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Special Embryology 1

Special Embryology 1

This presentation describes 1st part of Special Embryology


Dr.Sherif Fahmy

August 04, 2019


  1. Pharyngeal (Branchial) Apparatus

  2. None
  3. Cleft Pouch Cartilage Nerve supply of the arch Aortic arch

    Pretrematic nerve
  4. Cranial Nerve Related to Pharyngeal Arches

  5. Dr. Sherif Fahmy

  6. Processes of the 1st arch First arch has 2 processes:

    1- Maxillary process. 2- Mandibular process.
  7. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Mandibular process Maxillary process

  8. Maxillary processes Mandibular processes

  9. Maxillary process Mandibular process 2nd arch

  10. Maxillary process Mandibular process Stomodeum Forebrain bulge Frontonasal process

  11. Derivatives of Pharyngeal Arches

  12. Skeletal derivatives of pharyngeal arches

  13. ARCH Skeletal Derivatives Muscular derivatives Nerve 1st (mandibular): consists of

    maxillary and mandibular processes 2nd arch (hyoid) 3rd arch 4th arch 6th arch Derivatives of Pharyngeal Arches Maxillary process: forms maxilla, zygomatic and squamous part of temporal bone). Mandibular process: forms Meckel’s cartilage which give rise to malleus, incus, sphenomandibular and anterior lig. of malleus, part of mandible. N.B. rest of mandible formed by membranous ossification. Muscles supplied by mandibular nerve: Mastication muscles, myelohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani and tensor palati. • Mandibular • Maxillary • Chorda tympani (pretrematic nerve) Chorda tympani supplies anterior 2/3 of mucosa of tongue which is developed opposite the fist arch Reichert’s cartilage that forms stapes, stylohoid ligament, lesser horn and upper ½ of body of hyoid. Muscles supplied by facial nerve: Muscles of face and scalp, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric, platysma and stapedius Facial nerve Greater horn of hyoid and lower ½ of the body of hyoid Stylopharyngeus Glossopharyngeal Laryngeal cartilages Muscles of larynx, pharynx and soft palate Superior laryngeal Recurrent laryngeal
  14. None
  15. Fate of Pharyngeal Pouches Arch Ventral part Dorsal part First

    pouch Second pouch Third pouch Fourth pouch Dr. Sherif Fahmy Occupied by developing tongue. Tubo-tympanic recess that gives rise to middle ear & Eustachian tube Occupied by developing tongue Palatine tonsile Thymus gland Inferior parathyroid gland Ultimo-branchial body which form parafollicular cells in thyroid gland Superior parathyroid gland
  16. None

  18. Buccopharyngeal membrane Pharynx of Foregut Forebrain bulge Pericardial bulge Stomodeum

    L.S. in folded embryo Mesenchyme Forebrain
  19. Development of Face (Page 9)

  20. None
  21. Maxillary process Mandibular process 2nd arch Stomodeum Forebrain bulge Fronto-nasal

  22. Maxillary process Mandibular process Stomodeum Pericardial bulge Fronto- nasal process

  23. Differentiation & Fusion

  24. Fronto-nasal process Maxillary process Mandibular process Pericardial bulge Stomodeum

  25. Fronto-nasal process Maxillary process Mandibular process Stomodeum Pericardial bulge

  26. Nasal placod Stomodeum Fronto-nasal process

  27. Cleft Medial nasal prominence Lateral nasal prominence Nasal pit Developing

    eye Fronto-nasal process Mandibular process Maxillary process
  28. Nasal pits Cleft Medial nasal prominence Lateral nasal prominence Maxillary

  29. Cleft Medial nasal prominence Lateral nasal prominence Maxillary process

  30. Intermaxillary segment Fronto-nasal prominence Maxillary prominence Mandibular prominence

  31. Development of palate (Page 11)

  32. Development of palate 1- Primary palate: from intermaxillary segment of

    fronto-nasal process. 2- Secondary palate: from palatine shelves of maxillary processes that form most of hard palate and soft palate. Hard palate receives downward growth of nasal septum.
  33. Preimitive (primary) palate Secondary palate

  34. Palatine shelves Nasal septum Coronal Section

  35. Primitive palate Palatine shelves

  36. Primary palate Secondary palate

  37. None
  38. Congenital Anomalies of Face & Palate 1- Dermoid cyst: cystic

    swelling at line of fusions between processes of the face. 2- Oblique facial cleft: failure of fusion between maxillary prominence and lateral nasal fold (prominence). 3- Macrostomia or Microstomia : defective or marked fusion between maxillary and mandibular processes. 4- Cleft (hare) lip: cleft lip due to failure of fusion between maxillary process and intermaxillary segment. (lateral, bilateral or median) 5- Cleft palate: failure of fusion between different parts that form palate. It could be: A- Unilateral complete cleft palate. B- Bilateral complete cleft palate. C- Partial cleft palate. D- Cleft uvula.
  39. Anomalies of Face

  40. Dermoid cyst

  41. Oblique facial celft Bilateral cleft lip

  42. Microstomia Median single anterior nasal opening

  43. Macrostomia

  44. Unilateral cleft lip

  45. None
  46. None
  47. Anomalies of Palate

  48. Unilateral complete cleft palate

  49. Bilateral complete cleft palate

  50. Nasal septum Partial (median) cleft palate

  51. None
  52. Unilateral partial cleft palate Hare lip