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1a66e27edea82a53437fb9f2788db872?s=47 ONTOCHAIN
October 15, 2020


The third ONTOCHAIN talk focused on the ONTOCHAIN project, technologies, and use cases.



October 15, 2020



    ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Dr. Caroline Barelle ONTOCHAIN Coordinator European Dynamics caroline.barelle@eurodyn.com

  3. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU Imagine and engineer the Next Generation Internet. A

    Resilient Internet With protection of privacy, user empowerment, inclusivness openess A Trustworthy Internet With trustworthy Content, Information exchange, Identities A Sustainable Internet With Interoperable services, Data traceability Develop block(s) of a software ecosystem that will serve the trusted knowledge and information needs of HUMANITY ! Contribute to : YOUR MISSION 4
  4. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU Equity-Free Funding Coaching Top Infrastructure Access Visibility &

    Promotion Community Building With Innovators, Industry, Investor Media Promotiom Access to Top Events Software technologies IEXEC platform MyIntelliPatent Up to 200 000 € Per sub-grantee For scaling up innovative business Webinars Access to various expertise WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU ? 5

    OF THE 3 CALLS Call 2 – Protocol Suite & Software Ecosystem Foundations You will : Establish the Ontochain framework as human centric decentralised & trustworthy solution based on the available technologies. With coaching You will : Build the Ontochain concept for the creation of a trustworthy information exchange process & a more transactional content handling. Create the Ontochain Framework prototypes. With coaching You will : Exploit the Ontochain solution to real life use cases. With coaching Call budget: 1,14M€ Call budget: 1,32M€ Call budget: 1,75M€ Call 1 - Research Call 3 - Applications & Experimentation 6 Call announcement 31/10/2020 Call closure 30/11/2020 (Indicative date) 2021-2022 (Indicative date) 2022-2023 (Indicative date)

    dates: Call announcement 31/10/2020 Call closure 30/11/2020 Objectives : To establish the ONTOCHAIN Framework as a human centric, decentralized and trustworthy solution around 6 challenges : Applications - Sementic interoperability - On-blockchain data management - Off-blockchain knowledge management - Ecosystem economy - Ecosystem scalability and integration Three phases : Phase 1- Research proposal, 3months, 15 to 18 projects covering the 6 challenges ➔You will have to propose a research project for 1 of the 6 challenges aforementioned Phase 2- Research award, 5 months, 12 projects, 2 projects per challenge ➔You will have to further elaborate the concept proposed in phase 1 and prepare design specifications that will be implemented during the Open call 2. Phase 3- Challenges for conferences, 1 month, the best publication whatever the phases per challenge

    CHALLENGES - Applications: Define a typical ONTOCHAIN application or service for trustworthy content handling and trustworthy knowledge and information exchange. Define typical ONTOCHAIN use cases, such as: marketplace(s) setup and operation, fact checking against fake information, self-sovereign identity, trusted and secure data management, asset ownership management, secure and transparent copyright management and verification and similar. Analyse the potential of trustworthy ONTOCHAIN applications in various domains such as education, services orchestration, open science, eContent, Social Networks, eHealth, Tourism and similar. Analyse and define the functional, non-functional and system requirements that have to be addressed in the further stages of the ONTOCHAIN project. - Semantic interoperability Develop a trustworthy, privacy-preserving, secure, transparent, democratic and traceable approach to manage access and operations over ontologies, metadata, data, knowledge and information in the ONTOCHAIN ecosystem. - On-blockchain data management Design and develop a set of prototype functionalities for on-blockchain data management. The challenge here is to propose: novel ideas for implementation of on-blockchain data management methods, to identify suitable consensus protocols for implementation, to identify semantic formats particularly suitable for on-blockchain operations 8
  8. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU - Off-blockchain knowledge management The challenge is to

    rely on, extend and pioneer new methods that provide a trustless interface to the trustworthy blockchain environment. Research and innovation activities may focus on the design and development of initial prototypes for off-blockchain knowledge management that support the various identified use cases and application domains of the ONTOCHAIN project. - Ecosystem economy Existing business ecosystems (in practically all application domains) are semantically very complex and dynamic. The challenge here is to provide a market framework and business models for the operation of such ecosystems with the help of the ONTOCHAIN solution. Existing and novel approaches and business models for business ecosystem development starting from the technology areas of blockchain, Semantic Web, Internet of Things and similar may be analysed in detail, and best practices proposed for implementation. - Ecosystem scalability and integration The challenge is to actually build a semantically complex and dynamic ecosystem and decentralised testing environment with the participation of various project related and external organisations and individuals. The key requirement is to integrate and support the initial ONTOCHAIN applications. In addition to this, various scalability and integration aspects should be considered. FOCUS ON CALL 1 RESEARCH – THE 6 CHALLENGES 9
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    Thank you Some Questions?
  10. Tech Background: the iExec Platform

  11. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 11 IEXEC HISTORY Founded in 2016 by Gilles

    Fedak (Inria) & Haiwu He (Chinese Academy of Sciences) April 2017: ICO raised 10,000 Bitcoins within 3 hours 5-year roadmap completed in 2020 ICO: 2017/4 Off-chain computing SDK, Dapp Store, Dapp Challenge 87M RLC issued 10k BTC raised V1: 2017/11 Background 15 years in cloud computing & HPC V2: 2018/5 V5: 2020/7 V3: 2019/5 Data Store Data Renting − Lightweight workers − Mainnet Marketplace Interoperability − DeFi − Confidential Computing GPU − BoT − Sidechain V4: 2019/12 French SEC approval - Regulated marketplace
  12. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU iExec: provide developers with scalable, secure and easy

    access to decentralized services, datasets and computing resources. 12 computing power Data providers Requesters Application providers Cloud providers application dataset Blockchain-based decentralized iExec Marketplace request / buy financial flow $ $ $ $ Monetize App Access control Automatic payments Data renting Trading Confidential Computing Autonomous app Pay-per- Task emit order DECENTRALIZED CLOUD COMPUTING ON ETHEREUM

  14. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU On-chain validation than an off-chain task was performed

    correctly. 14 PROOF-OF-CONTRIBUTION (POCO) 1. One task = 4 orders, signed off-chain with an Ethereum wallet: • apporder signed by the developer • (datasetorder signed by the dataset provider) • workerpoolorder signed by a worker pool scheduler • requestorder signed by a requester 2. Orders are matched on-chain: poco.matchOrders() (Check signatures, parameters, balances, …) 3. PoCo seals a deal & workers start computing 4. Workers send result hash back to PoCo 5. PoCo compares results, manages reputation, triggers payments.

    MEET COMPUTERS 15 Ultimate goal: give Smart Contract-level trust to any application
  16. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU IEXEC TASK EXECUTION Two types of tasks, with

    configurable confidence and privacy Standard tasks Run on untrusted resources, delegate trust to the blockchain • Replication level depending on desired confidence • Decentralized consensus • On-chain reputation • Staking & economic incentives • Deterministic TEE tasks Run isolated within an Intel SGX TEE (Trusted Execution Environments) + • End-to-end encryption of data & result • Enclave attestation proves that the task was run in TEE • Result signature with enclave key: no need for replication • Non-deterministic 16
  17. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU WHAT IS TEE? • Secure part of a

    CPU with encrypted memory space • Memory & Code protected from host (even root) • Hardware based security (private key in silico) • Can be remotely attested • (Soon) available on hardware from various vendors Intel® Software Guard Extensions application execution flow. 17
  18. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 18 IEXEC USE-CASES (PROVIDERS) Application providers Monetize apps,

    dapps, functions, algorithms packaged as Docker Containers. Price set per execution No vendor lock-in: runs the same on multiple providers. Dataset providers Monetize trained AI models, private data and valuable knowledge. Arbitrary files & data types supported Price set per execution End-to-end encryption with TEE: prevent copy & ensure confidentiality. Computing providers Monetize servers and workstations (CPUs, GPUs) when they are not in use. Instant new revenue stream Isolated workload with Docker & TEE. Computing providers Data providers Application providers Open new streams of revenue by monetizing the resources you already have, get paid on the blockchain
  19. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 19 IEXEC USE-CASES (REQUESTERS) Application providers Run your

    code on resources from multiple providers with no vendor lock-in. Run you own apps: not limited to the marketplace The marketplace gets you the best price Custom level of confidence for each task Dataset providers Trusted executions prove to you and to others that a result is valid. Confidential execution keeps data private with TEE enclaves, plus result signature. Connect any application to the platform with our SDK Computing providers Program complex oracles with image recognition, multi-source aggregation, etc. Trigger off-chain tasks directly from your smart contract Interact with regular IT infrastructures, sensor networks, arbitrary blockchains, etc. Smart Contracts Web 2 applications Users Run complex code & DOracles, get a proof of correct execution
  20. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU IEXEC KEY FEATURES Standard task TEE task Supported

    CPU Any Intel or AMD x86 & x64 Intel CPU with SGX extension Supported GPU nVidia (with CUDA) n/a Supported languages Any Python, C/C++, Fortran, Rust, Node, GO, Java Nondeterministic tasks With limitations Supported Application runtime Docker container Supported data format Any (arbitrary files) Supported storage IPFS, AWS, DropBox Trust level Adjustable through replication and reputation Result signed within the enclave Traceability Tasks history recorded and fully auditable on-chain Execution model Serverless, Pay-per-Task 20

    the iExec software for performance, scalability, and applicability Time-based payment Multiple paid datasets per task Improved decentralized order brokering 21 P2P order sharing
  22. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU SUGGESTED DEVELOPMENT Generic components that can be built

    with iExec and benefit applications across different verticals 22 Very complex DOracles ZK-Proofs verifiers LARGE ZK-PROOF OFF-CHAIN VERIFIER SECRET State channel exits https://docs.ethhub.io/ethereum-roadmap/layer-2-scaling/state-channels/ Marketplace of everything { ’fuel’: ’electricity’, ’CO2’: 12, ’range’: 94, ’capacity’: 5 ’endpoint’: ’https://…’ } ONTOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OBJECT ONTOLOGICAL MODEL DECENTRALIZED MARKETPLACE FOR IOT, CARS, 3D PRINTING, …
  23. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU SUGGESTED INTEGRATIONS Integration ideas that could benefit the

    blockchain community at large 23 Blockchains Sensor networks IoT-as-a-Service Infrastructure Wallets & Assets Social networks & media
  24. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU? Funding 24 Mentorship

  25. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU WHERE TO START? Documentation • https://docs.iex.ec/ • https://docs.iex.ec/for-developers/confidential-computing

    Articles • White paper https://iex.ec/wp-content/uploads/pdf/iExec-WPv3.0-English.pdf • PoCo Series https://medium.com/iex-ec/poco-series/home • Dapps of the Week https://medium.com/iex-ec/dapp-of-the-week/ Code • Sources http://github.com/iexecBlockchainComputing/ • Example Dapps https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-apps 25
  26. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 26 Component name Description Licence Repository iexec-sdk CLI

    and JS library for interacting with the iExec stack Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-sdk poco Smart contract implementation of iExec's PoCo protocole Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/PoCo iexec-common Common library used by iexec-core and iexec-worker Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec- common iexec-core Worker pool scheduler: monitor the chain and relay tasks to workers in the pool Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-core iexec-worker Agent running computing tasks sent by requesters through the PoCo Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-worker tee-worker-post-compute Helper for encrypting the result of TEE tasks within secure enclaves Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/tee-worker- post-compute iexec-sms Secret Management Service for end-to- end encryption on the iExec stack Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-sms iexec-result-proxy IPFS proxy for task result upload Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-result- proxy iexec-solidity Toolbox library for Smart Contracts Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-solidity iexec-deploy Toolbox library for off-chain services Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-deploy iexec-apps Sample applications Apache v2.0 https://github.com/iExecBlockchainComputing/iexec-apps IEXEC SOURCE REPOSITORIES
  27. STAY UPDATED AND GET INVOLVED! /showcase/ontochain ontochain.ngi.eu @ONTOCHAIN @ONTOCHAIN /channel/UCcF7Ovd99lOKcjMGQdnhIvA

    @ansimonet @iex_ec https://iex.ec/ https://slack.iex.ec/ https://t.me/iexec_announcements
  28. Alberto Ciaramella IntelliSemantic 15.10.2020 From usecases to applications in ONTOCHAIN

  29. None
  30. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU AGENDA ◼ Usecases ◼ why, what ◼ Applications

    ◼ key features, opportunities and threads ◼ categorization and overview ◼ some examples ◼ Conclusions 30

  32. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU USECASES: WHY ◼ to facilitate the design ◼

    the number of use cases is definitely less than the number of potential applications ◼ to facilitate the implementation of robust applications ◼ different applications will be implemented by suitably orchestrating certified usecases 32
  33. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU USECASES: WHAT ◼ Related to persons ◼ Identity

    management ◼ Reputation assessment ◼ for sellers, for buyers ◼ Related to data ◼ Copyright management ◼ Metadata and document assessment ◼ including the identification of fake information Some other usecases can be identified, but not many others 33

    by: ◼ decentralisation ◼ supports disintermediation ◼ data immutability and time stamp ◼ supports the federation of data, whilst retaining ownership ◼ moreover blockchain is the appropriate technology to unleash the possibilities of ontologies and linked data, which in its own: ◼ support queries on data bases of different origin ◼ support reasoning 34

    new wave of applications in the Next Generation Internet (NGI): ◼ disruptive ◼ user-centric, to support the inclusion and the collective intelligence ◼ data-centric, to support the data economy: in ONTOCHAIN we include ontologies and linked data not only to unleash the potentialities of these technologies, but to properly remunerate data providers (this is a weak business point today!) ◼ or significantly improved ◼ more efficient and/or more reliable/secure 35
  36. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU BLOCKCHAIN APPLICATIONS: THREADS ◼ More complex architecture than

    “today internet” implies threats in: ◼ Scalability ◼ Energy consumption ◼ Security ◼ The novelty of the technology implies also threats in: ◼ the identification of new disruptive applications ◼ the identification of most suitable business models ◼ the consolidation of regulations 36
  37. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS CATEGORIZATION Applications can be categorized according to

    two dimensions: ◼ The domain (e.g. finance, insurance, health and so) ◼ many domains can be further distinguished in subdomains ◼ The main stakeholder: ◼ Citizens ◼ Public administration ◼ Enterprises ◼ This taxonomy is also intended to facilitate the identification of new possible applications 37
  38. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (1) 38 Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why

    Finance Banking, Insurance More efficient and secure operations, best customers support also by enabling new providers (Open Banking) Philanthropy, Social inclusion, Humanitarian support, Crowdfunding Thrusted and decentralised solutions , easier to activate solutions Real estate and property Real estate Decentralized and trusted identification and management of property rights and transfers Artistic assets Jewelry
  39. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (2) 39 Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why

    Health Medical records management, drug prescription management, clinical trials support To levarage patients generated data in a trusted, decentralized way, with suitable privacy support Pandemic and cronical diseases centralized monitoring To obtain more accurate and timely information, from properly anonymized data. Early warning can imply the use of AI Public services Certificates management (passports, driver’s licenses, diplomas, tax certificates) To simplify interactions of citizens with public administration. To facilitate the federation of data available by different administration bodies and nations, whilst leaving the full control of its data by any public owner.
  40. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (3) 40 Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why

    Mobility Safety Efficient traffic emergencies handling (IOT and AI related) Efficiency Optimization of traffic control (IOT and AI related) Green Energy Electric mobility support Decentralised energy trading, green certificates trading Metering, billing and security (IOT related) Waste control Circular economy support Dangerous waste control
  41. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (4) 41 Domain Subdomains Application/Reasons why

    Industry 4.0 Productivity enhancement (also with AI and IOT) Early fault detection (also with AI and IOT) Agrifood/Logi stic Product quality and tracking Product components quality and tracking
  42. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (5) 42 Domain Subdomai ns Applications/Reasons

    why Tourism/ Commerce Support C2C disintermediated and trusted solutions, long tail better support Science / technology eScience Federate data provided by different publishers, with fair remuneration Easier and personalized access to the scientific literature and to the associated experimental data, more efficient peer review processing, trusted priority evidence support patents Federate data provided by different patent officers, with fair remuneration enable enhanced services on top of federated data, for a more transparent and efficient IPR market (patent owners registry, patent to product registry)
  43. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW (6) 43 Domain Subdomains Applications/Reasons why

    News /Media / Entertainment Journalism / editors Discovering fake news and biased analyes, identify original sources Journalism / readers Citizens Journalism Disintermediate citizen jounalists and their public. Qualify news and journalists, discovering fake news or biased analyses. Media Disintermediate performers and their public. Allow fairer performers remuneration. Faciliate the identification of new performers. Support the ‘long tail’. Education Certificated education Validate tutor capabilities and course, facilitate retrieval ‘How to’ courses

    by relying on: ◼ a solid background of an advanced and multifunctional baseline platform (IEXEC) ◼ a vision of new possible applications ◼ This 3-years RIA project implies R&D activities in: ◼ evolving the platform, taking into account the DLT research ◼ enhancing its data marketplace functionalities ◼ extending the identification of possible applications ◼ implementing the most interesting and self sustaining applications 44
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    SEE YOU AT WEBINARS! Apply to calls ! Join the ecosystem!