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The Road to Open Networks

The Road to Open Networks

Gonzalo Casas

February 16, 2021

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  1. THE ROAD TO OPEN NETWORKS Building an open and free

    Internet of Things network [email protected] | twitter.com/gnz
  2. THE THINGS NETWORK A global community, building open source software

    and hardware to operate a crowd-sourced IoT network.
  3. OPEN NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE ASSOCIATION A swiss association working towards free,

    open and reliable network infrastructure for anyone, anytime. opennetworkinfrastructure.org
  4. LORAWAN • LoRa (Long Range): Radio modulation technique • LoRaWAN:

    MAC protocol for Wide Area Networks (OSI Layer 2 and 3) sensors nodes gateways backend application backend LoRa ip ip
  5. LORAWAN sensors nodes gateways backend application backend LoRa/FSK IP traffic

    (Ethernet, 4G, WiFi) Encrypted Network Frame Encrypted App Payload IP traffic (MQTT, HTTP, gRPC)
  6. LONG RANGE 2km - 5km in urban setting 40km+ in

    rural setting © ttnmapper.org , Open Street Map
  7. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 201 km ground-to-ground by

    Andreas Spiess (TTN Basel) http://www.sensorsiot.org/ © ttnmapper.org
  8. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 333 km air-to-ground (helium

    balloon) by Thomas Telkamp (Lacuna Space) © ttnmapper.org
  9. INSANELY LONG RANGE (under extreme conditions) 832 km air-to-ground (helium

    balloon) by Thomas Telkamp (Lacuna Space) © ttnmapper.org
  10. LOW COST Node/transceiver: USD 6.5 Gateway: ~USD 85 (indoor) Open

    source stack + ISM bands Low CAPEX, almost negligible OPEX Photos by @gnz, CC-BY-SA
  11. UNLICENSED SPECTRUM Anyone can deploy a LoRaWAN network! US902-928 EU863-870

    AU915-928 CN470-510 Source: https://www.thethingsnetwork.org/docs/lorawan/frequencies-by-country.html
  12. LOW POWER Class A Class B Class C Always send,

    receive after send. Up to 10 years. Deep sleep: ~10 μA TX ~40 mA RX ~14 mA Time-synchronized receive windows. Always-on receive mode. Support on V3 Support on v3
  13. LIMITATIONS Bandwidth Payload size Regulatory limits 0.3 bps to 50

    kbps 51 bytes (DR0) 222 bytes (DR4) Fair usage policy 1% Duty Cycle (EU) 30 seconds/day airtime 10 downlinks/day
  14. • Gateways listen typically on 8 channels • 3 mandatory

    channels: • 868.1, 868.3, 868.5 Mhz • Bandwidth 125 kHz • Spreading Factor: SF7 to SF12 (5.5kbps to 0.3bps) • Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) ensures network capacity by managing data rates. NETWORK CAPACITY ON 868MHZ
  15. LORAWAN SECURITY • Protocol encryption enforced by design • Connecting

    end devices to the network: • EUI-64-based globally unique device identifier (DevEUI) • Application key (AppKey): AES 128-bit symmetric key, unique per device • Two activation modes: • OTAA (Over The Air Activation): regenerates keys on every session • ABP (Activation By Personalization): mostly just for development & test
  16. LORAWAN SESSIONS • End devices have a session with the

    network server • Two AES 128-bit session keys: • Network Session Key (NwkSKey) for identification • Application Session Key (AppSKey) for payload encryption • Device Address (32 bits) and frame counters
  17. NODES • Chipsets: Semtech SX1261/2/8, SX1272/6/7, LR1110 • Increasingly integrated:

    • Radio only (LoRa) • Radio + non-programmable MCU (LoRaWAN) • Radio + MCU (System-in-Package) • Radio + MCU (System-on-Chip) • Radio + MCU + Passive WiFi + GNSS • LoRaWAN stacks: • LMiC: original, Arduino port, MCCI fork • Basic MAC: basicmac.io • Others (proprietary): Microchip, Murata, etc.
  18. GATEWAYS • Chipsets: Semtech SX1301 / SX1302 / SX1303 /

    SX1308 • Runs on anything: Linux SBCs, MCUs (ESP32). • Multiple packet forwarder implementations: • Semtech UDP packet forwarder • LoRa Basics Station • LoRaWAN-version agnostic • Build or buy options
  19. THE THINGS STACK: V2 • Community Network servers operated by

    TTN Foundation in EU, US, Brazil, Singapore. • Switzerland and Australia clusters operated by ONIA and Meshed resp. • LoRaWAN 1.0 support, only class A support.
  20. THE THINGS STACK: V3 • On-going migration • Cross-cluster traffic

    over Packet Broker • Governance moved to TTI • Easier to operate your own cluster • Supports all LoRaWAN versions and device class • Private/public peering
  21. INTEGRATIONS: V3 • MQTT and HTTP integrations • More optional,

    zero effort, commercial integrations for leading IoT platforms • Easier to build your own integration