Summary Logic/Declarative Paradigm Key idea: A program is a set of facts about objects, rules about objects, and questions (queries) about the relations between objects. Features: • get rid of programming altogether.
Logic Paradigm § It focus on what is needed (requirements), instead of how to implement them. It just describe what the problem is and let the computer find a way to solve the problem, instead describing how to solve the problem.
Local Prolog Interpreter To enter rules from the command line, type this : [user]. This puts you in a mode where you can enter facts and rules. Otherwise you get this kind of message: ERROR: Undefined procedure: (DWIM could not correct goal) You can then enter facts (or rules) e.g. : father(me,sarah). After having entered the knowledge, type CONTROL-D to come back to the mode where you can enter questions. Then you can ask: ?- father(me,X). X = sarah To quit: halt.
Predicate Logic § It uses a simplified variation of predicate logic syntax, which is similar to natural language. § Predicate logic eliminate all unnecessary words from sentences, then transform the sentence by placing the relationship (predicate) first and grouping the objects (arguments) after the relationship predicate (object, object, object ....)
Predicate Logic § Facts: What is known, e.g., Bill likes car and bike, and he travels with one of them likes(bill, car), likes(bill, bike) travels(bill, car); travels(bill, bike) § Rules: What you can infer from the given facts. Rules enable you to infer facts from other facts, e.g., Bill is the father of Joe, if Joe is the son of bill. father(bill, joe) :- son(joe, bill). , means AND ; means OR
Natural Language Predicate Logic Type of Predicate A car is fast. fast(car). fact A rose is red. red(rose). fact Bill likes the car if the car is fast. likes(bill, car) :- fast(car). rule Humidity is high if it rains high(humidity):- rains(). rule Jane is mother of Elaine mother_of(jane, elaine). fact Jane is mother of Mike mother_of(jane, mike). fact David is father of Jesse father_of(david, jesse). fact Jesse is father of Obed father_of(jesse, obed). fact Grandmother X of Z if (X is mother of Y and (Y is mother of Z or Y is father of Z) grandmother_of(X, Z) :- mother_of(X, Y), ( mother_of(Y, Z); father_of(Y, Z) ). rule
Q5 § Given the following facts § cat(tom). § black_spots(tom). § dog(pluto). § white_spots(pluto) § Which rule defines in Prolog the following sentence: § "mary owns a Pet if it is a cat and it has black spots" owns(mary, Pet):- cat(Pet), black_spots(Pet).