 450 kms DETAIL OF A WALL PAINTING from Ajanta caves, c. fifth century AD, in the domain of the Vakataka dynasty. These Buddhist paintings are celebrated for their sophisticated compositions that burst with life. Set in palaces and gardens, they show kings, ascetics, animals and the most seductive women in self- consciously languid poses. The depictions of textiles, furniture and ornament allow us a vivid window into early India. The mountain passes of the northwest frontier have always been India’s vital corridors for links to the west, whether for overland trade, or, as in the case of Alexander in the third century BC, for conquest. Following Alexander’s retreat from the Jhelum River in 326 –5 BC, his possessions in northwest India and Afghanistan were divided between his generals. By the period of the establishment of the subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire in the third century BC, therefore, indigenous and foreign models of statecraft, administration and, moreover, control over a standing army were well-known. The extensive diplomatic and trade exchanges of the Mauryan emperors Chandragupta (r.321–297 BC) and Ashoka (r.268–232 BC) with Iran, Greece, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia are reflected in not just the influences on their art, but the conscious choice to leave lasting legacies in stone. Imperial Mauryan freestanding monolithic pillars were all quarried near Varanasi and then transported over river networks to far-flung regions of the empire. Ashokan stone inscriptions concern a variety of social, religious and economic matters. They 30˚ 25˚ 20˚ 15˚ 90˚ 85˚ 80˚ anchi nathi Amaravati Udayagiri Gudimallam Arikamedu Anuradhapura Bharhut Ahichhatra Sravasti Ayodhya Sarnath Chandraketugarh Tamralipti Varanasi Vaishali Pataliputra Rajgriha Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Mahanadi Godavari mada v eri G anges amuna Bra hmaputra I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S A S T E R N G H A T S C A N G A S M A U R Y A S K A L I N G A economic commodities/ raw materials: horses elephants cotton silk spices iron/coal gold diamonds gems pearls WHILE HUNDREDS OF megalithic burial sites were otted across India in this period and traces of vilization and rural dwellings can be found across he subcontinent, this map shows only major sites r regions that either manufactured r supplied materials for the production of ‘art’. everal cities and monastic dwellings have evealed structures, coins, paintings and artefacts or what is called the ‘early-historic’ period in dia. The structures are mostly Buddhist, Jain or indu, although there are traces of others which an no longer be clearly identified. The map ses only the most commonly known names f dynasties. LION CAPITAL, SARNATH, 3RD CENTRY BC. This monolithic pillar capital was one of many erected by King Ashoka. The capital is made from spectacularly polished cream sandstone. Sarnath is the site where the Buddha delivered his first sermon, thereby establishing the religious order of Buddhism. Interestingly, the pillar bears an inscription left by Ashoka threatening dissenting monks with expulsion from the order.
  18. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  

    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    
  19. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  

    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).     Harmika   ChaMra   Buddha   Buddha’s  Teachings   Buddha’s  Followers  
  20. Mandala,  or  Map  of  the  Cosmos   The  Great  Stupa,

     Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  150-­‐50  BCE   (expanded).     or  “Sacred  Enclosure”   Mandala  of  Jnanadakini,  Tibet,   Shakya  order,  late  14th—early  15th   century.  
  21. Mandala  of   Jnanadakini,   Tibet,  Shakya   order,  late

     14th— early  15th   century.  
  22. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  

    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    
  23. West  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,   Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.

        East  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,   Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    
  24. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  North  Torana,  Eastern   Face,

     Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.  
  25. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  West  Torana,  Exterior,    

    Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.  
  26. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

  27. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

  28. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

    Yakshi  figures  were  an  important  part  of   almost  all  South  Asian  tradi^ons  as   personifica^ons  of  fer^lity.  
  29. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  30. 30˚ 40˚ Alexandria Areion (Herat) Alexandria Paropamisadae (Begram) Ortospana Shotorak

    Tepe Maranjan Tepe Sardar Nagarahara Hadda Charsadda Alexandria Nicaea Alexandria Bucephala Alexandria Margiana Merv Antioch-in-Margiana (Merv) Maracanda (Samarkand) Fayaz-tepe Ayrtam Tillya-tepe Takht-i- Sangin Dalverzin-tepe Khalchayan Kara-tepe Dilberjin Taxila Manikyal Takht-i-Bahi Puskalavati Bajaur Jalalabad Alexandria Bactra (Bactra) Surkh Kotal Bamiyan Paitava Alexandria Oxiana Ay Khanum Drapsaca (Kunduz) Kobadian (Oxus treasure) Alexandria Eschate (Khojent) Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar) Alexandria in India Alexandria Oreiton Balkh A m u D arya Indus Sutlej Chen ab Helmand A R A B I A N S E A S P I A N S E A K A RAKORAM PA M I R S K A R A K U M IRANIAN PLATEAU ELBURZ MTS ZAGROS MTS HINDU KUSH INDO-PARTHIANS C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A A R A C H O S I A DRANGIANA S O G D I A N A BACTRIA G A N D H A R A PARTHIA A R I A I N D I A P E R S I A A R A B I A 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ 30˚ 40˚ Alexandria Areion (Herat) Alexandria Paropamisadae (Begram) Ortospana Shotorak Tepe Maranjan Tepe Sardar Nagarahara Hadda Charsadda Alexandria Nicaea Alexandria Bucephala Alexandria Margiana Merv Antioch-in-Margiana (Merv) Maracanda (Samarkand) Fayaz-tepe Ayrtam Tillya-tepe Takht-i- Sangin Dalverzin-tepe Khalchayan Kara-tepe Dilberjin Taxila Manikyal Takht-i-Bahi Puskalavati Bajaur Jalalabad Alexandria Bactra (Bactra) Surkh Kotal Bamiyan Paitava Alexandria Oxiana Ay Khanum Drapsaca (Kunduz) Kobadian (Oxus treasure) Alexandria Eschate (Khojent) Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar) Alexandria in India Alexandria Oreiton Balkh Sy r Dar ya A m u D arya Indus Sutlej Chen ab Helmand L. Balkhash A R A B I A N S E A A R A L S E A C A S P I A N S E A K A RAKORAM PA M I R S K A R A K U M KYZUL KUM IRANIAN PLATEAU ELBURZ MTS ZAGROS MTS HINDU KUSH INDO-PARTHIANS C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A A R A C H O S I A DRANGIANA S O G D I A N A BACTRIA G A N D H A R A PARTHIA A R I A I N D I A P E R S I A A R A B I A N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms 82 1 Empires and Tribute campaigns of Alexander the Great cities founded by Alexander Hellenized cities Kushan Empire sites with Kushan art Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom Parthian Empire sites of hoards Achaemenid tribute: bulls camels horses silver rings/jewellery lances and shields weapons battle-axes swords vessels animal hides leather goods lion-skin cloaks 1 GREAT EMPIRES OF CENTRAL ASIA from the Persians to the Kushans show just how desirable this region is. Rich natural resources such as camels and bulls, as well as access to a variety of raw materials as well as the indigenous skills to produce fabulous jewellery and weapons, have meant that Central Asia has been conquered by western, eastern and indigenous groups over many centuries.
  31. 15-­‐11,  Seated  Buddha,  Ghandara  India,  Schist,   2nd-­‐3rd  Century  CE

      Theravada  
  32. Mandorla   Ushnisha   Urna   Closed,  leaf-­‐like  eyes  

    Mudra   Serene  Expression   Lotus  Posture   Elongated  Earlobes   Sanga^   15-­‐11,  Seated  Buddha,  Ghandara  India,  Schist,   2nd-­‐3rd  Century  CE   Theravada  
  33. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  34. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  35. BodhisaMva  Avalokiteshvara,   Bihar,  India,  12th  Century   Tantric  Mahayana

     
  36. BodhisaMva  Avalokiteshvara,   Bihar,  India,  12th  Century   Lotuses  =

     Purity   Crown  and  Princely  Robes   Royal  Ease  Posture   Friendly  but  introspec^ve  face   Boon-­‐Gran^ng  Mudra  
  37. 70 80 60 50 40 20 10 30 Mehrgarh Mohenjo-Daro

    Dholavira Amri Lothal Sutkagen Dor Harappa Shortughai Ganweriwala Kalibangan Kili Gul Muhammad Kayrakkum Zaman-Baba Altin Tepe Ganeshwar Jorwe Inamgaon Gaurimedu Bariduh Rupae Lal Qila Indus Jh elum Ch enab Brahmapu tra God avari Narmada Sutlej Ganges u Darya Tig ris Eu phrate s A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N PERSIA N G ULF N SEA H I M A L A Y A S H IN DU KUSH TA K L A M A K A N Z A G R O S M T S PA M I R S T H A R D E S E R T IRANIAN PLATEAU I N D I A CEYLON (SRI LANKA) C H I N A T I B E T P E R S I A A R A B I A M E S O P O T A M I A N 1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC long-distance routes for trade and contact cultures contemporary with Harappan: Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC peninsular Neolithic Kayatha Ganeswar pre-Harappan site Harappan site Bronze Age settlement site Bronze Age nomadic grave site contemporary sites in India 0 0 300 miles 450 kms Samsara  =  The  Cycle  of  Life,  Death,  and  Rebirth   Fer^lity   Medita^ve  Breathing/Yoga  
  38. Linga  and  Yoni,  from   Mohenjo  Daro,  India,  c.  

    2300-­‐1750  BCE.   Linga   Yoni  
  39. 70 80 60 50 40 20 10 30 Mehrgarh Mohenjo-Daro

    Dholavira Amri Lothal Sutkagen Dor Harappa Shortughai Ganweriwala Kalibangan Kili Gul Muhammad Kayrakkum Zaman-Baba Altin Tepe Ganeshwar Jorwe Inamgaon Gaurimedu Bariduh Rupae Lal Qila Indus Jh elum Ch enab Brahmapu tra God avari Narmada Sutlej Ganges u Darya Tig ris Eu phrate s A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N PERSIA N G ULF N SEA H I M A L A Y A S H IN DU KUSH TA K L A M A K A N Z A G R O S M T S PA M I R S T H A R D E S E R T IRANIAN PLATEAU I N D I A CEYLON (SRI LANKA) C H I N A T I B E T P E R S I A A R A B I A M E S O P O T A M I A N 1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC long-distance routes for trade and contact cultures contemporary with Harappan: Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC peninsular Neolithic Kayatha Ganeswar pre-Harappan site Harappan site Bronze Age settlement site Bronze Age nomadic grave site contemporary sites in India 0 0 300 miles 450 kms
  40. “Caste  System”  

  41. 70˚ 80˚ 60˚ 20˚ 10˚ 30˚ Mathura Bayana Kanauj Badayun

    Amrol Delhi Sthanvisvara Varanasi Jaunpur Ayodhya Madurai Vanci Ramesvaram Kalahasti Kanchipuram Vengi Mallikarjuna Tiruvannamalai Mamallapuram Tanjavur Nagapattinam Anuradhapura Pulatthinagara Tiruvarur Kumbakonam Gangaikondacolapuram Chidambaram Nuggihalli Srirangam Tirumalai Jambukesvara Ajmer Chanderi Udayapura Gyaraspur Batesar Gopagiri (Gwalior) Harsagiri (Harsha) Puri Kathmandu Svayambhunatha Bhojapura Citrakuta Ujjain Khajuravahaka Kosambi Kiratakupa (Kiradu) Vidisha Kalanjar Dhar Satgaon Arbuda (Abu) Prabhasa Mangrol Girinagara (Girnar) Mudhera (Modhera) Sarkhej Patan Mahmudabad (Champaner) Dholka Anlar Thatta Khambayat Mulasthana (Multan) Pakpattan Hisar Qala Bist Warangal Haidarabad Golkonda Palampet Kalinganagara Ekamra (Bhubaneshwar) Konarka Draksharama Gaya Pataliputra Monghyr (Mongir) Nalanda Vikramasila Gaur Pandua Pundravardhana Tamralipti Seunapura (Sinnar) Ambaranatha Elapura Bharuch Satrunjaya Thalner Mahkar Burhanpur Mandu Batwa Lonar Daulatabad Ahmadnagar Ahmadabad Roda Bijapur Bidar Gulbarga Hampi Ittagi Belur Sringeri Dvarasamudra (Halebid) Sravana Belgola Somnathapura Anumakonda Vijayanagara Lokkigundi (Lakhundi) Dambal Arsikere Penukonda Hemavati Srisailam Kanyakumari Ratnagiri Indus Narmada Ganges Penner Godav ari Krishna Kaveri Yamuna A R A B I A N S E A B A Y O F B E N G A L I N D I A N O C E A N WESTERN GHATS H I M A L A Y A S CEYLON (SRI LANKA) D E C C A N S I N D KALINGA N E PA L R A S T R A K U T A S ( 7 5 4 - 9 7 2 ) PALAS (750-1120) HOYSALAS (1126-1347) COLAS (906-1279) SOLANKIS (974-1241) D E L H I S U L T A N A T E (1206-1526) VIJAYANAGARA (1336-1565) G U R J A R A P R A T I H A R A S ( 7 2 5 - 9 3 1 ) PARAMARAS (945-1235) CANDELLAS (925-1308) PALLAVAS (550-870) 1 Monumental Art, 600-1500 dynastic empire (with dates) major Hindu temple/monastery major Jain temple/monastery Buddhist stupa Buddhist university Buddhist monastery major Muslim mosque/tomb probable trade route copper mine diamond mine gold mine precious stones pearls conch shells silk weaving teak sandalwood pepper cinnamon COLAS KORANIC VERSES are carved in relief on the massive Qutb Minar in Delhi, begun by Qutb-ud-din Aibak on a Ghaznavid model in 1199 and completed in 1369 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The magnificent minaret, which rises some 73 metres (240 ft), functioned as both a victory tower and
  42. Temples,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India.   Shiva  Mahadeva  

  43. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,   India,  1000  CE.

      Shikhara  (Mountain  Peak)   Amalaka  (amala  fruit)   Amla  or  Amala  Fruit  
  44. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India,   1000

     CE  
  45. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India,   1000

     CE  
  46. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE   Mithunas  are  lovemaking  couples  that  emphasize  unity  of  the   sexes  and  abundance.  
  47. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,   India,  1000  CE.

     
  48. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,   India,  1000  CE.

     
  49. Longitudnal   Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,

     India,  1000  CE   Stairs   Mandapas   Garbhagriha  
  50. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE.   Vatsu  Mandala  
  51. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE.  
  52. Mandapas,  Kandariya  Mahadeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE  
  53. Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE  
  54. Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,   Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000

     CE   Linga  and  Yoni,  from  Mohenjo   Daro,  India,  c.  2300-­‐1750  BCE.   Linga  and  Yoni  
  55. Yakshi  figures,  Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva   Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,

     India,  1000  CE.   Yakshi  figure,  Great  Stupa,   Sanchi,  c.  150  BCE  
  56. Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of  the  Dance),  Thanjavur,  India,  12th

     century   CE   “Light  of  Glory”   Dwarf  =  Ignorance   Fire   Drum  
  57. Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of  the  Dance),   Thanjavur,  India,

     12th  century  CE   Sri  Yantra  
  58. Tamil  Nadu,  Chola,  12th  century   Tamil  Nadu,  Chola,  13th

     c.   Tamil  Nadu,  Vijayanagar,  14th  c.   Chola,  11th  c.   Chola,  c.  990   Tamil  Nadu,  20th  c.   20th  century  
  59. Shiva  as  Maheshvara   (The  Great  Lord),  from   Madhya

     Pradesh,   India,  5th  century  CE.  
  60. Shiva  as  Yogeshvara  (Master  of  Yoga),  from  the  Kailash  

    Temple,  Cave  16,  Ellora,  India,  c.  8th-­‐9th  centuries  CE.  
  61. Shiva  as  Bhikshatanamur^,   Peruvudaiyar  temple,  Tanjore,   India,  

     11th  century  CE.    
  62. Hindu  Shrine  with  flowers,  food,  and   garlands.  

  63. Hindu  Shrine  with  flowers,  food,  and   garlands.  

  64. A  devotee  adorning  and  dressing  Ganesh  

  65. Devotees  adorning  and  dressing  Ganesh   Feeding  Shiva  Milk