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Advanced fiddle workshop

Fd1af6cc88403788ae1e5710871bbf62?s=47 Andrew Betts
September 15, 2020

Advanced fiddle workshop

Fd1af6cc88403788ae1e5710871bbf62?s=128

Andrew Betts

September 15, 2020
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  1. 1 ©2019 Getting the most out of Fastly Fiddle Andrew

    Betts Developer advocate
  2. 2 ©2019 VCL compiles to native code Your application

  3. 3 ©2019 VCL state machine Your programmable journey through Fastly's

    varnish RECV MISS HIT PASS FETCH DELIVER ERROR Receive request Deliver response Cache lookup Backend fetch LOG
  4. 4 ©2019 We're working to bring WASM to Fastly Maintaining

    the speed of native code at the edge VCL TypeScript sub vcl_recv { if (!req.http.flags) { set req.http.tmpOrigUrl = req.url; set req.backend = F_PREFLIGHT_ORIGIN; set req.url = "/api/flags"; } else { set req.backend = F_CONTENT_ORIGIN; } } sub vcl_deliver { if (resp.http.flags) { set req.http.flags = resp.http.flags; set req.url = req.http.tmpOrigUrl; unset req.http.tmpOrigUrl; restart; } } function recv(req: Request): Response { let pfReq = new Request("GET", F_PREFLIGHT_ORIGIN + "/api/flags" ); let pfResp = pfReq.send(); let req = new Request("GET", F_CONTENT_ORIGIN + req.url ); req.set_header("flags", pfResp.get_header("flags") ); let resp = bereq.send(); return resp; }
  5. 5 ©2019 Fastly Fiddle

  6. 6 ©2019 Solution Fiddle features Vanilla service (no edge logic)

    Instrumentation; Server identification; Insights Image optimisation Shielding; Image output Geofencing Autocomplete; Header highlighting A/B testing Multiple requests; Cookie jar; Logging Conditional revalidation Surrogate keys; Clustering; timing metrics Threat intelligence Restarts; Synthetic responses; POST to GET rewriting GCS backend Follow redirects; Unit tests Solutions we will build today Learn about Fiddle, learn about cool things to do with Fastly too
  7. 7 ©2019 Warning: • Everything you enter into Fiddle is

    public • Deploying code to thousands of servers is not instantaneous. Please be patient! • We suggest you do each exercise in a different tab, so you still have them all to refer to at the end. • Ask Fastly helpers if you get stuck
  8. 8 ©2019 Vanilla service What does Fastly do just by

    default? Proxy and cache
  9. 9 ©2019 Vanilla service What does Fastly do just by

    default? 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 1: Vanilla" 3. When the RUN button goes blue, click it
  10. 10 ©2019

  11. 11 ©2019 Image optimisation Use the Fastly IO service to

    transform your images automatically Cache transformed image Process into desired format Cache original image
  12. 12 ©2019 Image optimisation Use the Fastly IO service to

    transform your images automatically 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 2: Image optimisation" 3. Set the origin server to https://triblondon.github.io 4. Set the request path to /fastly-fiddle-examples/images/obama2.jpg 5. Enable Shielding in the Options menu 6. Add the following VCL to RECV: set req.http.X-Fastly-Imageopto-Api = "fastly"; 7. When the RUN button lights up, click it!
  13. 13 ©2019 Image optimisation Use the Fastly IO service to

    transform your images automatically 8. Add ?width=300 to the query string and RUN again 9. Add &crop=16:9 to the query string and RUN again 10. Change crop=16:9 to crop=16:9,smart and RUN again
  14. 14 ©2019

  15. 15 ©2019 Geolocation Add Fastly-provided geolocation variables to a request

    + added geolocation data + Vary on response
  16. 16 ©2019 Geolocation Add Fastly-provided geolocation variables to a request

    1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 3: Geolocation" 3. Add the following VCL to RECV: set req.http.client-geo-continent = client.geo.continent_code; set req.http.client-geo-country = client.geo.country_code; set req.http.edge-geo-datacenter = server.datacenter; set req.http.client-source-network = client.as.number; 4. Set the request path to: /response-headers?Vary=client-geo-country 5. When the RUN button lights up, click it!
  17. 17 ©2019

  18. 18 ©2019 A/B testing Select and assign buckets at the

    edge to cache test variations + added test bucket info + Vary on response
  19. 19 ©2019 A/B testing Select and assign buckets at the

    edge to cache test variations 0 100 0 100 hash(<userid> + "header") = 53 hash(<userid> + "buttonSize") = 87 "small" "medium" "large" "normal" "cute" buttonSize = "large"; header = "cute"
  20. 20 ©2019 A/B testing Select and assign buckets at the

    edge to cache test variations 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net 2. Add a title, eg "Exercise 4: A/B testing" 3. Set origin server (replacing httpbin) to: https://fiddle-ab.glitch.me 4. Set the request path to: /article/kittens 5. In VCL_RECV, assign a User ID: set req.http.ab = if ( req.http.Cookie:ab, req.http.Cookie:ab, uuid.version4() ); 6. In VCL_DELIVER, save the User ID into a cookie: if (!req.http.Cookie:ab) { add resp.http.Set-Cookie = "" "ab=" req.http.ab "; " "max-age=31536000; " "path=/; secure" ; set resp.http.Cache-Control = "" "no-store" ; } 7. Click and choose "Add another" to copy the request
  21. 21 ©2019

  22. 22 ©2019 A/B testing Select and assign buckets at the

    edge to cache test variations 7. In VCL_RECV, calculate the first bucket assignment: declare local var.testKey STRING; declare local var.userTestSlot INTEGER; set var.testKey = req.http.ab "header"; set var.userTestSlot = fastly.hash(var.testKey, 0, 1, 100); set req.http.ab-header = if ( var.userTestSlot <= 50, "normal", "cute" );
  23. 23 ©2019 A/B testing Select and assign buckets at the

    edge to cache test variations 8. In VCL_RECV, add a second bucket assignment: set var.testKey = req.http.ab "buttonSize"; set var.userTestSlot = fastly.hash(var.testKey, 0, 1, 100); set req.http.ab-buttonSize = if (var.userTestSlot <= 20, "small", if (var.userTestSlot <= 30, "medium", "large" ));
  24. 24 ©2019

  25. 25 ©2019 Conditional revalidations Minimize traffic to origin Conditional GET

    304 Not Modified GET /thing GET /thing GET /thing 200 OK Normal GET HIT
  26. 26 ©2019 Conditional revalidation Keep a stale object in cache

    but revalidate with origin 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 5: Conditional revalidation" 3. Set the request path to: /cache 4. Add the following VCL to FETCH: set beresp.ttl = 1s; return(deliver); 5. When the RUN button lights up, click it! 6. Wait a couple of seconds, and run it again.
  27. 27 ©2019

  28. 28 ©2019 Conditional revalidation Fastly Edge can revalidate with a

    Fastly shield 7. Enable Shielding in the Options menu 8. Remove line 1 of FETCH and replace with a TTL based on whether we are on the edge or the shield: set beresp.ttl = 1s; if (req.backend.is_shield) { set beresp.ttl = 1s; } else { set beresp.ttl = 10s; } 9. When the RUN button lights up, SHIFT+click it (to run with empty cache) 10. Wait a couple of seconds (no more than that), and run it again.
  29. 29 ©2019 Shield Edge

  30. 30 ©2019 Understanding cache depth When you say 'cache hit'...

    Edge POP Shield POP Origin
  31. 31 ©2019 Wrapping up Like a gift parcel of VCL

    goodness • Explore more solutions at fastly.com/demos • Try Fiddle yourself at fiddle.fastlydemo.net • Got something good? Let us know in community.fastly.com or email me: abetts@fastly.com.
  32. 32 ©2019 Thank you! Andrew Betts Tweet me at @triblondon

    abetts@fastly.com These slides are published at fastly.us/advanced-fiddle
  33. 33 ©2019 GCS backend Use Google Cloud Storage to host

    your website more flexibly /resources /resources 404 Not Found /resources/index.html 200 OK 308 Redirect /resources/ 200 OK /resources/index.html
  34. 34 ©2019 GCS Backend Use Google Cloud Storage to host

    your website more flexibly 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 7: GCS backend" 3. Replace the origin with: https://storage.googleapis.com 4. Change the request path to: /resources 5. Under request options, enable Follow Redirects 6. Add the bucket prefix in RECV: if (req.restarts == 0) { set req.http.orig-req-url = req.url; set req.url = "/betts-gcp-gcs-fastly-tutorial" req.url; }
  35. 35 ©2019 GCS Backend Use Google Cloud Storage to host

    your website more flexibly 7. Still in RECV, add the index file suffix if the requested path is a directory: if (req.url ~ "\/$") { set req.url = req.url "index.html"; } 8. In DELIVER, detect when GCS says 'not found' for a non-directory path: if (resp.status == 404 && req.url !~ "\/index.html$") { set req.http.retry-for-dir = "1"; restart; } 9. Back in the middle of RECV, try appending a / to paths if we're retrying for a directory if (req.http.retry-for-dir) { set req.url = req.url "/"; }
  36. 36 ©2019 GCS Backend Use Google Cloud Storage to host

    your website more flexibly 10. In FETCH, detect a successful response for a retry if (beresp.status == 200 && req.url ~ "\/index.html$" && req.http.retry-for-dir) { error 901; } 11. In ERROR, create the appropriate redirect if the retry succeeded: if (obj.status == 901) { set obj.status = 308; set obj.response = "Permanent redirect"; set obj.http.Location = req.http.orig-req-url "/"; synthetic ""; return(deliver); }
  37. 37 ©2019

  38. 38 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin Check with threat intel API Receive verdict Send request to normal origin
  39. 39 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 1. Open fiddle.fastlydemo.net in a new tab 2. Give it a title, eg "Exercise 6: Threat intelligence" 3. Add an extra origin (in addition to httpbin): https://us-central1-rd---product.cloudfunctions.net 4. Change the request path to: /post 5. Set the request method to POST 6. Add the following to the body data: username=andrew&password=apple
  40. 40 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 7. Intercept risky requests in RECV and divert to the threat intel API: declare local var.cred STRING; set var.cred = subfield(req.postbody, "password", "&"); if (req.method == "POST" && var.cred && !req.http.TI-Result) { set req.backend = F_origin_1; set req.http.Orig-URL = req.url; set req.http.Orig-Method = req.method; set req.http.TI-Key = digest.hash_sha1(var.cred); set req.url = "/threatIntelPOC?key=" substr(req.http.TI-Key, 0, 6); set req.method = "GET"; log "Cred: " var.cred ", key: " req.http.TI-Key; }
  41. 41 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 8. Capture the threat response in DELIVER: if (req.http.TI-Key && req.restarts == 0) { if (std.strstr(resp.http.Result, substr(req.http.TI-Key, 6))) { log "Credential is a known threat"; set req.http.TI-Result = "FAIL"; } else { log "Credential is OK"; set req.http.TI-Result = "PASS"; } restart; }
  42. 42 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 9. Back in RECV, deal with restarted requests: if (req.http.TI-Result) { if (req.http.TI-Result != "PASS") { error 603; } else { set req.url = req.http.Orig-URL; set req.method = req.http.Orig-Method; } return (lookup); }
  43. 43 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 10. Create the appropriate failure response synthetically in ERROR: if (obj.status == 603) { set obj.status = 403; set obj.response = "Forbidden"; set obj.http.content-type = "text/plain"; synthetic "Please contact us for assistance logging in"; return (deliver); } 11. Cleanup temporary headers in MISS: unset bereq.http.TI-Result; unset bereq.http.TI-Key; unset bereq.http.Orig-URL; unset bereq.http.Orig-Method;
  44. 44 ©2019

  45. 45 ©2019 Threat intelligence Call out to an API to

    assess a risky request before sending it to origin 12. Try changing password to something that isn't compromised username=andrew&password=apple-horse-coffee-tulip 13. Try changing the request so it does not contain a password field: username=andrew