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Memory

 Memory

A psychology topic: how we human store, process and restore information

Oursky Limited

June 10, 2013
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  1. Memory
    How we store information
    David @ Oursky

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  2. How our brain works
    Output
    Process
    Input
    ?

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  3. Memory system
    Dual Store Models (Atkinson-Shiffrin, 1968)
    Sensory memory (SM)
    Short-term Memory (STM)
    Long-term Memory (LTM)

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  4. Long term memory

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  5. Short term memory

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  6. Sensory memory
    - Holds sensory information
    - Decays quickly (1-3 sec) after an item is
    perceived
    - Physical properties, basic features
    Iconic memory : visual information
    Echoic memory : auditory information
    Haptic memory : touch stimuli

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  7. Short term memory
    Miller’s magic number 7
    • good immediate recall when # of digits < 7 •
    individual difference (range: 5 – 9)
    note: not 7 digits but 7 chunks of information

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  8. TVBOURSKYMTRKCRSTACKART

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  9. TVBOURSKYMTRKCRSTACKART
    Chunking

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  10. Short term memory
    Duration
    List study task (Peterson & Peterson, 1959)
    • remember a list of nonsense 3-letter clusters
    • distraction: counting backward by 3
    • recall
    • IV: distraction duration
    • DV: % correct for recalling the stimuli

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  11. Short term memory
    List study task (Peterson & Peterson, 1959)
    Recall success was around 50% after an interval of 3 seconds and interference
    task, but this reduced gradually to around 10% over intervals of 6, 9 and 12
    seconds, and gradually to around 5% success after 18 seconds.

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  12. Short term memory
    Content
    auditory form (Conrad, 1964; Baddeley, 1966)
    − errors made in STM task
    • sounds similar
    C as P, but not F as P
    mouse as house, but not horse as house

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  13. Short term memory
    Content
    visual form (Posner et al., 1969)
    • show 2 letters successively
    • are they the same letter?
    • IV: 3 conditions
    • DV: reaction time

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  14. Short term memory
    Content
    visual form (Posner et al., 1969)
    • Propose:
    if (identity matched == name matched)
    only sound is stored
    • reaction time:
    identity matched < name matched
    visual information also coded

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  15. Short term memory
    Summary
    − very short duration (< 1 mins)
    − very limited capacity (< 10 chunks)
    − code superficial information

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  16. Long term memory
    Capacity
    − nearly unlimited
    • estimation: at least store 1 billion bits of
    information (Landauer, 1986)
    • Duration
    − last very long
    • information not retrieved for 50 years is still
    here (Bahrick, 1983)

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  17. Long term memory
    Content
    everything...
    • language, knowledge, faces, what happened
    in 64
    • how to swim, how to talk, how to drive, etc...
    − more systematic classification of content
    • procedural vs. declarative
    • semantic vs. episodic

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  18. Long term memory
    Procedural memory
    − memory about skills
    • physical activities
    • e.g., how to swim, how to drive, how to play tennis

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  19. Long term memory
    Procedural memory
    − takes time to acquire • e.g., learn how to walk
    − once acquired, highly durable
    • e.g., still know how to swim after a whole winter

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  20. Long term memory
    Procedural memory
    − difficult to describe the details
    • e.g., can't verbalize how to swim easily
    • even when written in text, difficult to understand
    − automatic execution
    • needs efforts to change a component in the action
    sequence

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  21. Long term memory
    Semantic memory
    − memory about real world knowledge • e.g., there
    are no penguins in Arctic
    − memory about concept
    • e.g., what is the difference between early and late
    selection model of attention?

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  22. Long term memory
    Semantic memory
    − learned and shared by all people
    • not related to specific events
    − retrieval needs conscious efforts
    • consume resources (attention, WM)
    • allow manipulation of concepts that support more
    complex thinking

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  23. Long term memory
    Episodic memory
    − memory about specific events • conscious about the
    source
    • e.g., when, where, who
    − unique personal events not shared by other
    • autobiographic memory
    • e.g., your graduation dinner

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  24. Long term memory
    Episodic memory
    − vulnerable to amnesia
    • easily impaired
    • more recent events higher chance to be lost

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  25. Long term memory
    Passage reading experiment (Reder, 1982)
    − study phase:
    • read short passages
    − testing phase:
    1. did you see exactly the same sentence in the passages?
    2. do you think the following statement is true given what
    you've read?

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  26. Long term memory
    Passage reading experiment (Reder, 1982)
    − IV: type of question, delay between study and
    test (immediate, 20 mins, 2 days)
    − DV: performance

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  27. Long term memory
    Passage reading experiment (Reder, 1982)
    − results
    • exact judgment is fast and accurate initially, but gets
    longer and less accurate as time passes
    • plausibility judgment is in general difficult, but the
    performance does not drop as time passes

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  28. Long term memory
    Implications
    • retrieval of both exact and general, inferred information
    • rely less on exact information as time passes
    • the information left is the "digested", self- interpreted
    traces

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  29. Serial position effect
    cat
    iron man
    oursky
    plane
    banana
    bread
    mouse
    coffee
    candy
    fire
    telephone
    keyboard

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  30. Retention
    How information can be retained?
    − rehearsal
    • repeating the information verbally
    • transfer information to LTM
    − over-learning
    • keep rehearsal after one perfect recall
    better retention

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  31. Retention
    Distinctiveness
    • special instances are retained better
    "one-shot" learning (e.g., 911 event)

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  32. Elaboration
    Precise elaboration
    Beautiful SiuTao is working as a designer at Oursky Ltd.
    Imprecise elaboration
    Beautiful SiuTao is working in a company.
    No elaboration
    SiuTao is working.
    

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  33. Elaboration
    Results
    • performance best in precise elaboration, worst
    in case imprecise elaboration
    - the quality of retrieval cues matter
    - support the importance of elaboration

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  34. Ref.
    http://hs-psychology.ism-online.org/files/2012/08/Peterson-Peterson-1959-duration-of-STM.pdf
    http://www.ballarat.edu.au/ard/bssh/school/hp502/Word%20length%20effect.pdf

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