assistance features LEVEL 3 Limited environments, required to take over within few seconds LEVEL 4 Limited environments, human behind the wheel not required LEVEL 5 All environments, human behind the wheel not required LEVEL 2 Automated driving, required human assistance
automated driving before a human takes over is (almost) as hard as solving for Level 4 " Too expensive for owned vehicles " Audi A8 allegedly shipped with Level 3, but: " The vehicle must be on a multi-lane road, " with barrier between oncoming lanes, " with a structure along the edge, " speed is < 37mph, no pedestrians in the scene, " speed of surrounding vehicles is also low " Does not scale to situations requiring faster reaction time
B without having to drive: it already exists (Taxi, Uber, Lyft, public transportation) " Waymo, Uber, Lyft, Zoox etc. are trying to create a lower cost version of a taxi by removing the driver " Level 4, by definition, cannot drive anywhere/anytime: does not compete with car ownership " Unclear how long it will take to surpass human driving, considering costs and practicality
should work anywhere connected by land & not blocked by borders, eg you're in LA and the car is in NY” – Elon Musk, CEO, Tesla, 2016 " “My oldest son is 12, and that means in three and a half years, he's going to be able to get his driver's license. My team and I are committed to making sure that doesn't happen.” – Chris Urmson, Chief Selfdriving Program, Google, 2015 " “Ford will have fully autonomous cars by 2021” - Ford Website, 2019 " “A year from now, we’ll have over a million cars with full self-driving, software... everything.”- Elon Musk, 2019 " “With the BMW iNext, you will soon see, we will offer safe, autonomous driving for our customers, by 2021. And our vision is clear, we want to be a leader.” - BMW’s CDO, 2018
“awake time” driving. " 37k fatal accidents in US (+15% since minimum in 2014) " All Level 1 cars sold today have the Level 2 HW capability, but are constrained by software and processing power: " Long development process, no OTA " Computing Hardware and SW soon become outdated: the average life of a car is 15 years!