I ask you a question? Sure, my pleasure. How do I bake a delicious cake? Our results show that people ﬁnd high patisserieness very tasty. So how do I do that? Have you thought about baking a cake? Yes. I’m already making a cake. How do I make a delicious cake? Well, make it … very caky I guess?
• I teach arts & design, key stage 3, following Biggs’ Design and Make It. I know my kids struggle to engage with the art style session in week 3. Might this be a solution? • Will this work for my 25 8year olds, with 4 class clowns? How do I manage them when they use this for mischief? • How do I embed what specific kinds of feedback, based on my learning goals & material? How do I time & space it? • How do I phrase each prompt? • How do I introduce clickers? Distribute them? Collect them? Maintain them? Fix tech issues? Within 45 min?
as theoretical constructs lack specificity for concrete design situations.” (Hekler, Klasna, Froehlich et al, 2013, p. 3310) “less than half of the HCI eco-feedback papers referenced behavioral psychology literature and 58% referenced environmental psychology literature. Even more dramatically, no study in environmental psychology referred back to HCI.” (Froehlich, Linklater & Findlay, 2010, pp. 2003-2004)
techniques ≈ ≈ “an active component of an intervention designed to change behaviour ... the smallest component compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients” (Michie & Johnson, 2013, p. 182) Zhang, 2008; Deterding et al., 2011; Michie et al., 2013
drive engagement (via achievement motivation)? What complex of necessary and sufficient environmental features and actor dispositions reliably gives rise to achievement motivation? How can these be reliably instantiated under different real-world conditions?
situation Minimized social and material consequence Salient autonomous motives Salient controlled motives + + + – – Construal of action as autonomous + – Temporal ﬁeld cleared from outer demands Spatial ﬁeld shielded from public observers + Self-regulation of attention & emotion display Autonomy need satisfaction + + – Spatial ﬁeld cleared from distraction – + – e.g, contextual autonomy conditions in play situations
Design Science by making it fast and easy to obtain ecologically-valid measures of the effects of designs on user behavior. Online controlled experiments can help build practical, generalizable, and scientifically-validated theories of how and why designs affect human interactions.” derek lomas, 2015