Kotlin, the good

Kotlin, the good

In this presentation, Segun and I introduced the audience to Kotlin. We spoke about the history, the exciting new features and how to get started with learning it.

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Moyinoluwa Adeyemi

June 17, 2017
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Transcript

  1. 4.

    Intro to Kotlin - History Statically typed programming language, and

    runs on the JVM. Kotlin was developed by JetBrains (Makers of IntelliJ)
  2. 5.

    Intro to Kotlin - History Statically typed programming language, and

    runs on the JVM. Kotlin was developed by JetBrains (Makers of IntelliJ) First commit dates back to 2010, but was first publicly seen around 2011.
  3. 6.

    Intro to Kotlin - Why did Google make it official?

    Awesome features - nullable types, concise, data classes, etc. Great community support There was an overwhelming request for Kotlin official support on Android
  4. 8.

    Null Safety - nullable types and non-nullable types Protects against

    NullPointerException the $1,000,000,000 mistake
  5. 9.

    Null Safety - nullable types and non-nullable types // compiler

    error var name: String name = null A non-nullable object can’t be null Protects against NullPointerException the $1,000,000,000 mistake
  6. 10.

    Null Safety - nullable types and non-nullable types // compiler

    error var name: String name = null // compiler error var name: String? val length = name.length A non-nullable object can’t be null Protects against NullPointerException the $1,000,000,000 mistake Specify a nullable object by using “?” Kotlin ensures that you don’t mistakenly operate on nullable objects
  7. 11.

    Null Safety - Accessing properties in a nullable object //

    handle non-null case and null case var name: String? = null val length = if (name != null) name.length else 0 1. Checking for null types
  8. 12.

    Null Safety - Accessing properties in a nullable object //

    use ?. to make safe call var name: String? = null ... val length = name?.length Use ?. to safely access a property/method on a nullable object If name happens to be null, the value of length is 0 (inferred integer). length would be null if it were of another type. 2. Making safe calls using “?.”
  9. 13.

    Null Safety - Accessing properties in a nullable object //

    use elvis operator var name: String? = null val length = name?.length ?: 0 This reads as “if name is not null, use name.length else use 0” 3. Making use of the “?:” elvis operator
  10. 14.

    Null Safety - Accessing properties in a nullable object //

    use !! assertion var name: String? = null val length = name!!.length This reads as “if name is not null, use name.length else throw a null pointer exception” 4. Making use of the “!!” assertion operator
  11. 15.

    Null Safety - NPE free! You can only have the

    NullPointerException in Kotlin if: 1. You explicitly throw a NPE 2. You make use of the !! operator 3. An external Java code causes the NPE.
  12. 16.

    Smart inference // you don’t need to explicitly put a

    type val name = "Segun" // string val age = 24 // int val grade = 'A' // char val hobbies = listOf("karate", "eating") // list of strings Kotlin can smartly infer the type of your variable from the data it contains
  13. 17.

    Immutability Kotlin helps developers to be intentional about immutability. Immutability

    simply means that things you create can’t be changed. We need immutability because it: • helps us with thread safety - no synchronization issues • is good for value objects - objects that simply hold value, POJOs etc. • helps debugging threaded applications without losing your hair
  14. 18.

    Immutability - How does it work in Java? • Immutability

    in Java? final classes private fields no setters • Immutability in Kotlin? Guess?
  15. 19.

    Immutability - How does Kotlin help? var vs val //

    compiler error: val cannot be reassigned val name = "Moyin" name = name.toUpperCase() // works fine var name = "Moyin" name = name.toUpperCase()
  16. 20.

    Immutability - How does Kotlin help? Immutable and Mutable collections

    // immutable collection val unchangeableHobbies = listOf("coding", "eating") unchangeableHobbies.add() // add method doesn’t exist // mutable collection val changeableHobbies = mutableListOf("karate", "basketball") changeableHobbies.add("soccer") // you can add
  17. 21.

    public final class ImmutableClassJava { private final String name; private

    final int age; public ImmutableClassJava(String name, int age) { this.name = name; this.age = age; } // no setters public String getName() { return name; } public int getAge() { return age; } } class ImmutableClass(val name: String, val age: Int, val grade: Char, val hobbies: List<String>) • Class is final by default • val implies that the parameters are final as well (values can’t be assigned) Immutability in Java vs Kotlin
  18. 22.

    Functions // function sample fun sampleFunc() { // code goes

    here } A function is declared using the “fun” keyword
  19. 23.

    Functions // function sample fun sampleFunc() { // code goes

    here } // function with param fun sampleFuncWithParam(param: String) { // code goes here } A function is declared using the “fun” keyword Method parameters use the “name:Type” notation
  20. 24.

    Functions // function sample fun sampleFunc() { // code goes

    here } // function with param fun sampleFuncWithParam(param: String) { // code goes here } // func with param and return type fun capitalize(param: String): String { return param.toUpperCase() } Method parameters use the “name:Type” notation Return types are specified after the method definition. A function is declared using the “fun” keyword
  21. 26.

    Functions - infix functions // infix function infix fun Int.times(x:

    Int): Int { return this * x } // usage fun useInfix() { val product = 2 times 5 println(product) }
  22. 28.

    Functions - extension functions // extension function fun Int.square(): Int

    { return this * this } fun useExtension() { val square = 2.square() println(square) }
  23. 31.

    public void doSomething() { // do something } fun doSomething():

    Unit { // do same thing } Conciseness in Kotlin
  24. 32.

    fun doSomething(): Unit { // do same thing } Conciseness

    in Kotlin public void doSomething() { // do something }
  25. 33.

    fun doSomething() { // do same thing } Conciseness in

    Kotlin public void doSomething() { // do something }
  26. 34.
  27. 35.

    // Java fun getName() { return name } Conciseness in

    Kotlin public String getName() { return name; }
  28. 37.
  29. 38.

    public class Person { private String name; String getName ()

    { return name; } void setName (String name) { this.name = name; } @Override public String toString () { return "Person{" + "name='" + name + '\'' + '}'; } } data class Person(val name: String) Classes in Java vs Data Classes in Kotlin
  30. 39.

    Classes in Java vs Regular Classes in Kotlin public class

    Person { private String name; String getName () { return name; } void setName (String name) { this.name = name; } public int getNameLength () { return name.length } } class Person(var name: String) { val nameLength: Int get() = name.length }
  31. 40.

    Classes in Java vs Regular Classes in Kotlin public class

    Person { private String name; String getName () { return name; } void setName (String name) { this.name = name; } public int getNameLength () { return name.length } } class Person(var name: String) { val nameLength get() = name.length }
  32. 45.

    Kotlin Koans • Koans online • Offline Kotlin Educational Plugin

    • Clone the project on Github IDE support Kotlin Koans + plugin
  33. 46.

    Kotlin Koans • Koans online • Offline Kotlin Educational Plugin

    • Clone the project on Github IDE support = built-in support + plugin
  34. 47.

    Kotlin Koans • Koans online • Offline Kotlin Educational Plugin

    • Clone the project on Github IDE support = built-in support = built-in support + plugin
  35. 48.

    Kotlin Koans • Koans online • Offline Kotlin Educational Plugin

    • Clone the project on Github IDE support Community Kotlin Weekly http://www.kotlinweekly.net/ = built-in support = built-in support + plugin
  36. 49.

    Kotlin Koans • Koans online • Offline Kotlin Educational Plugin

    • Clone the project on Github IDE support Community Kotlin Weekly http://www.kotlinweekly.net/ Kotlin Conf kotlinconf.com + = built-in support plugin = built-in support