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地図と認知プロセス -人間は地図を使って認知地図を獲得できるか-

Hirosaji
December 17, 2017

地図と認知プロセス -人間は地図を使って認知地図を獲得できるか-

志学の会 12月勉強会 発表資料
Title: Map and cognitive maps -I wonder if human beings are acquiring cognitive maps via maps?-

Hirosaji

December 17, 2017
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  1. தԝେֶେֶӃ म࢜2೥ ώϡʔϚϯϝσΟΞ޻ֶݚڀࣨ
    ࢤֶͷձ 12݄ษڧձൃද -ೝ஌ϓϩηε- (2017/12/17)
    Ճ౻ᚠ໵
    ೝ஌ϓϩηε
    ਓؒ͸஍ਤΛ࢖ͬͯ
    ೝ஌஍ਤΛ֫ಘͰ͖Δ͔
    ஍ਤ
    ͱ

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  2. ஍ਤͷओͳ׆༻γʔϯ
    ?
    ॳΊͯ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ ಡΈղ͘ ࠶ͼ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ ࢥ͍ඳ͘
    ॳΊʹɺීஈࣗ෼͕ͲΜͳ࣌ʹ஍ਤΛ࢖͍ͬͯΔ͔ɺࢥ͍ग़ͯ͠Έ͍ͯͩ͘͞ɻ
    ྫ͑͹ɺॳΊͯ๚ΕͨӺͰ໨త஍·ͰͷಓͷΓΛௐ΂Δ࣌ɺଟ͘ͷਓ͸஍ਤΛ࢖͍·͢ɻ
    ·ͨɺ΋͠աڈʹ๚Εͨܦݧ͕͋Ε͹ɺ಄ͷதͰ஍ਤΛࢥ͍ඳ͘͜ͱͰ͠ΐ͏ɻ

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  3. ஍ਤ+GISͷओͳ׆༻γʔϯ
    ?
    ॳΊͯ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ
    ಡΈղ͘
    ࠶ͼ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ
    ࢥ͍ඳ͘
    ·ͨ࠷ۙ͸ɺ(*4 (FPHSBQIJD*OGPSNBUJPO4ZTUFN஍ཧ৘ใγεςϜ
    ͷൃలʹΑΓɺ
    σδλϧػثΛ࢖ͬͯ஍ਤ৘ใΛѻ͏ػձ͕૿͑·ͨ͠ɻ
    (*4Λ࢖͏͜ͱͰɺܦ࿏୳ࡧҎ֎ʹ΋ɺ༷ʑͳ༻్ͷ஍ਤʹखܰʹ৮ΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖·͢ɻ
    ༷ʑͳ஍ཧදݱΛ
    Ӿཡ͢Δ
    2016 Presidential
    Election

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  4. ?
    ॳΊͯ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ
    ಡΈղ͘
    ࠶ͼ๚Εͨ৔ॴͰ
    ࢥ͍ඳ͘
    ༷ʑͳ஍ཧදݱΛ
    Ӿཡ͢Δ
    2016 Presidential
    Election
    ஍ਤ+GISͷओͳ׆༻γʔϯ
    ͨͩ͠ࠓճͷௐࠪͰ͸ɺ஍ਤͷ༻్Λܦ࿏୳ࡧͷΈʹߜΓ·ͨ͠ɻ
    ࠓճ͸ɺ಄ͷதͰࢥ͍ඳ͘஍ਤʮೝ஌஍ਤʯͱ͸Կͳͷ͔ɻ·ͨɺਓؒ͸ͲͷΑ͏ʹ஍ਤ͔Β
    ʮೝ஌஍ਤʯΛͭ͘Γ͍ͩͯ͠Δͷ͔ɻͦͷ྆໘͔Βɺೝ஌ϓϩηεΛඥղ͖·͢ɻ

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  5. ࠓճͷௐࠪ໨త
    ̍ɹ
    ʮೝ஌஍ਤ

    ಄ͷதͷ஍ਤ
    ʯΛ஌Δ
    ̎ɹ
    ʮ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔʯΛ஌Δ
    ࠓճ͸ɺ্هͷ̎ͭͷ໨తʹ͍ͭͯௐࠪ͠·ͨ͠ɻ

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  6. ʮೝ஌஍ਤ (಄ͷதͷ஍ਤ)ʯΛ஌Δ
    ̍

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  7. ೝ஌஍ਤ(Cognitive Map)ͱ͸
    ͋Δۭؒʹରͯ͠ɺਓͦΕͧΕ͕಄ͷதʹࢥ͍ඳ͘஍ਤͷ͜ͱΛʮೝ஌஍ਤʯͱݴ͍·͢ɻ
    ஌ࣝ΍จԽͷҟͳΔਓ͕ؒɺͦΕͧΕͷܦݧΛ΋ͱʹͭ͘Γ͋͛ΔͨΊɺಉۭؒ͡Λର৅ͱ
    ͨ͠ೝ஌஍ਤͰ͋ͬͯ΋ɺଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɺͦͷܗ͸ҟͳΓ·͢ɻ
    ਓͦΕͧΕ͕
    ࣗ෼ͷ಄ͷதʹͭ͘Γ͍͋͛ͯΔ஍ਤͷ͜ͱɻ
    Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ

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  8. ೝ஌஍ਤͷൃݟ
    Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ
    ೝ஌஍ਤ͸ɺ೥ʹΞϝϦΧͷ৺ཧֶऀ5PMNBO τʔϧϚϯ
    ʹΑͬͯఏএ͞Ε·ͨ͠ɻ
    1948೥ʹΞϝϦΧͷ৺ཧֶऀTolman͕ɺ
    ϥοτͷ಄ͷதͰͭ͘Γ͋͛ΒΕΔ஍ਤ
    Λൃݟͨ͠ɻ

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  9. Tolmanͷೝ஌஍ਤ࣮ݧ
    Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ
    ࣮ݧͰ͸ɺ㕒ͷ৔ॴΛΰʔϧͱͨ͠໎࿏Λϥοτʹ௅ઓͤ͞·ͨ͠ɻॳ௅ઓͰ͸໎ͬͯ·͢ɻ
    IUUQTZPVUVCF.*S9ED7DPLX ߨஊࣾϒϧʔόοΫε

    㕒·Ͱͷ࠷୹ϧʔτֶश̍೔໨

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  10. Tolmanͷೝ஌஍ਤ࣮ݧ
    Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ
    ճ໨ʹ͸ɺ໎ΘͣΰʔϧʹͨͲΓண͖·ͨ͠ɻͲ͏΍Β࠷୹ܦ࿏Λֶशͨ͠Α͏Ͱ͢ɻ
    IUUQTZPVUVCFSQ357@OO: ߨஊࣾϒϧʔόοΫε

    㕒·Ͱͷ࠷୹ϧʔτֶश̍̍೔໨

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  11. ܦ࿏Λֶशͨ͠ϥοτୡ͸ɺ࠷୹ܦ࿏Λ࠹͕Εͯ΋ɺ͙͢ʹผͷಓͰΰʔϧʹ޲͔͍·ͨ͠ɻ
    ൴Β͸ɺܦ࿏Λֶश͢ΔաఔͰೝ஌஍ਤΛ֫ಘ͠ɺΰʔϧͷҐஔΛਪଌͨ͠Α͏Ͱ͢ɻ
    Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ
    IUUQCMVFCBDLTLPEBOTIBDPKQOFXTIUNM
    Tolmanͷೝ஌஍ਤ࣮ݧ
    ֮͑ͨ࠷୹ϧʔτΛ;͍͞Ͱ΋ɺ͙͢͞·୅ସϧʔτ΁ɻ
    ͔͠͠ɺϥοτʹΑͬͯ୅ସϧʔτ͕มΘΔɻ

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  12. Tolman, E. C.ɿCognitive maps in rats and men.(1948)ΑΓ
    Tolmanͷೝ஌஍ਤ࣮ݧͷཪ෇͚
    Place cell ৔ॴࡉ๔

    ΍ Grid cell ֨ࢠࡉ๔

    ͷωοτϫʔΫ΋ؔ܎͍ͯ͠Δ
    ೥ϊʔϕϧੜཧֶɾҩֶ৆Ͱɺͦͷൃݟ͕࿩୊ʹͳͬͨʮ৔ॴࡉ๔ʯͱʮ֨ࢠࡉ๔ʯɻ
    ͋Δ৔ॴʹདྷͨͱ͖ʹ೴ͷதͰൃՐ͢Δ͜ΕΒͷࡉ๔ͷωοτϫʔΫ͕ɺΰʔϧ΁ͷಓͷΓ
    ͷֶशաఔͰಇ͍͍ͯΔͱߟ͑ΒΕ·͢ɻೝ஌஍ਤͱ΋ਂ͍ؔ܎͕͋Γͦ͏Ͱ͢Ͷɻ
    IUUQXXXCSBJOSJLFOKQKQZPVUIQMBDFDFMM@BOE@HSJEDFMM

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  13. ໎࿏ͱൺ΂ͯɺਓؒͷೝ஌஍ਤͷର৅ͱͳΔ࣮ੈքͷ৘ใྔ͸ɺඇৗʹଟ͍Ͱ͢ɻ
    ೴ࢿݯͷݶΒΕ͍ͯΔࢲͨͪਓؒ͸ɺ࣍ݩ࡟ݮͷͨΊʹ๲େͳ৘ใ͔ΒԿ͔Λநग़͠ɺ
    ೝ஌஍ਤΛ࡞͍ͬͯΔ͸ͣͰ͢ɻͦ͜Ͱଓ͍ͯ͸ɺೝ஌஍ਤͷߏ଄ʹ͍ͭͯௐࠪ͠·ͨ͠ɻ
    ೴ͷࢿݯʹ͸ݶք͕͋Δ
    ͨͩ͠ɺ
    ਓؒΛऔΓר͘؀ڥ͸ɺ໎࿏ΑΓ΋޿ൣͰෳࡶɻ
    ʢ.*&36/&஍ਤʹͯඳըʣ
    ޿ൣ ෳࡶ
    ϑϦʔૉࡐ԰)PTIJOPΑΓ
    ݶΓ͋Δʮ৔ॴࡉ๔ʯͨͪΛൃՐ͍ͤͯ͞Δཁૉ͕
    ผͷ͋ΔͷͰ͸ʁ

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  14. ೝ஌஍ਤ
    ( Cognitive Map )

    ύε
    ( Paths )
    Τοδ
    ( Edges )
    σΟετϦΫτ
    ( Districts )
    ϊʔυ
    ( Nodes )
    ϥϯυϚʔΫ
    ( Landmarks )
    ೝ஌஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉ
    Lynch, K.ɿThe image of the city.(1960) ΑΓ
    -ZODI Ϧϯν
    ͷ౎ࢢͷΠϝʔδௐࠪʹؔ͢ΔΞϯέʔτௐࠪʹΑΓɺ
    ೝ஌஍ਤ͸ओʹ̑ͭͷߏ੒ཁૉʹ෼ղͰ͖Δ͜ͱ͕Θ͔Γ·ͨ͠ɻ

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  15. ೝ஌஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉ
    Lynch, K.ɿThe image of the city.(1960) ΑΓ
    ύε
    ( Paths )
    Τοδ
    ( Edges )
    σΟετϦΫτ
    ( Districts )
    ϊʔυ
    ( Nodes )
    ϥϯυϚʔΫ
    ( Landmarks )
    ԑ
    ಓ࿏ ஍Ҭ ઀߹(ूத)఺ ໨ҹ
    Ex.
    Ex. Ex. Ex.
    Ex. Ұൠಓ࿏
    ߴ଎ಓ࿏
    ઢ࿏
    ւ؛
    ։ൃ஍
    ֑
    ެԂ
    ༡Ԃ஍
    த՚֗
    ަࠩ఺
    Ӻ
    ۭߓ


    ؃൘
    ̑ͭߏ੒ཁૉͷΠϝʔδ͸େମ͜Μͳײ͡ɻ
    ࢲͨͪਓؒ͸ɺ޿͘ෳࡶͳ࣮ੈքΛ͜ΕΒͷཁૉʹม׵͠ɺ஍ਤԽ͍ͯ͠Δͱߟ͑ΒΕ·͢ɻ

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  16. ೝ஌஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉʢΠϝʔδʣ
    Lynch, K.ɿThe image of the city.(1960) ΑΓ
    ̑ͭͷߏ੒ཁૉΛۭؒʹฒ΂ͨͱ͖ͷΠϝʔδ͸͜Μͳײ͡ɻ
    ৄࡉ͸ɺʰ౎ࢢͷΠϝʔδέϰΟϯɾϦϯνʱͰݕࡧͯ͠ΈͯԼ͍͞ɻʢ຋༁൛͕͋Γ·͢ʣ

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  17. ೝ஌஍ਤͷछྨ
    ϧʔτϚοϓ
    ( route map )
    Hart, R. A., Moore, G. T.ɿThe development of spatial cognition: A review.(1973) ΑΓ
    αʔϕΠϚοϓ
    ( survey map )
    ໨త஍·Ͱͷඞཁ࠷௿ݶͷ஌ࣝ
    ͕هԱ͞Εͨ஍ਤɻ
    ໨త஍·Ͱͷ၆ᛌతͳ৘ใ
    ͕هԱ͞Εͨ஍ਤɻ
    ·ͨɺೝ஌஍ਤʹ͸ɺϧʔτϚοϓܕͱαʔϕΠϚοϓܕ͕͋Δͱ͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻ
    ϧʔτϚοϓܕ͸ɺ໨త஍·Ͱͷඞཁ࠷௿ݶͷ஌ࣝ ύεͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ౳
    Λࡌͤͨ஍ਤͰɺ
    αʔϕΠϚοϓܕ͸ɺ໨త஍·ͰͷಓͷΓͱͦͷपล஌͕ࣝࡌͬͨ၆ᛌతͳ஍ਤͰ͢ɻ

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  18. ೝ஌஍ਤͷܗ੒ϓϩηεʢҰྫʣ
    Siegel, A. W., & White, S. H.ɿThe development of spatial representations of large-scale environments.(1975)ΑΓ
    ݸʑͷ
    ϥϯυϚʔΫ
    ΛهԱ
    ϥϯυϚʔΫͷ
    ܥྻͱͯ͠ͷ
    ϧʔτͷཧղ
    ϧʔτϚοϓͷܗ੒

    ෳ਺ͷ
    ϥϯυϚʔΫ΍
    ϧʔτͷ౷߹
    શͯͷ
    ϧʔτͷ౷߹
    αʔϕΠϚοϓͷܗ੒

    ̍ ̎ ̏ ̐
    ߋʹɺܦ࿏୳ࡧ࣌ʹ͓͚Δೝ஌஍ਤ͸ɺ্هͷΑ͏ʹஈ֊తʹܗ੒͞ΕΔͷ͕ҰൠతͰ͋Δ
    ߟ͑ΒΕ͍ͯ·͢ɻʢॾઆ͋Γ·͢ʣ

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  19. ʮ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔʯΛ஌Δ
    ̎

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  20. ͱ͜ΖͰɺʮ஍ਤΛಡΉʯͱ͸ͲΜͳ࡞ۀͰ͠ΐ͏͔ɻ
    ೝ஌Պֶͷ෼໺ʹ͓͍ͯ-MPZE ϩΠυ
    ͸ɺϘτϜΞοϓॲཧͱτοϓμ΢ϯॲཧΛ౷߹͠ͳ͕
    ΒۭؒΛղऍ͢Δ࡞ۀͰ͋Δͱड़΂·ͨ͠ɻ
    ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔͷೝ஌ॲཧ
    ϘτϜΞοϓॲཧ
    τοϓμ΢ϯॲཧ
    º
    ܹࢗͷड༰
    ʢ஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉͷ஌֮ʣ
    બ୒త஫ҙ
    ʢ஍ਤͷഎܠ஌ࣝͰݕࡧʣ
    Lloyd, R.ɿSpatial cognition: Geographic environments.(1997)ΑΓ

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  21. ϘτϜΞοϓॲཧ
    Lloyd, R.ɿSpatial cognition: Geographic environments.(1997)ΑΓ
    ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔͷೝ஌ॲཧ
    ܹࢗͷड༰
    ʢ஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉͷ஌֮ʣ
    Ґஔ࠲ඪ
    େ͖͞
    ೱ୶
    ͖Ί

    ޲͖
    ܗ
    ༷ʑͳଐੑม਺ͷ஍ਤཁૉ
    Λݕग़ɾหผ͢Δ
    ଐੑม਺ʹ
    ͳͲ
    ϘτϜΞοϓॲཧͰ͸ɺ໨ʹඈͼࠐΜͰདྷ༷ͨʑͳ஍ਤͷཁૉΛหผ͢ΔॲཧΛ͠·͢ɻ

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  22. τοϓμ΢ϯॲཧ
    બ୒త஫ҙ
    ʢ஍ਤͷഎܠ஌ࣝͰݕࡧʣ
    Lloyd, R.ɿSpatial cognition: Geographic environments.(1997)ΑΓ
    ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔͷೝ஌ॲཧ
    จ຺΍஌ࣝʹج͍ͮͯɺ
    બ୒తʹ஍ਤཁૉΛ஫ࢹ͢Δ
    ྫ͑͹ɺ
    ʮࣗ෼ͷҐஔʯͱ ʮ໨తҐஔʯ
    ͕෼͔ͬͨΒɺೋͭͷϚʔΫΛ݁ͿಓͷΓͷؒͷ
    ύε΍ϥϯυϚʔΫΛ஫ࢹ͢Ε͹Α͍ɻ
    τοϓμ΢ϯॲཧͰ͸ɺ஍ਤͷจ຺΍஌ࣝʹج͍ͮͯɺ஫ࢹ͢΂͖஍ਤͷཁૉΛબ୒͠·͢ɻ
    ͜ΕΒͷॲཧΛ܁Γฦ͠ͳ͕Βɺඞཁͳ৘ใΛநग़͠ɺʮೝ஌஍ਤʯΛඳ͍͍͖ͯ·͢ɻ

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  23. ೝ஌஍ਤ
    ͷ֫ಘ
    ஍ਤɾ(*4
    ͷ֫ಘ
    ஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉͷ஌֮
    ஍ਤ৘ใͷબ୒ɾநग़
    ʢϘτϜΞοϓॲཧʣ
    ʢτοϓμ΢ϯॲཧʣ
    ஍ཧۭؒͷೝ஌ϓϩηε
    Ҏ্ͷ͜ͱΛ౿·͑Δͱɺ஍ਤΛखʹͱͬͯೝ஌஍ਤΛ֫ಘ͢Δ·Ͱͷϓϩηε͸͜ͷΑ͏ͳ
    ྲྀΕʹͳΔͱߟ͑ΒΕ·͢ɻ
    ͔͠͠ɺ஍ਤΛಡΉ͚ͩͰຊ౰ʹʮೝ஌஍ਤʯΛ֫ಘͰ͖ΔͷͰ͠ΐ͏͔ɻ
    ࣮ࡍʹา͔ͳ͍ͱೝ஌஍ਤ͸֫ಘͰ͖ͳ͍ʁ
    ຊ٢༐ɿࢹ֮ೝ஌ͱը૾౷ܭྔ(2014)ΑΓ

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  24. ೝ஌஍ਤ
    ͷ֫ಘ
    ஍ਤɾ(*4
    ͷ֫ಘ
    ஍ਤͷߏ੒ཁૉͷ஌֮
    ஍ਤ৘ใͷબ୒ɾநग़
    ʢϘτϜΞοϓॲཧʣ
    ʢτοϓμ΢ϯॲཧʣ
    ײ֮هԱ ୹ظهԱ ௕ظهԱ
    هԱͷਪҠ
    ɾલ஫ҙաఔ
    ɾγεςϜ̍
    ɾ஫ҙաఔ
    ɾγεςϜ̎
    ߴ࣍ࢹ֮ೝ஌
    ೝ஌৘ใॲཧ
    Ϟʔυ
    ೝ஌Պֶͷ෼໺͚ͩͰ΋ɺ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔͰ༷ʑͳػೳ͕ಇ͍͍ͯΔ͜ͱ͕෼͔͍ͬͯ·͢ɻ
    ͔͠͠࢒೦ͳ͕Βɺ஍ਤͰೝ஌஍ਤ͕֫ಘͰ͖Δ͔͸ɺ͍·ͩʹղ໌͞Ε͍ͯ·ͤΜɻ
    ͓ͦΒ͘ɺ஍ਤΛಡΉࣄͱʮ৔ॴࡉ๔ʯʮ֨ࢠࡉ๔ʯͷؔ܎͕ॏཁͱͳΔͱߟ͑ΒΕ·͢ɻ
    ຊ٢༐ɿࢹ֮ೝ஌ͱը૾౷ܭྔ(2014)ΑΓ
    ஍ཧۭؒͷೝ஌ϓϩηε

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  25. ஍ਤͰೝ஌஍ਤΛ֫ಘͰ͖Δ͔
    ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔͰʮ৔ॴࡉ๔ʯʮ֨ࢠࡉ๔ʯ͕ൃՐ͢Δ͔ɺ·ͨ͸ɺؒ઀తʹൃՐͤ͞ಘΔ͔
    ͕෼͔Ε͹ɺ஍ਤΛಡΉࣄͱೝ஌஍ਤͷؔ܎Λ໌֬ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ΔͰ͠ΐ͏ɻ
    ҩֶɾੜཧֶɾ೴ՊֶքͰͷࠓޙͷݚڀͷਐల͕଴ͨΕ·͢ɻ

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  26. ·ͱΊ
    ̍ɹ
    ʮೝ஌஍ਤʯͷಛੑΛௐࠪͨ͠
    ̎ɹ
    ʮ஍ਤΛಡΉաఔʯΛௐࠪͨ͠
    ɾೝ஌஍ਤͷൃݟ ϥοτ࣮ݧ

    ɾೝ஌஍ਤͷߏ੒ɺछྨɺܗ੒ϓϩηε
    ɾ஍ਤͷೝ஌ॲཧ
    ɾ஍ਤͰೝ஌஍ਤΛ֫ಘͰ͖Δ͔

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  27. ײ૝
    ೔ຊɺ஍ਤͷݚڀগͳ͗͢ʂ

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  28. References
    2. ਡ๚ਖ਼थɿϏδϡΞϧͳදݱͱೝ஌ϓϩηε, ՄࢹԽ৘ใֶձࢽ, Vol. 19, No. 72,
    pp. 13-18, 1999.
    1. एྛ๕थɿۭؒೝ஌ͱGIS, Geographical Review of Japan, Vol. 76, No. 10,
    pp. 703-724, 2003.
    3. ຊ٢༐ɿࢹ֮ೝ஌ͱը૾౷ܭྔ, ೝ஌Պֶ, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 304-313, 2014.
    5. ੢ጯߒ࢘, ଜ໺ത࢘, দݪࡈथ, ଂ੅ඒਔɿೝ஌஍ਤ͔ΒΈͨ֗࿏ۭؒͷ࿈ଓతೝ
    ࣝ, ೔ຊݐஙֶձܭըܥ࿦จू, Vol. 65, No. 529, pp. 217-223, 2000.
    30
    Thank you
    4. ޙ౻࿨޺ɿࢹ֮ೝ஌ʹ͓͚Δશମॲཧͱ෦෼ॲཧ── ൺֱೝ஌Պֶ͔Βͷఏݴ─
    ─, ৺ཧֶݚڀ, Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 352-367, 2009.

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  29. References
    7. Lynch, K.: The image of the city., MIT press, 1960.
    6. Hart, R. A., Moore, G. T.: The development of spatial cognition: A review.,
    AldineTransaction, 1973.
    8. 2016 Election News, Candidates & Polls - NBC News:
    https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/president
    10. Lloyd, R.: Spatial cognition: Geographic environments., Springer Science &
    Business Media, 1997.
    31
    Thank you
    9. Downs, R. M., Stea, D.: Cognitive maps and spatial behaviour: process and
    products., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.

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  30. References
    12. Tolman, E. C.: Cognitive maps in rats and men., Psychological review, Vol. 55,
    No. 4, 1948.
    11. Siegel, A. W., & White, S. H.: The development of spatial representations of large-
    scale environments., Advances in child development and behavior, Vol. 10, pp.
    9-55, 1975.
    32
    Thank you

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