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The Road to Open Networks

The Road to Open Networks


Gonzalo Casas

February 16, 2021


  1. THE ROAD TO OPEN NETWORKS Building an open and free

    Internet of Things network casas@arch.ethz.ch | twitter.com/gnz
  2. THE THINGS NETWORK A global community, building open source software

    and hardware to operate a crowd-sourced IoT network.
  3. OPEN NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE ASSOCIATION A swiss association working towards free,

    open and reliable network infrastructure for anyone, anytime. opennetworkinfrastructure.org

  5. LORAWAN • LoRa (Long Range): Radio modulation technique • LoRaWAN:

    MAC protocol for Wide Area Networks (OSI Layer 2 and 3) sensors nodes gateways backend application backend LoRa ip ip
  6. LORAWAN sensors nodes gateways backend application backend LoRa/FSK IP traffic

    (Ethernet, 4G, WiFi) Encrypted Network Frame Encrypted App Payload IP traffic (MQTT, HTTP, gRPC)
  7. LORAWAN 3 * 10 10 km range 10 USD/node 10

    years battery life
  8. LONG RANGE 2km - 5km in urban setting 40km+ in

    rural setting © ttnmapper.org , Open Street Map
  9. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 201 km ground-to-ground by

    Andreas Spiess (TTN Basel) http://www.sensorsiot.org/ © ttnmapper.org
  10. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 333 km air-to-ground (helium

    balloon) by Thomas Telkamp (Lacuna Space) © ttnmapper.org
  11. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 832 km air-to-ground (helium

    balloon) by Thomas Telkamp (Lacuna Space) © ttnmapper.org
  12. LOW COST Node/transceiver: USD 6.5 Gateway: ~USD 85 (indoor) Open

    source stack + ISM bands Low CAPEX, almost negligible OPEX Photos by @gnz, CC-BY-SA

  14. UNLICENSED SPECTRUM Anyone can deploy a LoRaWAN network! US902-928 EU863-870

    AU915-928 CN470-510 Source: https://www.thethingsnetwork.org/docs/lorawan/frequencies-by-country.html
  15. LOW POWER Class A Class B Class C Always send,

    receive after send. Up to 10 years. Deep sleep: ~10 μA TX ~40 mA RX ~14 mA Time-synchronized receive windows. Always-on receive mode. Support on V3 Support on v3
  16. LIMITATIONS Bandwidth Payload size Regulatory limits 0.3 bps to 50

    kbps 51 bytes (DR0) 222 bytes (DR4) Fair usage policy 1% Duty Cycle (EU) 30 seconds/day airtime 10 downlinks/day
  17. • Gateways listen typically on 8 channels • 3 mandatory

    channels: • 868.1, 868.3, 868.5 Mhz • Bandwidth 125 kHz • Spreading Factor: SF7 to SF12 (5.5kbps to 0.3bps) • Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) ensures network capacity by managing data rates. NETWORK CAPACITY ON 868MHZ
  18. None
  19. LORAWAN SECURITY • Protocol encryption enforced by design • Connecting

    end devices to the network: • EUI-64-based globally unique device identifier (DevEUI) • Application key (AppKey): AES 128-bit symmetric key, unique per device • Two activation modes: • OTAA (Over The Air Activation): regenerates keys on every session • ABP (Activation By Personalization): mostly just for development & test
  20. LORAWAN SESSIONS • End devices have a session with the

    network server • Two AES 128-bit session keys: • Network Session Key (NwkSKey) for identification • Application Session Key (AppSKey) for payload encryption • Device Address (32 bits) and frame counters



  24. NODES • Chipsets: Semtech SX1261/2/8, SX1272/6/7, LR1110 • Increasingly integrated:

    • Radio only (LoRa) • Radio + non-programmable MCU (LoRaWAN) • Radio + MCU (System-in-Package) • Radio + MCU (System-on-Chip) • Radio + MCU + Passive WiFi + GNSS • LoRaWAN stacks: • LMiC: original, Arduino port, MCCI fork • Basic MAC: basicmac.io • Others (proprietary): Microchip, Murata, etc.

  26. GATEWAYS • Chipsets: Semtech SX1301 / SX1302 / SX1303 /

    SX1308 • Runs on anything: Linux SBCs, MCUs (ESP32). • Multiple packet forwarder implementations: • Semtech UDP packet forwarder • LoRa Basics Station • LoRaWAN-version agnostic • Build or buy options
  27. ZURICH Source: ttnmapper.org

  28. BERN Source: ttnmapper.org


  30. THE THINGS STACK: V2 • Community Network servers operated by

    TTN Foundation in EU, US, Brazil, Singapore. • Switzerland and Australia clusters operated by ONIA and Meshed resp. • LoRaWAN 1.0 support, only class A support.
  31. THE THINGS STACK: V3 • On-going migration • Cross-cluster traffic

    over Packet Broker • Governance moved to TTI • Easier to operate your own cluster • Supports all LoRaWAN versions and device class • Private/public peering

  33. INTEGRATIONS: V3 • MQTT and HTTP integrations • More optional,

    zero effort, commercial integrations for leading IoT platforms • Easier to build your own integration
  34. ¡GRACIAS! Gonzalo Casas Open Network Infrastructure Association casas@arch.ethz.ch | twitter.com/gnz