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Designing for Motivation: Bridging the Gap Between Psychology and Design Practice

Designing for Motivation: Bridging the Gap Between Psychology and Design Practice

My #ICM2018 keynote.

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Sebastian Deterding

August 16, 2018
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  1. designing for motivation Bridging the Gap Between Psychology and Design

    Practice Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) University of York, Digital Creativity Labs
  2. The sage keynote speaker

  3. The other keynote speaker

  4. a professional boundary-crosser engaging games serious outcomes research design

  5. Who here wants to change learning for the better?

  6. “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing

    existing situations into preferred ones.” herbert a. simon, 1969
  7. How do we translate motivational research into effective design practice?

  8. chapter 1 A Fable

  9. meet alberto linguini I want to know how to bake

    a delicious cake.
  10. #Design for Mmmm and Appetite 15-17 August 2018 EARLI/SIG 8

    – 16th International Conference on Mmmmmmm 2018
  11. Coating required? The Impact of Patisserieness on Taste in Baked

    Goods
  12. low patisserieness medium patisserieness high patisserieness n=128 eaters, standard tastiness

    inventory (sti) patisserieness positively affects tastiness, p<0.05
  13. 12.2 Implications for Cooking 12.2 Implications for Cooking … “For

    more tasty baked goods, consider a higher degree of patisserieness, such as cupcakes or cakes.” …
  14. Nutrition Science

  15. Hi, I’m a pastry chef and read your paper. Can

    I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people find high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that? Have you thought about baking a cake? Yes. I’m already making a cake. How do I make a delicious cake? Well, make it … very caky I guess?
  16. Nutrition Science

  17. chapter 2 A Gap

  18. None
  19. None
  20. how do i best use this in my concrete situation?

  21. how do i best use this in my concrete situation?

    • I teach arts & design, key stage 3, following Biggs’ Design and Make It. I know my kids struggle to engage with the art style session in week 3. Might this be a solution? • Will this work for my 25 8year olds, with 4 class clowns? How do I manage them when they use this for mischief? • How do I embed what specific kinds of feedback, based on my learning goals & material? How do I time & space it? • How do I phrase each prompt? • How do I introduce clickers? Distribute them? Collect them? Maintain them? Fix tech issues? Within 45 min?
  22. two different epistemic cultures

  23. science episteme design techne/phronesis analyse and abstract real multitudes into

    decontextualised, universal building blocks, described in data and diagrams. synthesise and specify a single functioning whole within the local context, crafted from objects and actions. ?
  24. We literally see the world differently.

  25. what you see

  26. what designers see

  27. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

  28. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Single fixed “operationalisation” N of 1 Aggregate measures Universal cognitive constructs & relations Big N
  29. environments the view from psychological science people experiences & actions

    Aggregate data Universal cognitive constructs & relations, incl. perceived intervention
  30. environments the view from design people experiences & actions

  31. environments the view from design people experiences & actions Detailed

    design , lots of variants, big N Aggregate measures + qualitative data Personas small N
  32. the resulting research-practice gap researcher Can measure & explain mediators

    designer Can find & refine solutions But how do you derive a fitting, concrete solution? But how do you know if it’s working as thought?
  33. you are not alone “Instantiating theory is a difficult task

    as theoretical constructs lack specificity for concrete design situations.” (Hekler, Klasna, Froehlich et al, 2013, p. 3310) “less than half of the HCI eco-feedback papers referenced behavioral psychology literature and 58% referenced environmental psychology literature. Even more dramatically, no study in environmental psychology referred back to HCI.” (Froehlich, Linklater & Findlay, 2010, pp. 2003-2004)
  34. chapter 3 A Promise

  35. enter gamification? Deterding et al., 2011

  36. None
  37. a quick equation game design elements motivational affordances behaviour change

    techniques ≈ ≈ “an active component of an intervention designed to change behaviour ... the smallest component compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients” (Michie & Johnson, 2013, p. 182) Zhang, 2008; Deterding et al., 2011; Michie et al., 2013
  38. the basic theoretical question how do motivation afford action affect

    design elements ?
  39. So how are we doing?

  40. we are stuck in groundhog day

  41. “A muddle of things we here call ‘design element X’

    affect a muddle of things we here call ‘engagement’, unless when they don’t. More research is needed.” the default contribution
  42. the issue is in the analytic model design element 2

    magic motivation! behaviour design element 1 design element 3 e.g. Hamari, Koivisti & Sarsa 2014
  43. science episteme design techne/phronesis ? a.k.a. the issue is analytic

    modeling
  44. #1 specific understandings and uses differ – and matter codecademy

    van Roy, Deterding & Zaman, accepted khan academy
  45. #2 specific contexts differ – and matter  500 steps

    8th day without cycling – you really should step it up! What about a 5 minute ride today? C’mon, your friends in California did it! Frank & Engelke, 2001, Reeve 1996
  46. #2 specific contexts differ – and matter  500 steps

    8th day without cycling – you really should step it up! What about a 5 minute ride today? C’mon, your friends in California did it! Frank & Engelke, 2001, Reeve 1996
  47. #3 specific designs differ – and matter Goveia, Pereira, Karapanos

    et al., 2016
  48. None
  49. None
  50. None
  51. None
  52. 12 months in …

  53. #4 motivational function is systemic-emergent

  54. None
  55. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! -
  56. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! - Function arises from this
  57. aesthetics Boring end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$

    ! + -$ ! - Not this
  58. “The life blood of game design is testing. ... Why

    are we playing games? Because it‘s fun. You cannot calculate this. You cannot test this out in an abstract manner. You have to play it.” rainer knizia, 2010
  59. #5 function emerge from person-situation relations difficulty skill/time frustration boredom

    flow Csikszentmihalyi, 1990
  60. “Fulfillment of purpose involves as relation among three terms: the

    purpose, the character of the artifact, and the environment in which the artifact performs.” herbert simon, 1996
  61. #6 functions emerge from functional mechanisms …

  62. … that can be instantiated in many ways.

  63. locating functions in isolated surface instantiations is cargo cult design

  64. … which is neither innovative nor context-fitting.

  65. chapter 4 The Challenge

  66. Motivation emerges from specific subject- environment relations. tenet 1 Lewin,

    1936; Gibson, 1977; Warren, 1984
  67. Current “design elements” and similar are therefore too underspecified and

    atomistic as a construct to reliably predict effects. tenet 2
  68. We currently rely on designers to translate our underspecified, general,

    analytic constructs into local syntheses of specific designs fitting specific contexts and users – giving them insufficient reliable guidance. tenet 3
  69. Deterding, in preparation motivational affordance The complex of necessary and

    sufficient relations of actor dispositions and environmental features that render an action or event functionally significant for a specific motive we need granular, systemic, relational constructs …
  70. … fuelling different kinds of questions. Do badges (in aggregare)

    drive engagement (via achievement motivation)? What complex of necessary and sufficient environmental features and actor dispositions reliably gives rise to achievement motivation? How can these be reliably instantiated under different real-world conditions?
  71. and then, we need a linné:

  72. an empirically grounded, well-operationalised, well-formed taxonomy

  73. this requires large-scale naturalistic observation. Deterding, 2016

  74. e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations Deterding, 2016

  75. Deterding, 2016 e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations

  76. Deterding, 2016 Intrinsically motivated gameplay License to (dis)engage & configure

    situation Minimized social and material consequence Salient autonomous motives Salient controlled motives + + + – – Construal of action as autonomous + – Temporal field cleared from outer demands Spatial field shielded from public observers + Self-regulation of attention & emotion display Autonomy need satisfaction + + – Spatial field cleared from distraction – + – e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations
  77. this needs validation of systemicness via e.g. knock-out designs …

  78. … and conceptual replications across multiple designs.

  79. this is a massive undertaking.

  80. chapter 5 The Opportunity

  81. “Facebook has created a laboratory of human behavior the likes

    of which we’ve never seen.” jad abumrad, 2015
  82. At any moment, designers at software companies are running millions

    of a/b tests to optimise engagement, each an experiment in waiting.
  83. the scale for a massive undertaking

  84. But to do this, we need to speak with designers.

  85. #1 loop research and design

  86. “Online hypothesis testing can accelerate both applied and basic Interaction

    Design Science by making it fast and easy to obtain ecologically-valid measures of the effects of designs on user behavior. Online controlled experiments can help build practical, generalizable, and scientifically-validated theories of how and why designs affect human interactions.” derek lomas, 2015
  87. None
  88. #2 translate findings into practical material & methods

  89. #3 test your materials & methods with designer-users

  90. #4 conduct action research, PD, PR, DBR, co-design

  91. chapter 6 Summary

  92. we could seed a new science of motivational design …

    how do cognitive states affect behaviour affect design features ?
  93. but we face an epistemic culture gap. researcher Can measure

    & explain mediators designer Can find & refine solutions
  94. low patisserieness medium patisserieness high patisserieness we need to replace

    abstract, atomistic constructs …
  95. … and cargo cult design …

  96. … with more granular, systemic constructs … Deterding, under review

    motivational affordance The complex of necessary and sufficient relations of actor dispositions and environment features that render an action or event functionally significant for a specific motive
  97. … naturalistic, bottom-up observation & modeling, …

  98. … and conceptual replication across multiple designs.

  99. this is a massive undertaking …

  100. … with a matching massive opportunity.

  101. which we can realise when we start talking with each

    other. I want to know how to bake a delicious cake.
  102. sebastian@digitalcreativity.ac.uk @dingstweets codingconduct.cc thank you.