In these times when there is so much talk about quality in education, we must not lose sight of the fact that, in a democratic and plural society, quality education must be synonymous with attending to the different rhythms of study and learning of the students.
One of the strategies that can help address the diversity of students in the classroom is to teach them to evaluate their own learning. Self-evaluation can and should be an instrument that facilitates attending to, respecting and evaluating the different learning rhythms according to the different characteristics of the student. Relative characteristics, for example, to: capacities, learning styles, cognitive strategies, previous experiences and knowledge, motivation, attention, emotional and social adjustment, etc.
Self-evaluation is the strategy par excellence to educate in responsibility and to learn to value, criticize and reflect on the process of individual teaching and learning carried out by the learner (Calatayud, 2002, 1999). Mainly among the benefits presented by the realization of an authentic self-assessment, the following stand out:
a) It is one of the means for the student to know and become aware of what their individual progress is in the teaching and learning process;
b) Help the students to take responsibility for their activities, while developing the capacity for self-government;
c) It is a basic factor of motivation and reinforcement of learning;
d) It is a strategy that allows the teacher to know what their assessment is of learning, of the contents that are being used in the classroom, of the methodology used, etc.
e) It is a learning activity that helps to reflect individually on the teaching and learning process carried out;
f) It is a strategy that can substitute other forms of evaluation. To address diversity, it is necessary to use different evaluative instruments to try to assess the progression of each student's abilities. Self-evaluation can be another strategy in this evaluation process.
g) It is an activity that helps to deepen a greater self-knowledge and understanding of the process carried out and
h) It is a strategy that enables the autonomy and self-direction of the student.
Of all the reasons mentioned above, there is no doubt that the learner's self-assessment can and should be used as a strategy to address the diversity of students' interests, needs and learning rhythms.
Some intervention guidelines to address diversity through self-
assessment Self- assessment as we have argued above is a strategy that helps the student become aware of their learning progress and also helps the teacher to understand what the teaching and learning process is carried out by the student, in relation to the difficulties, the objectives achieved, etc. (Calatayud, 2007; 2004; 2004a).
Below we present a list of techniques that we can use to make the self-assessment processes a reality as a learning strategy to address diversity.
1. Self-assessment block : This is an activity in which the student evidences the efforts made, the assessment of the work achieved (what did he know ?, how did I learn it ?, what do I know now?), In relation to contents of the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal scope, which have been the best ideas, the achievements obtained in the different fields of knowledge.
2. Weekly Plan SheetThe objective of this activity is to motivate the student to be responsible for their actions. He knows that he has a week to carry out certain activities and he has to answer for his performance.
3. Tools of self-reflection prepared by the teacher: These are activities that the teacher designs in order to assess and understand how the student is achieving learning. To this end, questionnaires, checklists, estimation scales, protocols, etc. are prepared. to collect relevant information about the teaching and learning process carried out.
4. The student's diary: The reflection on the newspaper allows to detect problems, to make the conceptions explicit and to make possible improvements in the process. From our point of view, the newspaper is one of the most useful tools to reach knowledge, analysis, understanding and assessment of the teaching and learning process performed by the student, as well as to know and respect the learning rhythm of each from them.
5. The portfolio, instrument for the formative evaluation of the student : The portfolio is a collection of works, activities, etc. that the student has done during a course. But perhaps, the most important part of this selection of activities is that it must be composed of those activities that have allowed the student both the opportunity to value themselves more, and to feel more confident about themselves.
Undoubtedly, this way of practicing the evaluation provides the opportunity to know how each of the students thinks and what their reasoning process is like. As well as, it collects information not only from the products but, above all, from the teaching and learning processes. Therefore, it facilitates that all the teaching and learning activities carried out by the students throughout the course are organized in a coherent manner and constitute orderly pieces in their role in the construction of the contents of the subject. And it is, without a doubt, one of the best strategies of knowledge of the different study rhythms according to the characteristics of the students.
Throughout my years as a teacher in the Public School the portfolio proposal that we have developed with the students of Secondary Education has presented two parts: obligatory and voluntary evidences. When we talk about evidence we are referring to each of the contents of the portfolio that reflect student learning.
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