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Grokking the REST Architectural Style (Dutch PHP 2009)

Grokking the REST Architectural Style (Dutch PHP 2009)

REST has become the hip, new buzzword of Web 2.0. But what makes an application RESTful? Pretty URLs? XML over HTTP? Any service that's not SOAP? In all the hype, the definition of REST has become clouded and diluted.

Forget what you thought you knew about REST. In this talk, Ben Ramsey reintroduces REST, placing it under a microscope, uncovering each constraint that forms REST's crucial principles. Ramsey explains how REST is a style for network-based software applications, emphasizing scalability and efficiency through separation of concerns and taking advantage of the Web as a platform for rich Internet applications.

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Ben Ramsey
PRO

June 12, 2009
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Transcript

  1. Ben Ramsey ▪ Dutch PHP Conference ▪ 12 June 2009

    Grokking the REST Architectural Style
  2. Yes. I am this guy.

  3. REST Roatan Beach - Perfect Day, by Janusz Leszczynski

  4. Tom Coates, by Patrick Lauke Is it about pretty URLs?

  5. Web Developer Gang Sign, by Josh Lewis How about XML

    over HTTP? #webdevgangsign
  6. A Bar of Ivory Soap, by iirraa Any web service

    that’s not SOAP?
  7. Representational State Transfer Restful Summer, by Clear Inner Vision

  8. Theory of REST Public Domain, from Wikimedia Commons

  9. REST defines a style by which a resource’s state may

    be transferred using a representation of that resource. REST defines a style by which a resource’s state may be transferred using a representation of that resource. REST defines a style by which a resource’s state may be transferred using a representation of that resource.
  10. Client-server Separated, by Hansol Lee

  11. Stateless Stateless by Koesmanto Bong

  12. Cache Cache County, Utah by J. Stephen Conn

  13. used to interface, by Tom Hensel Uniform Interface 1.Identification of

    resources 2.Representation of resources 3.Linked resources 4.Resource metadata
  14. Layered Sedimentary Layers by Mark Thurman

  15. Code-on-demand jeremy’s tie by Gitchel

  16. Sand Banks Sunset, by Clear Inner Vision RESTful Benefits Improved

    response time & reduced server load Improves server scalability Requires less client-side software Depends less on vendor software No need for resource discovery Better long-term compatibility & evolvability than RPC
  17. A Real-World Analogy Money!, by Tracy Olson

  18. RESTful Practice Public Domain, from Wikimedia Commons

  19. Drip Drops and the Spider Web, by Mike Bitzenhofer “[REST]

    is intended to evoke an image of how a well-designed Web application behaves: a network of web pages (a virtual state-machine), where the user progresses through an application by selecting links (state transitions), resulting in the next page (representing the next state of the application) being transferred to the user and rendered for their use.” 
 — Roy Fielding
  20. Hypertext Transfer Protocol #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako URIs

    provide unique addresses Constrained interface with methods and content types Transactions are atomic Built-in support for layering Provides for cache control
  21. HTTP Interface #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako Methods GET

    PUT POST DELETE Cut & Paste Copy Paste Over Paste After Cut
  22. Content Types #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako HTTP supports

    content types through the Content-Type header A single resource can be transferred in various content types Content negotiation used to tell the server what type to return to the client REST community doesn’t care for content negotiation
  23. #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako 1 POST /content HTTP/1.1

    Host: example.org Content-Type: application/xml 2 HTTP/1.x 201 Created Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 16:43:56 GMT Location: /content/1234 Lifecycle of a Resource
  24. #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako 3 GET /content/1234 HTTP/1.1

    Host: example.org 4 HTTP/1.x 200 OK Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 16:44:13 GMT Content-Type: application/xml Lifecycle of a Resource
  25. #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako 5 PUT /content/1234 HTTP/1.1

    Host: example.org Content-Type: application/xml Lifecycle of a Resource 6 HTTP/1.x 200 OK Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 16:48:26 GMT Content-Type: application/xml
  26. #110 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, by maako 7 DELETE /content/1234 HTTP/1.1

    Host: example.org Lifecycle of a Resource 8 HTTP/1.x 204 No Content Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 16:50:47 GMT
  27. Resource-oriented Architecture Where I Teach, by Todd Ehlers 1. Represent

    itself to the client 2. Transition from one state to the next 3. Destroy itself Additionally, the system knows how to create a resource.
  28. Resource-oriented Architecture Where I Teach, by Todd Ehlers Resources are

    addressable Resources have no state Resources are connected Resources share the same interface
  29. Resource-oriented Architecture Where I Teach, by Todd Ehlers Query string

    parameters appropriate in some cases Pragmatic use of URIs instead of using HTTP headers RPC-style APIs are avoided Representation should have links URI templates specify URI families
  30. Resource-oriented Architecture Where I Teach, by Todd Ehlers Should expose

    many URIs Session cookies are not RESTful Combined resources are RESTful only if represented as a URI URIs should facilitate “cut & paste”
  31. Atom A resource-oriented protocol for publishing documents that sits on

    top of HTTP Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  32. Atom Entry Document application/atom+xml;type=entry Molecule display, by Christian Guthier Feed

    (Collection) Document application/atom+xml;type=feed Category Document application/atomcat+xml Service Document application/atomsvc+xml
  33. 1 GET /index.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org 2 HTTP/1.x 200 OK

    Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:13:14 GMT Content-Type: application/atomsvc+xml Atom Resource Lifecycle Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  34. 3 GET /archives.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org 4 HTTP/1.x 200 OK

    Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:13:46 GMT Content-Type: application/atom+xml;type=feed Atom Resource Lifecycle Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  35. 5 GET /categories.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org 6 HTTP/1.x 200 OK

    Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:13:48 GMT Content-Type: application/atomcat+xml Atom Resource Lifecycle Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  36. 7 POST /archives.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org Content-Type: application/atom+xml;type=entry 8 HTTP/1.x

    201 Created Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:16:32 GMT Location: /archives/1234.atom Atom Resource Lifecycle Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  37. 9 HTTP/1.x 200 OK Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:16:36

    GMT Content-Type: application/atom+xml;type=entry Atom Resource Lifecycle GET /archives/1234.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  38. HTTP/1.x 200 OK Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 17:23:12 GMT

    Content-Type: application/atom+xml;type=entry Atom Resource Lifecycle PUT /archives/1234.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org Content-Type: application/atom+xml;type=entry Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  39. HTTP/1.x 204 No Content Date: Thu, 13 November 2008 19:34:29

    GMT Atom Resource Lifecycle DELETE /archives/1234.atom HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org Molecule display, by Christian Guthier
  40. Resource-oriented Design 1. Determine your resources User Content /users /users/{username}

    /content /content/{ID} Before we had CAD, we had Lead!, by Wendell
  41. 2. Decide the methods for each resource /users GET POST

    /content GET POST /users/{username} GET PUT DELETE /content/{ID} GET PUT DELETE Before we had CAD, we had Lead!, by Wendell Resource-oriented Design
  42. 3. Link your resources Before we had CAD, we had

    Lead!, by Wendell Resource-oriented Design Users own content Each user owns multiple content items Each content item has one owner
  43. 4. Determine your data schemas Before we had CAD, we

    had Lead!, by Wendell User Content id username firstname lastname id owner title file/content Resource-oriented Design
  44. 5. Choose your content type(s) Before we had CAD, we

    had Lead!, by Wendell Resource-oriented Design
  45. In conclusion... Conclusion, by Mark Cummins

  46. Questions? benramsey.com

  47. Grokking the REST Architectural Style Copyright © Ben Ramsey. Some

    rights reserved. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. For uses not covered under this license, please contact the author.