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Decentralizing The Things Network

Gonzalo Casas
June 16, 2018

Decentralizing The Things Network

Presented at the Swiss FabLabs meeting

Gonzalo Casas

June 16, 2018


  1. LORAWAN • LoRa (Long Range): Radio modulation technique (OSI Layer

    1) • LoRaWAN: MAC protocol for Wide Area Networks (OSI Layer 2 and 3) sensors nodes gateways backend application backend LoRa ip ip
  2. THE THINGS NETWORK A global community, building open source software

    and hardware to operate a crowd-sourced IoT network.
  3. OPEN NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE ASSOCIATION A Swiss association working towards free,

    open and reliable network infrastructure for anyone, anytime. opennetworkinfrastructure.org
  4. LIMITATIONS Bandwidth Payload size Regulatory limits 0.3 bps to 50

    kbps 51 bytes (DR0) 222 bytes (DR4) Fair usage policy 1% Duty Cycle 30 seconds/day airtime 10 downlinks/day
  5. LONG RANGE 2km - 5km in urban setting 40km+ in

    rural setting © ttnmapper.org , Open Street Map
  6. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 201 km ground-to-ground by

    Andreas Spiess, TTN Basel http://www.sensorsiot.org/ © ttnmapper.org
  7. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 333 km air-to-ground (helium

    balloon) by @telkamp (mapping @jpmeijers) © ttnmapper.org
  8. LOW COST Node/transceiver: CHF 8.5 Gateway: ~CHF 250 (indoor) Open

    source stack + ISM bands Low CAPEX, almost negligible OPEX Photos by @gnz, CC-BY-SA
  9. LOW POWER Class A Class B Class C Always send,

    receive after send. Up to 10 years. Deep sleep: ~10 μA TX ~40 mA RX ~14 mA Time-synchronized receive windows. Always-on receive mode. Support not ready, but planned for v3. Support not ready, but planned for v3.
  10. NEXT RELEASE: V3 • Supports LoRaWAN versions: 1.1, 1.0.2 and

    1.0 • Runs as single binary or as micro services in clusters • Supports peering within The Things Network ecosystem • Supports roaming and third party Join Servers within the LoRa Alliance ecosystem • All components to run a network are open source
  11. V3 GATEWAY AGENT • Gateway Agent runs on any Linux

    based gateway • Works with a local packet forwarder (Semtech UDP) • Allows for remote configuration and updates • Packages for popular gateway models • Low bandwidth mode for cellular and satellite
  12. V3 GATEWAY SERVER • Maintains connections with gateways • Authenticated

    and encrypted connection • Manages gateway’s duty cycle • Forwards uplink traffic to a Network Server or Peering Broker • Serves frequency plan
  13. V3 NETWORK SERVER • Handles LoRAWAN MAC layer: 1.1, 1.0.2

    and 1.0 • Supports class A, B and C • Keeps MAC state per device: • LoRaWAN and Regional Parameters version • Radio settings, including RX1 timings, RX2 data rates, etc
  14. V3 APPLICATION SERVER • Extended support for payload formats •

    Encoder and decoder JavaScript payload functions • Open source repository for off-the-shelf device integration • Payload format per device instead of application • Manage devices in groups • Integrate third-party geo-localization services using LoRa TDOA, LoRa/WiFi/BLE RSSI
  15. V3 INTEGRATIONS • V3 features the popular MQTT and HTTP

    integrations • More optional, zero effort, commercial integrations for leading IoT platforms • Easier to build your own integration
  16. V3 CONSOLE • Now also an open source component •

    Runs next to the Application Server for faster response times • New look and improved navigation
  17. V3 IDENTITY SERVER • Now also an open source component

    • Issues security tokens • Contains user, application and gateway registry • Supports organizations and inheriting rights
  18. V3 JOIN SERVER • Stores the LoRaWAN root keys and

    derives session keys • You can deploy the Join Server inside or outside a V3 cluster, i.e. a private cloud or on-premises in a trusted domain • Control your security keys in your Join Server while using any V3 deployment scenario • Gives you the power to switch V3 clusters: public to private, private to public and private to private
  19. TRUSTED 3RD PARTY JOIN SERVERS • Next generation devices contain

    secure elements • Pre-provisioned with symmetric LoRaWAN root keys that will never be exposed • Session keys are derived from the root keys, required by the Network Server and Application Server • The Join Server keeps the root keys safe, and only issues session keys • Join Servers can be operated by trusted 3rd parties, i.e. industrial security companies
  20. GLOBAL NETWORK OVERVIEW • Community Network clusters: • Europe, US,

    Brazil, Singapore • Operated by TTN Foundation • Switzerland: • Public cluster • Operated by • Australia: • Public cluster • Operated by Meshed +
  21. Civic tech and LoRaWAN maker days for a better city