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Presentation_180815_Designing_Motivation.pdf

9f5f8d89c1c298beb2e5d3b1e41941e2?s=47 Sebastian Deterding
August 16, 2018
35

 Presentation_180815_Designing_Motivation.pdf

9f5f8d89c1c298beb2e5d3b1e41941e2?s=128

Sebastian Deterding

August 16, 2018
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  1. designing for motivation Bridging the Gap Between Psychology and Design

    Practice Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) University of York, Digital Creativity Labs
  2. The sage keynote speaker

  3. The other keynote speaker

  4. a professional boundary-crosser

  5. a professional boundary-crosser research design

  6. a professional boundary-crosser engaging games serious outcomes research design

  7. Who here wants to change learning for the better?

  8. “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing

    existing situations into preferred ones.” herbert a. simon, 1969
  9. How do we translate motivational research into effective design practice?

  10. chapter 1 A Fable

  11. meet alberto linguini I want to know how to bake

    a delicious cake.
  12. #Design for Mmmm and Appetite 15-17 August 2018 EARLI/SIG 8

    – 16th International Conference on Mmmmmmm 2018
  13. WELCOME TO AFM FHI 2017 The Leading Food-Human-Interaction Conference FHI

    2017
  14. Coating required? The Impact of Patisserieness on Taste in Baked

    Goods
  15. low patisserieness medium patisserieness high patisserieness

  16. low patisserieness medium patisserieness high patisserieness n=128 eaters, standard tastiness

    inventory (sti) patisserieness positively affects tastiness, p<0.05
  17. 12.2 Implications for Cooking 12.2 Implications for Cooking … “For

    more tasty baked goods, consider a higher degree of patisserieness, such as cupcakes or cakes.” …
  18. Nutrition Science

  19. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question?
  20. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure.
  21. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake?
  22. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty.
  23. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that?
  24. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that? Have you thought about baking a cake?
  25. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that? Have you thought about baking a cake? Yes. I’m already making a cake. How do I make a delicious cake?
  26. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that? Have you thought about baking a cake? Yes. I’m already making a cake. How do I make a delicious cake? Well, make it … very caky I guess?
  27. Nutrition Science

  28. chapter 2 A Gap

  29. None
  30. None
  31. how do i best use this in my concrete situation?

  32. how do i best use this in my concrete situation?

    • I teach arts & design, key stage 3, following Biggs’ Design and Make It. I know my kids struggle to engage with the art style session in week 3. Might this be a solution? • Will this work for my 25 8year olds, with 4 class clowns? How do I manage them when they use this for mischief? • How do I embed what specific kinds of feedback, based on my learning goals & material? How do I time & space it? • How do I phrase each prompt? • How do I introduce clickers? Distribute them? Collect them? Maintain them? Fix tech issues? Within 45 min?
  33. two different epistemic cultures

  34. science episteme analyse and abstract real multitudes into decontextualised, universal

    building blocks, described in data and diagrams.
  35. science episteme design techne/phronesis analyse and abstract real multitudes into

    decontextualised, universal building blocks, described in data and diagrams. synthesise and specify a single functioning whole within the local context, crafted from objects and actions. ?
  36. We literally see the world differently.

  37. what you see

  38. what designers see

  39. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

  40. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Single fixed “operationalisation” N of 1
  41. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Single fixed “operationalisation” N of 1 Universal cognitive constructs & relations Big N
  42. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Single fixed “operationalisation” N of 1 Aggregate measures Universal cognitive constructs & relations Big N
  43. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Aggregate data Universal cognitive constructs & relations, incl. perceived intervention
  44. environments the view from design people experiences & actions

  45. environments the view from design people experiences & actions Detailed

    design , lots of variants, big N
  46. environments the view from design people experiences & actions Detailed

    design , lots of variants, big N Personas small N
  47. environments the view from design people experiences & actions Detailed

    design , lots of variants, big N Aggregate measures + qualitative data Personas small N
  48. the resulting research-practice gap researcher Can measure & explain mediators

    designer Can find & refine solutions
  49. the resulting research-practice gap researcher Can measure & explain mediators

    designer Can find & refine solutions But how do you derive a fitting, concrete solution?
  50. the resulting research-practice gap researcher Can measure & explain mediators

    designer Can find & refine solutions But how do you derive a fitting, concrete solution? But how do you know if it’s working as thought?
  51. you are not alone “Instantiating theory is a difficult task

    as theoretical constructs lack specificity for concrete design situations.” (Hekler, Klasna, Froehlich et al, 2013, p. 3310) “less than half of the HCI eco-feedback papers referenced behavioral psychology literature and 58% referenced environmental psychology literature. Even more dramatically, no study in environmental psychology referred back to HCI.” (Froehlich, Linklater & Findlay, 2010, pp. 2003-2004)
  52. chapter 3 A Promise

  53. enter gamification? Deterding et al., 2011

  54. None
  55. a quick equation game design elements motivational affordances behaviour change

    techniques ≈ ≈ “an active component of an intervention designed to change behaviour ... the smallest component compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients” (Michie & Johnson, 2013, p. 182) Zhang, 2008; Deterding et al., 2011; Michie et al., 2013
  56. the basic theoretical question how do motivation afford action affect

    design elements ?
  57. So how are we doing?

  58. None
  59. None
  60. we are stuck in groundhog day

  61. “A muddle of things we here call ‘design element X’

    affect a muddle of things we here call ‘engagement’, unless when they don’t. More research is needed.” the default contribution
  62. the issue is in the analytic model design element 2

    magic motivation! behaviour design element 1 design element 3 e.g. Hamari, Koivisti & Sarsa 2014
  63. science episteme design techne/phronesis ? a.k.a. the issue is analytic

    modeling
  64. #1 specific understandings and uses differ – and matter codecademy

    van Roy, Deterding & Zaman, accepted khan academy
  65. #2 specific contexts differ – and matter  500 steps

    8th day without cycling – you really should step it up! What about a 5 minute ride today? C’mon, your friends in California did it! Frank & Engelke, 2001, Reeve 1996
  66. #2 specific contexts differ – and matter  500 steps

    8th day without cycling – you really should step it up! What about a 5 minute ride today? C’mon, your friends in California did it! Frank & Engelke, 2001, Reeve 1996
  67. #3 specific designs differ – and matter Goveia, Pereira, Karapanos

    et al., 2016
  68. None
  69. None
  70. None
  71. None
  72. 12 months in …

  73. #4 motivational function is systemic-emergent

  74. None
  75. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! -
  76. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! - Function arises from this
  77. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! - Not this
  78. “The life blood of game design is testing. ... Why

    are we playing games? Because it‘s fun. You cannot calculate this. You cannot test this out in an abstract manner. You have to play it.” rainer knizia, 2010
  79. #5 function emerge from person-situation relations difficulty skill/time frustration boredom

    flow Csikszentmihalyi, 1990
  80. “Fulfillment of purpose involves as relation among three terms: the

    purpose, the character of the artifact, and the environment in which the artifact performs.” herbert simon, 1996
  81. #6 functions emerge from functional mechanisms …

  82. … that can be instantiated in many ways.

  83. locating functions in isolated surface instantiations is cargo cult design

  84. … which is neither innovative nor context-fitting.

  85. chapter 4 The Challenge

  86. Motivation emerges from specific subject- environment relations. tenet 1 Lewin,

    1936; Gibson, 1977; Warren, 1984
  87. Current “design elements” and similar are therefore too underspecified and

    atomistic as a construct to reliably predict effects. tenet 2
  88. We currently rely on designers to translate our underspecified, general,

    analytic constructs into local syntheses of specific designs fitting specific contexts and users – giving them insufficient reliable guidance. tenet 3
  89. Deterding, in preparation motivational affordance The complex of necessary and

    sufficient relations of actor dispositions and environmental features that render an action or event functionally significant for a specific motive we need granular, systemic, relational constructs …
  90. … fuelling different kinds of questions. Do badges (in aggregare)

    drive engagement (via achievement motivation)?
  91. … fuelling different kinds of questions. Do badges (in aggregare)

    drive engagement (via achievement motivation)? What complex of necessary and sufficient environmental features and actor dispositions reliably gives rise to achievement motivation? How can these be reliably instantiated under different real-world conditions?
  92. and then, we need a linné:

  93. an empirically grounded, well-operationalised, well-formed taxonomy

  94. this requires large-scale naturalistic observation. Deterding, 2016

  95. e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations Deterding, 2016

  96. Deterding, 2016 e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations

  97. Deterding, 2016 Intrinsically motivated gameplay License to (dis)engage & configure

    situation Minimized social and material consequence Salient autonomous motives Salient controlled motives + + + – – Construal of action as autonomous + – Temporal field cleared from outer demands Spatial field shielded from public observers + Self-regulation of attention & emotion display Autonomy need satisfaction + + – Spatial field cleared from distraction – + – e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations
  98. this needs validation of systemicness via e.g. knock-out designs …

  99. … and conceptual replications across multiple designs.

  100. this is a massive undertaking.

  101. chapter 5 The Opportunity

  102. “Facebook has created a laboratory of human behavior the likes

    of which we’ve never seen.” jad abumrad, 2015
  103. At any moment, designers at software companies are running millions

    of a/b tests to optimise engagement, each an experiment in waiting.
  104. the scale for a massive undertaking

  105. But to do this, we need to speak with designers.

  106. #1 loop research and design

  107. “Online hypothesis testing can accelerate both applied and basic Interaction

    Design Science by making it fast and easy to obtain ecologically-valid measures of the effects of designs on user behavior. Online controlled experiments can help build practical, generalizable, and scientifically-validated theories of how and why designs affect human interactions.” derek lomas, 2015
  108. None
  109. #2 translate findings into practical material & methods

  110. #2 translate findings into practical material & methods

  111. #2 translate findings into practical material & methods

  112. #2 translate findings into practical material & methods

  113. #3 test your materials & methods with designer-users

  114. #4 conduct action research, PD, PR, DBR, co-design

  115. chapter 6 Summary

  116. we could seed a new science of motivational design …

    how do cognitive states affect behaviour affect design features ?
  117. but we face an epistemic culture gap. researcher Can measure

    & explain mediators designer Can find & refine solutions
  118. low patisserieness medium patisserieness high patisserieness we need to replace

    abstract, atomistic constructs …
  119. … and cargo cult design …

  120. … with more granular, systemic constructs … Deterding, under review

    motivational affordance The complex of necessary and sufficient relations of actor dispositions and environment features that render an action or event functionally significant for a specific motive
  121. … naturalistic, bottom-up observation & modeling, …

  122. … and conceptual replication across multiple designs.

  123. this is a massive undertaking …

  124. … with a matching massive opportunity.

  125. which we can realise when we start talking with each

    other. I want to know how to bake a delicious cake.
  126. sebastian@digitalcreativity.ac.uk @dingstweets codingconduct.cc thank you.