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ONTOCHAIN - TALK #3

ONTOCHAIN
October 15, 2020

ONTOCHAIN - TALK #3

The third ONTOCHAIN talk focused on the ONTOCHAIN project, technologies, and use cases.

ONTOCHAIN

October 15, 2020
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  1. ONTOCHAIN
    A NEW SOFTWARE ECOSYSTEM FOR
    TRUSTED, TRACEABLE &
    TRANSPARENT ONTOLOGICAL
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
    Dr. Caroline Barelle
    ONTOCHAIN Coordinator
    European Dynamics
    [email protected]

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  2. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    ONTOCHAIN IN BRIEF
    2

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  3. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    Imagine and engineer the Next Generation Internet.
    A Resilient Internet
    With
    protection of privacy,
    user empowerment,
    inclusivness
    openess
    A Trustworthy Internet
    With
    trustworthy
    Content,
    Information exchange,
    Identities
    A Sustainable Internet
    With
    Interoperable services,
    Data traceability
    Develop block(s) of a software ecosystem that will serve the trusted knowledge and information needs of
    HUMANITY !
    Contribute to :
    YOUR MISSION
    4

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  4. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    Equity-Free
    Funding
    Coaching Top Infrastructure
    Access
    Visibility
    & Promotion
    Community Building
    With
    Innovators, Industry,
    Investor
    Media Promotiom
    Access to Top Events
    Software technologies
    IEXEC platform
    MyIntelliPatent
    Up to
    200 000 €
    Per sub-grantee
    For scaling up
    innovative business
    Webinars
    Access to various expertise
    WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU ?
    5

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  5. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    THE CASCADE FUNDING AND THE OBJECTIVES
    OF EACH OF THE 3 CALLS
    Call 2 – Protocol Suite & Software
    Ecosystem Foundations
    You will :
    Establish the Ontochain framework
    as human centric decentralised &
    trustworthy solution based on the
    available technologies.
    With coaching
    You will :
    Build the Ontochain concept for the
    creation of a trustworthy information
    exchange process & a more
    transactional content handling.
    Create the Ontochain Framework
    prototypes.
    With coaching
    You will :
    Exploit the Ontochain solution to
    real life use cases.
    With coaching
    Call budget: 1,14M€ Call budget: 1,32M€ Call budget: 1,75M€
    Call 1 - Research Call 3 - Applications &
    Experimentation
    6
    Call announcement 31/10/2020
    Call closure 30/11/2020
    (Indicative date)
    2021-2022 (Indicative date) 2022-2023 (Indicative date)

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  6. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    FOCUS ON CALL 1 RESEARCH- OVERVIEW
    7
    Indicative dates: Call announcement 31/10/2020
    Call closure 30/11/2020
    Objectives : To establish the ONTOCHAIN Framework as a human centric, decentralized and trustworthy solution around
    6 challenges : Applications - Sementic interoperability - On-blockchain data management - Off-blockchain knowledge
    management - Ecosystem economy - Ecosystem scalability and integration
    Three phases :
    Phase 1- Research proposal, 3months, 15 to 18 projects covering the 6 challenges
    ➔You will have to propose a research project for 1 of the 6 challenges aforementioned
    Phase 2- Research award, 5 months, 12 projects, 2 projects per challenge
    ➔You will have to further elaborate the concept proposed in phase 1 and prepare design specifications that will be
    implemented during the Open call 2.
    Phase 3- Challenges for conferences, 1 month, the best publication whatever the phases per
    challenge

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  7. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    FOCUS ON CALL 1 RESEARCH – THE 6
    CHALLENGES
    - Applications:
    Define a typical ONTOCHAIN application or service for trustworthy content handling and trustworthy knowledge and information exchange.
    Define typical ONTOCHAIN use cases, such as: marketplace(s) setup and operation, fact checking against fake information, self-sovereign
    identity, trusted and secure data management, asset ownership management, secure and transparent copyright management and verification and
    similar.
    Analyse the potential of trustworthy ONTOCHAIN applications in various domains such as education, services orchestration, open science,
    eContent, Social Networks, eHealth, Tourism and similar.
    Analyse and define the functional, non-functional and system requirements that have to be addressed in the further stages of the ONTOCHAIN
    project.
    - Semantic interoperability
    Develop a trustworthy, privacy-preserving, secure, transparent, democratic and traceable approach to manage access and operations over
    ontologies, metadata, data, knowledge and information in the ONTOCHAIN ecosystem.
    - On-blockchain data management
    Design and develop a set of prototype functionalities for on-blockchain data management. The challenge here is to propose: novel ideas for
    implementation of on-blockchain data management methods, to identify suitable consensus protocols for implementation, to identify semantic
    formats particularly suitable for on-blockchain operations
    8

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  8. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    - Off-blockchain knowledge management
    The challenge is to rely on, extend and pioneer new methods that provide a trustless interface to the trustworthy blockchain environment.
    Research and innovation activities may focus on the design and development of initial prototypes for off-blockchain knowledge management that support the various
    identified use cases and application domains of the ONTOCHAIN project.
    - Ecosystem economy
    Existing business ecosystems (in practically all application domains) are semantically very complex and dynamic. The challenge here is to provide a market framework and
    business models for the operation of such ecosystems with the help of the ONTOCHAIN solution. Existing and novel approaches and business models for business
    ecosystem development starting from the technology areas of blockchain, Semantic Web, Internet of Things and similar may be analysed in detail, and best practices
    proposed for implementation.
    - Ecosystem scalability and integration
    The challenge is to actually build a semantically complex and dynamic ecosystem and decentralised testing environment with the participation of various project related
    and external organisations and individuals. The key requirement is to integrate and support the initial ONTOCHAIN applications. In addition to this, various scalability and
    integration aspects should be considered.
    FOCUS ON CALL 1 RESEARCH – THE 6
    CHALLENGES
    9

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  9. STAY UPDATED
    AND GET INVOLVED!
    /showcase/ontochain
    ontochain.ngi.eu
    @ONTOCHAIN
    @ONTOCHAIN
    /channel/UCcF7Ovd99lOKcjMGQdnhIvA
    Thank you
    Some
    Questions?

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  10. Tech Background:
    the iExec
    Platform

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  11. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    11
    IEXEC HISTORY
    Founded in 2016 by Gilles Fedak (Inria) & Haiwu He (Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    April 2017: ICO raised 10,000 Bitcoins within 3 hours
    5-year roadmap completed in 2020
    ICO: 2017/4
    Off-chain computing SDK,
    Dapp Store, Dapp
    Challenge
    87M RLC issued
    10k BTC raised
    V1: 2017/11
    Background
    15 years
    in cloud
    computing
    & HPC
    V2: 2018/5 V5: 2020/7
    V3: 2019/5
    Data Store
    Data Renting

    Lightweight workers

    Mainnet
    Marketplace Interoperability

    DeFi

    Confidential
    Computing
    GPU

    BoT

    Sidechain
    V4: 2019/12
    French SEC
    approval
    -
    Regulated
    marketplace

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  12. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    iExec: provide developers with scalable, secure and easy access to decentralized services, datasets
    and computing resources.
    12
    computing
    power
    Data
    providers
    Requesters
    Application
    providers
    Cloud
    providers
    application
    dataset
    Blockchain-based decentralized
    iExec Marketplace
    request / buy
    financial flow
    $
    $
    $
    $
    Monetize App
    Access
    control
    Automatic
    payments
    Data
    renting
    Trading
    Confidential
    Computing
    Autonomous
    app
    Pay-per-
    Task
    emit order
    DECENTRALIZED CLOUD COMPUTING ON
    ETHEREUM

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  13. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    13
    IEXEC WALKTHROUGH

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  14. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    On-chain validation than an off-chain task was performed correctly.
    14
    PROOF-OF-CONTRIBUTION (POCO)
    1. One task = 4 orders, signed off-chain with an Ethereum wallet:
    ● apporder signed by the developer
    ● (datasetorder signed by the dataset provider)
    ● workerpoolorder signed by a worker pool scheduler
    ● requestorder signed by a requester
    2. Orders are matched on-chain: poco.matchOrders()
    (Check signatures, parameters, balances, …)
    3. PoCo seals a deal & workers start computing
    4. Workers send result hash back to PoCo
    5. PoCo compares results, manages reputation, triggers payments.

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  15. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    PUBLIC
    PRIVATE HYBRID PUBLIC
    Health
    Dapps
    Providers
    APPLICATIONS, MEET COMPUTERS
    15
    Ultimate goal: give Smart Contract-level trust to any application

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  16. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    IEXEC TASK EXECUTION
    Two types of tasks, with configurable confidence and privacy
    Standard tasks
    Run on untrusted resources,
    delegate trust to the blockchain
    ● Replication level depending on
    desired confidence
    ● Decentralized consensus
    ● On-chain reputation
    ● Staking & economic incentives
    ● Deterministic
    TEE tasks
    Run isolated within an Intel SGX TEE
    (Trusted Execution Environments)
    +
    ● End-to-end encryption of data & result
    ● Enclave attestation proves that the task
    was run in TEE
    ● Result signature with enclave key: no
    need for replication
    ● Non-deterministic
    16

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  17. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    WHAT IS TEE?
    ● Secure part of a CPU with
    encrypted memory space
    ● Memory & Code protected from
    host (even root)
    ● Hardware based security
    (private key in silico)
    ● Can be remotely attested
    ● (Soon) available on hardware from
    various vendors Intel® Software Guard Extensions application execution flow.
    17

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  18. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    18
    IEXEC USE-CASES (PROVIDERS)
    Application providers
    Monetize apps, dapps,
    functions, algorithms
    packaged as Docker
    Containers.
    Price set per execution
    No vendor lock-in: runs
    the same on multiple
    providers.
    Dataset providers
    Monetize trained AI
    models, private data and
    valuable knowledge.
    Arbitrary files & data
    types supported
    Price set per execution
    End-to-end encryption
    with TEE: prevent copy &
    ensure confidentiality.
    Computing providers
    Monetize servers and
    workstations (CPUs,
    GPUs) when they are not
    in use.
    Instant new revenue
    stream
    Isolated workload with
    Docker & TEE.
    Computing providers
    Data providers
    Application providers
    Open new streams of revenue by monetizing the resources you already have, get paid on the
    blockchain

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  19. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    19
    IEXEC USE-CASES (REQUESTERS)
    Application providers
    Run your code on
    resources from multiple
    providers with no vendor
    lock-in.
    Run you own apps: not
    limited to the marketplace
    The marketplace gets
    you the best price
    Custom level of
    confidence for each task
    Dataset providers
    Trusted executions
    prove to you and to others
    that a result is valid.
    Confidential execution
    keeps data private with
    TEE enclaves, plus result
    signature.
    Connect any application
    to the platform with our
    SDK
    Computing providers
    Program complex
    oracles with image
    recognition, multi-source
    aggregation, etc.
    Trigger off-chain tasks
    directly from your smart
    contract
    Interact with regular IT
    infrastructures, sensor
    networks, arbitrary
    blockchains, etc.
    Smart Contracts
    Web 2 applications
    Users
    Run complex code & DOracles, get a proof of correct execution

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  20. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    IEXEC KEY FEATURES
    Standard task TEE task
    Supported CPU
    Any Intel or AMD
    x86 & x64
    Intel CPU with SGX extension
    Supported GPU nVidia (with CUDA) n/a
    Supported languages Any
    Python, C/C++, Fortran, Rust,
    Node, GO, Java
    Nondeterministic tasks With limitations Supported
    Application runtime Docker container
    Supported data format Any (arbitrary files)
    Supported storage IPFS, AWS, DropBox
    Trust level
    Adjustable through replication
    and reputation
    Result signed
    within the enclave
    Traceability Tasks history recorded and fully auditable on-chain
    Execution model Serverless, Pay-per-Task
    20

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  21. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    CURRENT LIMITATIONS & SUGGESTED
    IMPROVEMENTS
    Possible improvements of the iExec software for performance, scalability, and applicability
    Time-based payment Multiple paid datasets per task
    Improved decentralized order brokering
    21
    P2P order sharing

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  22. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    SUGGESTED DEVELOPMENT
    Generic components that can be built with iExec and benefit applications across different
    verticals
    22
    Very complex DOracles ZK-Proofs verifiers
    LARGE ZK-PROOF
    OFF-CHAIN VERIFIER
    SECRET
    State channel exits
    https://docs.ethhub.io/ethereum-roadmap/layer-2-scaling/state-channels/
    Marketplace of everything
    {
    ’fuel’: ’electricity’,
    ’CO2’: 12,
    ’range’: 94,
    ’capacity’: 5
    ’endpoint’: ’https://…’
    }
    ONTOLOGICAL
    REPRESENTATION
    OBJECT
    ONTOLOGICAL
    MODEL
    DECENTRALIZED
    MARKETPLACE FOR
    IOT, CARS,
    3D PRINTING, …

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  23. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    SUGGESTED INTEGRATIONS
    Integration ideas that could benefit the blockchain community at large
    23
    Blockchains Sensor networks
    IoT-as-a-Service
    Infrastructure Wallets & Assets
    Social networks & media

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  24. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU?
    Funding
    24
    Mentorship
    Support

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  25. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    WHERE TO START?
    Documentation
    • https://docs.iex.ec/
    • https://docs.iex.ec/for-developers/confidential-computing
    Articles
    • White paper https://iex.ec/wp-content/uploads/pdf/iExec-WPv3.0-English.pdf
    • PoCo Series https://medium.com/iex-ec/poco-series/home
    • Dapps of the Week https://medium.com/iex-ec/dapp-of-the-week/
    Code
    • Sources http://github.com/iexecBlockchainComputing/
    • Example Dapps https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-apps
    25

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  26. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    26
    Component name Description Licence Repository
    iexec-sdk
    CLI and JS library for interacting with the
    iExec stack
    Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-sdk
    poco
    Smart contract implementation of iExec's
    PoCo protocole
    Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/PoCo
    iexec-common
    Common library used by iexec-core and
    iexec-worker
    Apache v2.0
    https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-
    common
    iexec-core
    Worker pool scheduler: monitor the chain
    and relay tasks to workers in the pool
    Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-core
    iexec-worker
    Agent running computing tasks sent by
    requesters through the PoCo
    Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-worker
    tee-worker-post-compute
    Helper for encrypting the result of TEE
    tasks within secure enclaves
    Apache v2.0
    https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/tee-worker-
    post-compute
    iexec-sms
    Secret Management Service for end-to-
    end encryption on the iExec stack
    Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-sms
    iexec-result-proxy IPFS proxy for task result upload Apache v2.0
    https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-result-
    proxy
    iexec-solidity Toolbox library for Smart Contracts Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-solidity
    iexec-deploy Toolbox library for off-chain services Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-deploy
    iexec-apps Sample applications Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-apps
    IEXEC SOURCE REPOSITORIES

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  27. STAY UPDATED
    AND GET INVOLVED!
    /showcase/ontochain
    ontochain.ngi.eu
    @ONTOCHAIN
    @ONTOCHAIN
    /channel/UCcF7Ovd99lOKcjMGQdnhIvA
    @ansimonet
    @iex_ec
    https://iex.ec/
    https://slack.iex.ec/
    https://t.me/iexec_announcements

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  28. Alberto
    Ciaramella
    IntelliSemantic
    15.10.2020
    From usecases
    to applications
    in ONTOCHAIN

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  29. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    AGENDA
    ◼ Usecases
    ◼ why, what
    ◼ Applications
    ◼ key features, opportunities and threads
    ◼ categorization and overview
    ◼ some examples
    ◼ Conclusions
    30

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  30. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    PLATFORM FUNCTIONS – USECASES –
    APPLICATIONS
    31

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  31. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    USECASES: WHY
    ◼ to facilitate the design
    ◼ the number of use cases is definitely less than the
    number of potential applications
    ◼ to facilitate the implementation of robust applications
    ◼ different applications will be implemented by
    suitably orchestrating certified usecases
    32

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  32. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    USECASES: WHAT
    ◼ Related to persons
    ◼ Identity management
    ◼ Reputation assessment
    ◼ for sellers, for buyers
    ◼ Related to data
    ◼ Copyright management
    ◼ Metadata and document assessment
    ◼ including the identification of fake information
    Some other usecases can be identified, but not many
    others
    33

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  33. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    ONTOCHAIN APPLICATIONS: KEY FEATURES
    ◼ blockchain is characterized by:
    ◼ decentralisation
    ◼ supports disintermediation
    ◼ data immutability and time stamp
    ◼ supports the federation of data, whilst retaining
    ownership
    ◼ moreover blockchain is the appropriate technology to
    unleash the possibilities of ontologies and linked data, which
    in its own:
    ◼ support queries on data bases of different origin
    ◼ support reasoning
    34

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  34. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    BLOCKCHAIN APPLICATIONS: OPPORTUNITIES
    ◼ Blockchain technologies enable a new wave of applications
    in the Next Generation Internet (NGI):
    ◼ disruptive
    ◼ user-centric, to support the inclusion and the collective
    intelligence
    ◼ data-centric, to support the data economy: in
    ONTOCHAIN we include ontologies and linked data not
    only to unleash the potentialities of these technologies,
    but to properly remunerate data providers (this is a weak
    business point today!)
    ◼ or significantly improved
    ◼ more efficient and/or more reliable/secure
    35

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  35. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    BLOCKCHAIN APPLICATIONS: THREADS
    ◼ More complex architecture than “today internet” implies
    threats in:
    ◼ Scalability
    ◼ Energy consumption
    ◼ Security
    ◼ The novelty of the technology implies also threats in:
    ◼ the identification of new disruptive applications
    ◼ the identification of most suitable business models
    ◼ the consolidation of regulations
    36

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  36. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS CATEGORIZATION
    Applications can be categorized according to two
    dimensions:
    ◼ The domain (e.g. finance, insurance, health and so)
    ◼ many domains can be further distinguished in
    subdomains
    ◼ The main stakeholder:
    ◼ Citizens
    ◼ Public administration
    ◼ Enterprises
    ◼ This taxonomy is also intended to facilitate the
    identification of new possible applications
    37

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  37. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (1)
    38
    Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why
    Finance
    Banking, Insurance More efficient and secure operations,
    best customers support also by
    enabling new providers (Open Banking)
    Philanthropy, Social inclusion,
    Humanitarian support,
    Crowdfunding
    Thrusted and decentralised solutions ,
    easier to activate solutions
    Real estate
    and property
    Real estate Decentralized and trusted identification
    and management of property rights and
    transfers
    Artistic assets
    Jewelry

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  38. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (2)
    39
    Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why
    Health
    Medical records management, drug
    prescription management, clinical
    trials support
    To levarage patients generated data in a
    trusted, decentralized way, with suitable
    privacy support
    Pandemic and cronical diseases
    centralized monitoring
    To obtain more accurate and timely
    information, from properly anonymized data.
    Early warning can imply the use of AI
    Public
    services
    Certificates management
    (passports, driver’s licenses,
    diplomas, tax certificates)
    To simplify interactions of citizens with public
    administration. To facilitate the federation of
    data available by different administration
    bodies and nations, whilst leaving the full
    control of its data by any public owner.

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  39. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (3)
    40
    Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why
    Mobility
    Safety Efficient traffic emergencies handling (IOT and AI
    related)
    Efficiency Optimization of traffic control (IOT and AI related)
    Green
    Energy
    Electric mobility support
    Decentralised energy trading, green certificates
    trading
    Metering, billing and security (IOT related)
    Waste control Circular economy support
    Dangerous waste control

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  40. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (4)
    41
    Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why
    Industry 4.0 Productivity enhancement (also with AI and IOT)
    Early fault detection (also with AI and IOT)
    Agrifood/Logi
    stic
    Product quality and tracking
    Product components quality and tracking

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  41. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (5)
    42
    Domain Subdomai
    ns
    Applications/Reasons why
    Tourism/
    Commerce
    Support C2C disintermediated and trusted solutions, long tail better
    support
    Science /
    technology
    eScience Federate data provided by different publishers, with fair remuneration
    Easier and personalized access to the scientific literature and to the
    associated experimental data, more efficient peer review processing,
    trusted priority evidence support
    patents Federate data provided by different patent officers, with fair remuneration
    enable enhanced services on top of federated data, for a more transparent
    and efficient IPR market (patent owners registry, patent to product registry)

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  42. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (6)
    43
    Domain Subdomains Applications/Reasons why
    News /Media /
    Entertainment
    Journalism / editors Discovering fake news and biased analyes, identify
    original sources
    Journalism / readers
    Citizens Journalism Disintermediate citizen jounalists and their public.
    Qualify news and journalists, discovering fake news or
    biased analyses.
    Media Disintermediate performers and their public. Allow fairer
    performers remuneration. Faciliate the identification of
    new performers. Support the ‘long tail’.
    Education Certificated education Validate tutor capabilities and course, facilitate retrieval
    ‘How to’ courses

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  43. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU
    CONCLUSIONS: THE PROJECT ONTOCHAIN
    ◼ The project starts by relying on:
    ◼ a solid background of an advanced and multifunctional
    baseline platform (IEXEC)
    ◼ a vision of new possible applications
    ◼ This 3-years RIA project implies R&D activities in:
    ◼ evolving the platform, taking into account the DLT
    research
    ◼ enhancing its data marketplace functionalities
    ◼ extending the identification of possible applications
    ◼ implementing the most interesting and self sustaining
    applications
    44

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  44. STAY UPDATED
    AND GET INVOLVED!
    /showcase/ontochain
    ontochain.ngi.eu
    @ONTOCHAIN
    @ONTOCHAIN
    /channel/UCcF7Ovd99lOKcjMGQdnhIvA
    SEE YOU AT
    WEBINARS!
    Apply to calls !
    Join the
    ecosystem!

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