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Mapping the Cosmos: Buddhist and Hindu Art in Southeast Asia

nichsara
December 06, 2013

Mapping the Cosmos: Buddhist and Hindu Art in Southeast Asia

nichsara

December 06, 2013
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  1. Art  of  Southeast  Asia  
    Reading:    
    Denise  Patry  Leidy,  “Place  and  Process:  
    Mandala  Imagery  in  the  Buddhist  Art  of  
    Asia,”  pp.  16-­‐45.  
     
    Range:    
    c.  4000  BCE—1500  CE  
    Pakistan,  India  
     
    Terms/Concepts:  
    Aniconic,  Samsara,  Yogi,  Siddhartha,  
    Mudra,  Enlightenment,  Buddha,  
    aniconism,  Axis  Mundi,  Mandala,  Chakra,  
    Yakshi,  ChaMra,  Harmika,  Stupa,  
    Reliquary,    
    Monument  List:  
      Nude  Male  Torso,  Harappan  
    Civiliza,on,  2600-­‐1900  BCE  
      Lion  Capital  of  Ashoka,  Maurya  
    Period  India,  c.  250  BCE  
      The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  
    Maurya  Period  India,  3rd  
    century  BCE  to  1st  century  CE.    
      Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of  
    the  Dance),  Thanjavur,  
    India,  12th  century  CE  

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  2. Samsara  =  The  Cycle  of  Life,  Death,  and  Rebirth  
    Fer^lity  
    Medita^ve  Breathing/Yoga  

    View full-size slide

  3. Nude  Male  Torso,  from  Harappa,  
    Pakistan,  c.  2000-­‐1900  BCE.  

    View full-size slide

  4. Great  Bath  (looking  northeast),  Mohenjo-­‐daro,  Pakistan,  c.  
    2600-­‐1900  BCE.  

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  5. 15-­‐3,  Great  Bath  (looking  northeast),  Mohenjo-­‐daro,  
    Pakistan,  c.  2600-­‐1900  BCE.  

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  6. Seal  with  seated  figure  in  yogic  
    posture,  from  Mohenjo-­‐daro,  
    Pakistan,  c.  2300-­‐1700  BCE.  

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  7. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal  
    Sakya  family.  
    Life  of  the  Buddha  

    View full-size slide

  8. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal  
    Sakya  family.  
    592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,  
    and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.    
    Life  of  the  Buddha  

    View full-size slide

  9. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal  
    Sakya  family.  
    592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,  
    and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.    
    598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests  
    under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,  
    becoming  the  Buddha.  
    Life  of  the  Buddha  

    View full-size slide

  10. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal  
    Sakya  family.  
    592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,  
    and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.    
    598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests  
    under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,  
    becoming  the  Buddha.  
    598  BCE:  Buddha  gives  his  first  
    sermon  at  Sarnath.  
    Life  of  the  Buddha  

    View full-size slide

  11. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal  
    Sakya  family.  
    592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,  
    and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.    
    598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests  
    under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,  
    becoming  the  Buddha.  
    598  BCE:  Buddha  gives  his  first  
    sermon  at  Sarnath.  
    Life  of  the  Buddha  
    598-­‐643  BCE:  Buddha  wanders  northern  India  
    spreading  his  teachings  un^l  his  death  at  
    Kushingara.  

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  12. Buddhism:  Major  Concepts    
    3  Trainings  
    •  Sila:  Virtue  
    •  Samadhi:  Medita^on  
    •  Prajna:  
    Enlightenment  
    4  Noble  Truths  
    •  The  World  is  Suffering  
    •  Suffering  has  a  cause  
    •  There  is  an  end  to  
    suffering  
    •  That  is  achieving  non-­‐
    aMachment.  
    5  Precepts  
    •  Do  not  harm  
    •  Do  not  steal  
    •  Do  not  lie  
    •  Do  not  misuse  
    sex  
    •  Do  not  consume  
    mind-­‐altering  
    substances  
    8-­‐Fold  Path  
    •  Proper  
    understanding  of  
    the  4  noble  truths  
    •  Right  Thinking  
    •  Right  Speech  
    •  Right  Conduct  
    •  Right  Livelihood  
    •  Right  Effort  
    •  Right  Mindfulness  
    •  Right  Concentra^on  

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  13. The  Beloved  of  the  Gods  [Ashoka],  
    conqueror  of  the  Kalingas,  is  moved  to  
    remorse  now.    For  he  has  felt  profound  
    sorrow  and  regret  because  of  the  conquest  
    of  people  previously  unconquered  involves  
    slaughter,  death,  and  deporta^on…[King  
    Ashoka]  now  thinks  that  even  a  person  who  
    wrongs  him  must  be  forgiven…[and  he]  
    considers  moral  conquests  [conquest  by  
    dharma]  the  most  important  conquest.    He  
    has  achieved  this  moral  conquest  
    repeatedly  both  here  and  among  the  
    peoples  living  beyond  the  borders  of  his  
    kingdom…Even  in  countries  which  [King  
    Ashoka’s]  envoys  have  not  reached,  people  
    have  heard  about  dharma  and  about  [the  
    king’s]  ordinances  and  instruc^ons  in  
    dharma…This  edict  on  dharma  has  been  
    inscribed  so  that  my  sons  and  great-­‐
    grandsons  who  may  come  aler  me  should  
    not  think  new  conquests  worth  achieving…
    Let  them  consider  moral  conquest  the  only  
    true  conquest.”    

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  14. What is Abstraction?
    Ashokan  Capital,  250-­‐246  BCE  

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  15. Ashokan  Capital,  Sarnath,  
    India,  c.  250-­‐246  BCE  
    Lotus  
    Chakra/Wheel  
    4  Animals:  Elephant,  Bull,  Lion,  Horse  
    4  Lions  

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  16. 80˚ 85˚ 90˚ 95˚
    30˚
    25˚
    20˚
    15˚
    10˚

    1
    2
    3
    4
    Bamiyan
    Peshawar
    Rangmahal
    Hadda
    Akhnur
    Srinagar
    Harvan
    Taxila
    Mirpur Khas
    Mathura
    Ahar
    Bhitargaon
    Pawaya
    Deogarh
    Varanasi
    Nachnakuthara
    Tigawa
    Ramtek
    Nalanda
    Sultanganj
    Kurkihar
    Pandu Rajar Dhibi
    Vaishali
    Elephanta
    Kondapur
    Ter
    Anuradhapura
    Sigiriya
    Kanchipuram
    Nagapattinam
    Amaravati
    Udayagiri
    Bhattiprolu
    Ghantasala
    Goli
    Nagarjunakonda
    Jaggayyapeta
    Sanchi
    Akota
    Ellora
    Aihole
    Kolhapur
    Brahmagiri
    Bagh
    Ajanta
    Dwarka
    Barygaza
    Phophnar
    Noh
    Gop
    Sarnath
    Kannauj
    Bodh Gaya
    Kaushambi
    Ma
    hanadi
    Godava
    ri
    Ka
    veri
    Krishna
    Ganges
    Yamuna
    Sutlej
    Indus
    Indus
    Jhelu
    m
    Chen
    ab
    Ravi
    Brahmaputra
    A R A B I A N
    S E A
    I N D I A N
    O C E A N
    H
    I
    M
    A
    L A Y A S
    EASTERN GHATS
    WESTERN GHATS
    D E C C A N
    H I N D U
    K U S H
    T H A R
    D E S E R T
    KSHATRAPA
    W
    ESTERN
    A N D H R A S
    S A T A V A
    H
    A
    N
    A
    S
    G U P T A S
    H U N A S
    IKSHVAKUS
    P A L L A V A S
    CHOLAS
    PANDYAS
    CHERAS
    VAKATAKAS
    S
    A
    S
    S
    A
    N
    I
    A
    N
    S
    H E P H T H A L I T E S
    K
    U
    S
    H
    A
    N
    A
    S
    Southwestern ports:
    clothing/linen,
    copper, tin, lead,
    semi-precious stones,
    coins, glass, wheat, wine
    Eastern ports:
    muslin, pearls,
    ivory, cinnamon
    Indus ports:
    semi-precious stones,
    furs/skins,
    indigo/other dyes,
    cotton, silk
    Southeastern ports:
    muslin,
    semi-precious stones,
    pearls, tortoise shell
    N
    0
    0
    2 India, AD 100-600
    area of Gupta overlordship
    major dynasty,
    1st-3rd centuries AD
    major dynasty,
    3rd-6th centuries AD
    route of Faxian,
    AD 399-414
    probable route of
    Xuanzang, AD 629-645
    painting
    pillar
    monastery remains
    stupa
    cave: sculpted or painted
    temple structure
    bronze sculpture
    stone sculpture
    terracotta/stucco imagery
    ivory carving
    jewellery
    coins
    imports
    exports
    ANDHRAS
    GUPTAS
    - Indus ports (imports):
    silver/gold plate, semi-precious stones, glassware,
    clothing/linen, wine
    - Barygaza ports (exports):
    semi-precious stones, cotton/silk cloth, yarn, pepper, ivory
    - Southwestern ports (exports):
    precious/semi-precious stones, tortoise shell, silk cloth,
    cinnamon, pepper, ivory
    - Barygaza ports (imports):
    silverware, gold/silver coins, copper, tin,lead, glass,
    clothing, wine
    1
    2
    3
    4
    300 miles
    450 kms
    DETAIL OF A WALL PAINTING from Ajanta caves, c. fifth
    century AD, in the domain of the Vakataka dynasty.
    These Buddhist paintings are celebrated for their
    sophisticated compositions that burst with life. Set
    in palaces and gardens, they show kings, ascetics,
    animals and the most seductive women in self-
    consciously languid poses. The depictions of
    textiles, furniture and ornament allow us a vivid
    window into early India.
    The mountain passes of the northwest frontier
    have always been India’s vital corridors for links
    to the west, whether for overland trade, or, as
    in the case of Alexander in the third century BC,
    for conquest. Following Alexander’s retreat
    from the Jhelum River in 326 –5 BC, his
    possessions in northwest India and
    Afghanistan were divided between his generals.
    By the period of the establishment of the
    subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire in the
    third century BC, therefore, indigenous and
    foreign models of statecraft, administration
    and, moreover, control over a standing army
    were well-known.
    The extensive diplomatic and trade
    exchanges of the Mauryan emperors
    Chandragupta (r.321–297 BC) and Ashoka
    (r.268–232 BC) with Iran, Greece, Egypt, Sri
    Lanka and Southeast Asia are reflected in not
    just the influences on their art, but the
    conscious choice to leave lasting legacies in
    stone. Imperial Mauryan freestanding
    monolithic pillars were all quarried near
    Varanasi and then transported over river
    networks to far-flung regions of the empire.
    Ashokan stone inscriptions concern a variety of
    social, religious and economic matters. They
    30˚
    25˚
    20˚
    15˚
    90˚
    85˚
    80˚
    anchi
    nathi
    Amaravati
    Udayagiri
    Gudimallam
    Arikamedu
    Anuradhapura
    Bharhut
    Ahichhatra
    Sravasti
    Ayodhya
    Sarnath
    Chandraketugarh
    Tamralipti
    Varanasi
    Vaishali
    Pataliputra
    Rajgriha
    Bodh Gaya
    Kaushambi
    Mahanadi
    Godavari
    mada
    v
    eri
    G
    anges
    amuna
    Bra
    hmaputra
    I N D I A N
    O C E A N
    H
    I
    M
    A
    L
    A Y A S
    A S T E R N G H A T S
    C A N
    G A S
    M A U R Y A S
    K A L I N G A
    economic commodities/
    raw materials:
    horses
    elephants
    cotton
    silk
    spices
    iron/coal
    gold
    diamonds
    gems
    pearls
    WHILE HUNDREDS OF megalithic burial sites were
    otted across India in this period and traces of
    vilization and rural dwellings can be found across
    he subcontinent, this map shows only major sites
    r regions that either manufactured
    r supplied materials for the production of ‘art’.
    everal cities and monastic dwellings have
    evealed structures, coins, paintings and artefacts
    or what is called the ‘early-historic’ period in
    dia. The structures are mostly Buddhist, Jain or
    indu, although there are traces of others which
    an no longer be clearly identified. The map
    ses only the most commonly known names
    f dynasties.
    LION CAPITAL, SARNATH, 3RD CENTRY BC. This monolithic
    pillar capital was one of many erected by King
    Ashoka. The capital is made from spectacularly
    polished cream sandstone. Sarnath is the site where
    the Buddha delivered his first sermon, thereby
    establishing the religious order of Buddhism.
    Interestingly, the pillar bears an inscription left by
    Ashoka threatening dissenting monks with
    expulsion from the order.

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  17. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  
    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    

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  18. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  
    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    
    Harmika  
    ChaMra  
    Buddha  
    Buddha’s  Teachings  
    Buddha’s  Followers  

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  19. Mandala,  or  Map  of  the  Cosmos  
    The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  150-­‐50  BCE  
    (expanded).    
    or  “Sacred  Enclosure”  
    Mandala  of  Jnanadakini,  Tibet,  
    Shakya  order,  late  14th—early  15th  
    century.  

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  20. Mandala  of  
    Jnanadakini,  
    Tibet,  Shakya  
    order,  late  14th—
    early  15th  
    century.  

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  21. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  
    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    

    View full-size slide

  22. West  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,  
    Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    
    East  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,  
    Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    

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  23. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  North  Torana,  Eastern  
    Face,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.  

    View full-size slide

  24. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  West  Torana,  Exterior,    
    Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.  

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  25. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

    View full-size slide

  26. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

    View full-size slide

  27. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  
    Yakshi  figures  were  an  important  part  of  
    almost  all  South  Asian  tradi^ons  as  
    personifica^ons  of  fer^lity.  

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  28. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

    View full-size slide

  29. 30˚
    40˚
    Alexandria
    Areion (Herat)
    Alexandria Paropamisadae (Begram)
    Ortospana
    Shotorak
    Tepe Maranjan
    Tepe Sardar
    Nagarahara
    Hadda
    Charsadda
    Alexandria
    Nicaea
    Alexandria
    Bucephala
    Alexandria Margiana
    Merv
    Antioch-in-Margiana (Merv)
    Maracanda (Samarkand)
    Fayaz-tepe Ayrtam
    Tillya-tepe
    Takht-i-
    Sangin
    Dalverzin-tepe
    Khalchayan
    Kara-tepe
    Dilberjin
    Taxila
    Manikyal
    Takht-i-Bahi
    Puskalavati
    Bajaur
    Jalalabad
    Alexandria Bactra
    (Bactra)
    Surkh Kotal
    Bamiyan
    Paitava
    Alexandria Oxiana
    Ay Khanum
    Drapsaca (Kunduz)
    Kobadian (Oxus treasure)
    Alexandria Eschate (Khojent)
    Alexandria
    Prophthasia
    Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar)
    Alexandria
    in India
    Alexandria
    Oreiton
    Balkh
    A
    m
    u D
    arya
    Indus
    Sutlej
    Chen
    ab
    Helmand
    A R A B I A N S E A
    S P I A N S E A
    K
    A
    RAKORAM
    PA M I R S
    K A R A
    K U M
    IRANIAN
    PLATEAU
    ELBURZ
    MTS
    ZAGROS
    MTS
    HINDU KUSH
    INDO-PARTHIANS
    C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A
    A R A C H O S I A
    DRANGIANA
    S O G D I A N A
    BACTRIA
    G A N D H A R A
    PARTHIA
    A R I A
    I N D I A
    P E R S I A
    A R A B I A
    80˚
    70˚
    60˚
    30˚
    40˚
    Alexandria
    Areion (Herat)
    Alexandria Paropamisadae (Begram)
    Ortospana
    Shotorak
    Tepe Maranjan
    Tepe Sardar
    Nagarahara
    Hadda
    Charsadda
    Alexandria
    Nicaea
    Alexandria
    Bucephala
    Alexandria Margiana
    Merv
    Antioch-in-Margiana (Merv)
    Maracanda (Samarkand)
    Fayaz-tepe Ayrtam
    Tillya-tepe
    Takht-i-
    Sangin
    Dalverzin-tepe
    Khalchayan
    Kara-tepe
    Dilberjin
    Taxila
    Manikyal
    Takht-i-Bahi
    Puskalavati
    Bajaur
    Jalalabad
    Alexandria Bactra
    (Bactra)
    Surkh Kotal
    Bamiyan
    Paitava
    Alexandria Oxiana
    Ay Khanum
    Drapsaca (Kunduz)
    Kobadian (Oxus treasure)
    Alexandria Eschate (Khojent)
    Alexandria
    Prophthasia
    Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar)
    Alexandria
    in India
    Alexandria
    Oreiton
    Balkh
    Sy
    r Dar
    ya
    A
    m
    u D
    arya
    Indus
    Sutlej
    Chen
    ab
    Helmand
    L. Balkhash
    A R A B I A N S E A
    A R A L
    S E A
    C A S P I A N S E A
    K
    A
    RAKORAM
    PA M I R S
    K A R A
    K U M
    KYZUL KUM
    IRANIAN
    PLATEAU
    ELBURZ
    MTS
    ZAGROS
    MTS
    HINDU KUSH
    INDO-PARTHIANS
    C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A
    A R A C H O S I A
    DRANGIANA
    S O G D I A N A
    BACTRIA
    G A N D H A R A
    PARTHIA
    A R I A
    I N D I A
    P E R S I A
    A R A B I A
    N
    0
    0
    250 miles
    350 kms
    82
    1 Empires and Tribute
    campaigns of Alexander the Great
    cities founded by Alexander
    Hellenized cities
    Kushan Empire
    sites with Kushan art
    Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom
    Parthian Empire
    sites of hoards
    Achaemenid tribute:
    bulls
    camels
    horses
    silver
    rings/jewellery
    lances and shields
    weapons
    battle-axes
    swords
    vessels
    animal hides
    leather goods
    lion-skin cloaks
    1 GREAT EMPIRES OF CENTRAL ASIA
    from the Persians to the Kushans
    show just how desirable this region
    is. Rich natural resources such as
    camels and bulls, as well as access
    to a variety of raw materials as
    well as the indigenous skills to
    produce fabulous jewellery and
    weapons, have meant that Central
    Asia has been conquered by
    western, eastern and indigenous
    groups over many centuries.

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  30. 15-­‐11,  Seated  Buddha,  Ghandara  India,  Schist,  
    2nd-­‐3rd  Century  CE  
    Theravada  

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  31. Mandorla  
    Ushnisha  
    Urna  
    Closed,  leaf-­‐like  eyes  
    Mudra  
    Serene  Expression  
    Lotus  Posture  
    Elongated  Earlobes  
    Sanga^  
    15-­‐11,  Seated  Buddha,  Ghandara  India,  Schist,  
    2nd-­‐3rd  Century  CE  
    Theravada  

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  32. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

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  33. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

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  34. BodhisaMva  Avalokiteshvara,  
    Bihar,  India,  12th  Century  
    Tantric  Mahayana  

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  35. BodhisaMva  Avalokiteshvara,  
    Bihar,  India,  12th  Century  
    Lotuses  =  Purity  
    Crown  and  Princely  Robes  
    Royal  Ease  Posture  
    Friendly  but  introspec^ve  face  
    Boon-­‐Gran^ng  Mudra  

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  36. 70 80
    60
    50
    40
    20
    10
    30
    Mehrgarh
    Mohenjo-Daro
    Dholavira
    Amri
    Lothal
    Sutkagen Dor
    Harappa
    Shortughai
    Ganweriwala
    Kalibangan
    Kili Gul Muhammad
    Kayrakkum
    Zaman-Baba
    Altin Tepe
    Ganeshwar
    Jorwe
    Inamgaon
    Gaurimedu
    Bariduh
    Rupae
    Lal Qila
    Indus
    Jh
    elum
    Ch
    enab
    Brahmapu
    tra
    God
    avari
    Narmada
    Sutlej
    Ganges
    u Darya
    Tig
    ris
    Eu
    phrate
    s
    A R A B I A N
    S E A
    I N D I A N O C E A N
    PERSIA
    N
    G
    ULF
    N SEA
    H
    I M A L A Y A S
    H
    IN
    DU
    KUSH
    TA K L A M A K A N
    Z A
    G
    R
    O
    S
    M
    T
    S
    PA M I R S
    T H A R
    D E S E R T
    IRANIAN
    PLATEAU
    I N D I A
    CEYLON
    (SRI LANKA)
    C H I N A
    T I B E T
    P E R S I A
    A R A B I A
    M
    E S O
    P
    O
    T
    A
    M
    I A
    N
    1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC
    long-distance routes for trade and contact
    cultures contemporary with Harappan:
    Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC
    Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods
    Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC
    peninsular Neolithic
    Kayatha
    Ganeswar
    pre-Harappan site
    Harappan site
    Bronze Age settlement site
    Bronze Age nomadic grave site
    contemporary sites in India
    0
    0
    300 miles
    450 kms
    Samsara  =  The  Cycle  of  Life,  Death,  and  Rebirth  
    Fer^lity  
    Medita^ve  Breathing/Yoga  

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  37. Linga  and  Yoni,  from  
    Mohenjo  Daro,  India,  c.  
    2300-­‐1750  BCE.  
    Linga  
    Yoni  

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  38. 70 80
    60
    50
    40
    20
    10
    30
    Mehrgarh
    Mohenjo-Daro
    Dholavira
    Amri
    Lothal
    Sutkagen Dor
    Harappa
    Shortughai
    Ganweriwala
    Kalibangan
    Kili Gul Muhammad
    Kayrakkum
    Zaman-Baba
    Altin Tepe
    Ganeshwar
    Jorwe
    Inamgaon
    Gaurimedu
    Bariduh
    Rupae
    Lal Qila
    Indus
    Jh
    elum
    Ch
    enab
    Brahmapu
    tra
    God
    avari
    Narmada
    Sutlej
    Ganges
    u Darya
    Tig
    ris
    Eu
    phrate
    s
    A R A B I A N
    S E A
    I N D I A N O C E A N
    PERSIA
    N
    G
    ULF
    N SEA
    H
    I M A L A Y A S
    H
    IN
    DU
    KUSH
    TA K L A M A K A N
    Z A
    G
    R
    O
    S
    M
    T
    S
    PA M I R S
    T H A R
    D E S E R T
    IRANIAN
    PLATEAU
    I N D I A
    CEYLON
    (SRI LANKA)
    C H I N A
    T I B E T
    P E R S I A
    A R A B I A
    M
    E S O
    P
    O
    T
    A
    M
    I A
    N
    1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC
    long-distance routes for trade and contact
    cultures contemporary with Harappan:
    Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC
    Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods
    Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC
    peninsular Neolithic
    Kayatha
    Ganeswar
    pre-Harappan site
    Harappan site
    Bronze Age settlement site
    Bronze Age nomadic grave site
    contemporary sites in India
    0
    0
    300 miles
    450 kms

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  39. “Caste  System”  

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  40. 70˚ 80˚
    60˚
    20˚
    10˚
    30˚
    Mathura
    Bayana
    Kanauj
    Badayun
    Amrol
    Delhi
    Sthanvisvara
    Varanasi
    Jaunpur
    Ayodhya
    Madurai
    Vanci
    Ramesvaram
    Kalahasti
    Kanchipuram
    Vengi
    Mallikarjuna
    Tiruvannamalai
    Mamallapuram
    Tanjavur
    Nagapattinam
    Anuradhapura
    Pulatthinagara
    Tiruvarur
    Kumbakonam
    Gangaikondacolapuram
    Chidambaram
    Nuggihalli
    Srirangam
    Tirumalai
    Jambukesvara
    Ajmer
    Chanderi
    Udayapura
    Gyaraspur
    Batesar
    Gopagiri (Gwalior)
    Harsagiri (Harsha)
    Puri
    Kathmandu
    Svayambhunatha
    Bhojapura
    Citrakuta
    Ujjain
    Khajuravahaka
    Kosambi
    Kiratakupa (Kiradu)
    Vidisha
    Kalanjar
    Dhar
    Satgaon
    Arbuda
    (Abu)
    Prabhasa
    Mangrol
    Girinagara (Girnar)
    Mudhera (Modhera)
    Sarkhej
    Patan
    Mahmudabad (Champaner)
    Dholka
    Anlar
    Thatta
    Khambayat
    Mulasthana
    (Multan)
    Pakpattan
    Hisar
    Qala Bist
    Warangal
    Haidarabad
    Golkonda
    Palampet
    Kalinganagara
    Ekamra (Bhubaneshwar)
    Konarka
    Draksharama
    Gaya
    Pataliputra
    Monghyr (Mongir)
    Nalanda
    Vikramasila
    Gaur
    Pandua
    Pundravardhana
    Tamralipti
    Seunapura (Sinnar)
    Ambaranatha
    Elapura
    Bharuch
    Satrunjaya Thalner
    Mahkar
    Burhanpur
    Mandu
    Batwa
    Lonar
    Daulatabad
    Ahmadnagar
    Ahmadabad
    Roda
    Bijapur
    Bidar
    Gulbarga
    Hampi
    Ittagi
    Belur
    Sringeri
    Dvarasamudra
    (Halebid)
    Sravana Belgola
    Somnathapura
    Anumakonda
    Vijayanagara
    Lokkigundi (Lakhundi)
    Dambal
    Arsikere Penukonda
    Hemavati
    Srisailam
    Kanyakumari
    Ratnagiri
    Indus
    Narmada
    Ganges
    Penner
    Godav
    ari
    Krishna
    Kaveri
    Yamuna
    A R A B I A N
    S E A
    B A Y O F
    B E N G A L
    I N D I A N
    O C E A N
    WESTERN GHATS
    H
    I
    M
    A
    L A Y A S
    CEYLON
    (SRI LANKA)
    D E C C A N
    S I N D
    KALINGA
    N E PA L
    R A S T R A K U T A S ( 7 5 4 - 9 7 2 )
    PALAS
    (750-1120)
    HOYSALAS
    (1126-1347)
    COLAS
    (906-1279)
    SOLANKIS
    (974-1241)
    D E L H I S U L T A N A T E
    (1206-1526)
    VIJAYANAGARA
    (1336-1565)
    G U R J A R A P R A T I H A R A S ( 7 2 5 - 9 3 1 )
    PARAMARAS (945-1235)
    CANDELLAS (925-1308)
    PALLAVAS
    (550-870)
    1 Monumental Art, 600-1500
    dynastic empire (with dates)
    major Hindu temple/monastery
    major Jain temple/monastery
    Buddhist stupa
    Buddhist university
    Buddhist monastery
    major Muslim mosque/tomb
    probable trade route
    copper mine
    diamond mine
    gold mine
    precious stones
    pearls
    conch shells
    silk weaving
    teak
    sandalwood
    pepper
    cinnamon
    COLAS
    KORANIC VERSES are carved in relief on the massive
    Qutb Minar in Delhi, begun by Qutb-ud-din
    Aibak on a Ghaznavid model in 1199 and
    completed in 1369 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The
    magnificent minaret, which rises some 73 metres
    (240 ft), functioned as both a victory tower and

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  41. Temples,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India.  
    Shiva  Mahadeva  

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  42. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  
    India,  1000  CE.  
    Shikhara  (Mountain  Peak)  
    Amalaka  (amala  fruit)  
    Amla  or  Amala  Fruit  

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  43. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  
    1000  CE  

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  44. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  
    1000  CE  

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  45. Mithunas,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE  
    Mithunas  are  lovemaking  couples  that  emphasize  unity  of  the  
    sexes  and  abundance.  

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  46. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  
    India,  1000  CE.  

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  47. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  
    India,  1000  CE.  

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  48. Longitudnal  
    Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE  
    Stairs  
    Mandapas  
    Garbhagriha  

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  49. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE.  
    Vatsu  Mandala  

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  50. Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple  (Plan),  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE.  

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  51. Mandapas,  Kandariya  Mahadeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE  

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  52. Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE  

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  53. Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  Temple,  Khajuraho,  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE  
    Linga  and  Yoni,  from  Mohenjo  
    Daro,  India,  c.  2300-­‐1750  BCE.  
    Linga  and  Yoni  

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  54. Yakshi  figures,  Garbhagriha,  Kandariya  Mahdeva  
    Temple,  Khajuraho,  Madhya  Pradesh,  India,  1000  CE.  
    Yakshi  figure,  Great  Stupa,  
    Sanchi,  c.  150  BCE  

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  55. Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of  the  Dance),  Thanjavur,  India,  12th  century  
    CE  
    “Light  of  Glory”  
    Dwarf  =  Ignorance  
    Fire  
    Drum  

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  56. Shiva  as  Nataraja  (Lord  of  the  Dance),  
    Thanjavur,  India,  12th  century  CE   Sri  Yantra  

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  57. Tamil  Nadu,  Chola,  12th  century   Tamil  Nadu,  Chola,  13th  c.   Tamil  Nadu,  Vijayanagar,  14th  c.  
    Chola,  11th  c.   Chola,  c.  990   Tamil  Nadu,  20th  c.  
    20th  century  

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  58. Shiva  as  Maheshvara  
    (The  Great  Lord),  from  
    Madhya  Pradesh,  
    India,  5th  century  CE.  

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  59. Shiva  as  Yogeshvara  (Master  of  Yoga),  from  the  Kailash  
    Temple,  Cave  16,  Ellora,  India,  c.  8th-­‐9th  centuries  CE.  

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  60. Shiva  as  Bhikshatanamur^,  
    Peruvudaiyar  temple,  Tanjore,  
    India,    11th  century  CE.    

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  61. Hindu  Shrine  with  flowers,  food,  and  
    garlands.  

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  62. Hindu  Shrine  with  flowers,  food,  and  
    garlands.  

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  63. A  devotee  adorning  and  dressing  Ganesh  

    View full-size slide

  64. Devotees  adorning  and  dressing  Ganesh  
    Feeding  Shiva  Milk  

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