Patterns for secure container base image management

Patterns for secure container base image management

Presentation from SnykCon 2020, all about the people, process and tools needed to manage container base images. Thoughts about team organisation, trade-offs and examples of how to use Snyk to solve this problem.

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Gareth Rushgrove

October 22, 2020
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Transcript

  1. Gareth Rushgrove | Director, Product Management | @garethr Patterns for

    secure container base image management
  2. Gareth Rushgrove Director, Product Management @garethr

  3. Agenda The user problem 01 What are base images? 02

    Teams and responsibility 03 Setting some rules 04 Automation and workflow 05
  4. User problem Vulnerability overload

  5. Don’t panic! $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app ... Tested 127

    dependencies for known issues, found 180 issues. Debian 8 is no longer supported by the Debian maintainers. Vulnerability detection may be affected by a lack of security updates. You test an image for vulnerabilities and find LOTS of issues 100s of vulnerabilities! It’s using an out-of-date operating system! Who owns this image? Who is responsible for fixing vulnerabilities? How many other images like this do we have? Help!
  6. Base images What and why (and why not)

  7. Using base images FROM ubuntu:latest Standing on the shoulders of

    software giants It’s common with container images to start building on top of an existing base image that already has software you want. This might be an operating system like ubuntu, alpine or debian or it could be a language like python, ruby, node or really anything else. OK, technically often a parent image but hey. Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Your software
  8. We do quite a lot of that. Some are just

    lightly customized OS images, others have extensive configuration and packages installed.
  9. Distinct responsibilities Hardening, common configuration Your organization might have some

    common hardening or configuration changes or maybe metadata it wants to apply to all images in use by other teams. This is often intended to be common for all images used. Maybe you have myorg/base Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application
  10. Distinct responsibilities Common software Some organizations provide a layer of

    common software or middleware. This might be language or framework specific, say a separate image for Java (myorg/java) and another for Python (myorg/python). Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application
  11. Distinct responsibilities Your application Finally the specifics of your application,

    whether in source or binary form. And metadata specific to the application. Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application
  12. The idea is to offload that work from the individual

    engineers and have it come more automagically.
  13. Can you fix vulnerabilities once? Base image Scale vulnerability management

    When considering container vulnerabilities, you want to be able to reason about vulnerabilities in images you’re running, but also understand the overlap and source of those vulnerabilities. Can you address a vulnerability once, and have it resolved everywhere?
  14. Teams and responsibility A worked example

  15. Organizing into teams Libraries and underlying software provided by someone

    else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application Libraries and underlying software provided by someone else Hardening, common configuration Common software Your application One team to rule them all This could be the case when teams are completely independent, or when you have one central image team. A base image team A team which provides a standard set of approved base images for application teams to consume. Separate base/security teams Larger organizations might have teams with more distinct responsibilities, potentially with even more layers.
  16. Pros and cons One team to rule them all PROS

    Simple to understand responsibilities. CONS Potential for chaos if every team can do their own thing. One central team for ALL images likely to become a bottleneck. A base image team PROS Able to build strong domain expertise in the center, ideally fix/triage issues once. CONS Needs some level of governance in order to ensure applications teams benefit from central expertise. Separate base/security teams PROS Same as having a base image team, with the added advantage of deeper specialisms. CONS Coordination between additional teams can slow down the process.
  17. Start with your own base image $ cat base/Dockerfile FROM

    python:3.6.0-slim $ docker build -t ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base -f base/Dockerfile
  18. Establishing a baseline $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base --file=base/Dockerfile ...

    Introduced by your base image (python:3.6.0-slim) Fixed in: 5.28.1-6+deb10u1 ✗ High severity vulnerability found in gnutls28/libgnutls30 Description: Out-of-bounds Write Info: https://snyk.io/vuln/SNYK-DEBIAN10-GNUTLS28-609778 Introduced through: gnutls28/libgnutls30@3.6.7-4+deb10u4, apt@1.8.2.1 From: gnutls28/libgnutls30@3.6.7-4+deb10u4 From: apt@1.8.2.1 > gnutls28/libgnutls30@3.6.7-4+deb10u4 Introduced by your base image (python:3.6.0-slim) Tested 111 dependencies for known issues, found 178 issues.
  19. Watch out for new vulnerabilities $ snyk container monitor ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base

    --file=base/Dockerfile Updated when new vulnerabilities are disclosed Snyk will send you alerts via email or Slack as well when new vulnerabilities are discovered in the packages you’re using.
  20. Actionable recommendations

  21. A middleware image $ cat middleware/Dockerfile FROM ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base RUN apt-get

    update && apt-get install -y \ gunicorn \ sqlite3 \ && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/ $ docker build -t ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware -f middleware/Dockerfile
  22. The sum of all vulnerabilities $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware

    --file=middleware/Dockerfile ... Tested 127 dependencies for known issues, found 180 issues. Vulnerabilities from the base image and the new instructions But a different team is responsible for some of these, so let’s reason about those separately.
  23. Where did the issue come from? $ snyk container test

    ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware --file=middleware/Dockerfile --json | snykout +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Found 180 unique vulnerabilities for ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware | +----------------------------------+---------------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------+-----------------------+ | Package | Severity | ID | Issue | Installed | Fixed in | +----------------------------------+---------------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------+-----------------------+ | ncurses/libncurses5 | HIGH | CVE-2017-10684 | Out-of-Bounds | 5.9+20140913-1+b1 | 5.9+20140913-1+deb8u1 | | ncurses/libncurses5 | HIGH | CVE-2017-10685 | Improper Input Validation | 5.9+20140913-1+b1 | 5.9+20140913-1+deb8u1 | | sqlite3/libsqlite3-0 | HIGH | CVE-2020-9794 | Out-of-bounds Read | 3.8.7.1-1+deb8u6 | | | sqlite3/libsqlite3-0 | HIGH | CVE-2019-8457 | Out-of-bounds Read | 3.8.7.1-1+deb8u6 | | | ncurses/libncurses5 | MEDIUM | CVE-2017-16879 | Out-of-Bounds | 5.9+20140913-1+b1 | 5.9+20140913-1+deb8u3 | | ncurses/libncurses5 | MEDIUM | CVE-2017-13729 | Out-of-Bounds | 5.9+20140913-1+b1 | 5.9+20140913-1+deb8u1 | ... +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Base image vulnerabilities from ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base | +---------------------------+-------------+------------------+--------------------------------------+----------------------+---------------------------+ | Package | Severity | ID | Issue | Installed | Fixed in | +---------------------------+-------------+------------------+--------------------------------------+----------------------+---------------------------+ | apt/libapt-pkg4.12 | HIGH | CVE-2019-3462 | Arbitrary Code Injection | 1.0.9.8.4 | 1.0.9.8.5 | | bzip2/libbz2-1.0 | HIGH | CVE-2019-12900 | Out-of-bounds Write | 1.0.6-7+b3 | 1.0.6-7+deb8u1 | | glibc/libc-bin | HIGH | CVE-2018-1000001 | Out-of-Bounds | 2.19-18+deb8u7 | | | glibc/libc-bin | HIGH | CVE-2014-9761 | Out-of-Bounds | 2.19-18+deb8u7 | |
  24. My responsibility $ snyk container monitor ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware \ --file=middleware/Dockerfile \

    --policy-path=ignores/base.snyk Vulnerabilities not in the base image We’re monitoring only the unique vulnerabilities added in this image.
  25. Clear reason for ignoring

  26. Our application images $ cat app/Dockerfile FROM ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware EXPOSE 8080

    WORKDIR /app ADD app.py . CMD ["gunicorn", "-w", "4", "app:app"] $ docker build -t ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app -f app/Dockerfile
  27. Visualising ownership $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app --file=app/Dockerfile --json |

    snykout +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Found 180 unique vulnerabilities for ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app | +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ | Package | Severity | ID | Issue | Installed | Fixed in | +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Base image vulnerabilities from ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware | +----------------------------------+--------------+------------------+------------------------------+----------------------+---------------------------+ | Package | Severity | ID | Issue | Installed | Fixed in | +----------------------------------+--------------+------------------+------------------------------+----------------------+---------------------------+ | apt/libapt-pkg4.12 | HIGH | CVE-2019-3462 | Arbitrary Code Injection | 1.0.9.8.4 | 1.0.9.8.5 | | bzip2/libbz2-1.0 | HIGH | CVE-2019-12900 | Out-of-bounds Write | 1.0.6-7+b3 | 1.0.6-7+deb8u1 | | glibc/libc-bin | HIGH | CVE-2018-1000001 | Out-of-Bounds | 2.19-18+deb8u7 | | ...
  28. Someone else’s responsibility $ snyk container monitor ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app \ --file=app/Dockerfile

    \ --policy-path=ignores/middleware.snyk We can still see all the vulnerabilities in the image Understand the risk, while acknowledging fixing is someone else’s responsibility.
  29. Fix issues with pull requests COMING SOON

  30. Setting some rules Enforcing policies on downstream

  31. Good practices/enforcing rules Responsibility at the edges Not every team

    plays by the rules. There is a useful balance between centrally enforced policies and encouraging best practices. How do you make it as easy as possible for consumers of base images to do the right thing?
  32. Open Policy Agent Service OPA .rego Query (any JSON value)

    Decision (any JSON value) Data (JSON) Policy (Rego) Request, Event, etc. Declarative Express policy in a high-level, declarative language that promotes safe, performant, fine-grained controls. Use a language purpose-built for policy in a world where JSON is pervasive. Context-aware Leverage external information to write the policies you really care about. Write logic that adapts to the world around it and attach that logic to the systems that need it.
  33. Prohibiting high severity issues package main deny[msg] { issue =

    input.vulnerabilities[index] issue.severity = "high" msg = sprintf("High severity issue found. package: %v issue: %v", [issue.name, issue.title]) } A Rego example This is the Open Policy Agent language for describing policies. Here we’re saying we want to prohibit any images with known high-severity vulnerabilities. REGO
  34. Watching out for crypto issues package main deny[msg] { issue

    = input.vulnerabilities[index] issue.identifiers["CWE"][_] = "CWE-327" issue.severity = "high" msg = sprintf("High severity cryptography issue (CWE-327). package: %v", [issue.name]) } warn[msg] { issue = input.vulnerabilities[index] issue.identifiers["CWE"][_] = "CWE-327" issue.severity != "high" msg = sprintf("Crypto issue (CWE-327). package: %v severity: %v", [issue.name, issue.severity]) } REGO
  35. Test an image against the policy $ snyk container test

    ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/base --file=base/Dockerfile --json | conftest test - WARN - Cryptography issue (CWE-327). package: gnupg severity: low WARN - Cryptography issue (CWE-327). package: openssl/libssl1.0.0 severity: medium WARN - Cryptography issue (CWE-327). package: openssl/libssl1.0.0 severity: low WARN - Cryptography issue (CWE-327). package: openssl severity: medium WARN - High severity issue found. package: apt/libapt-pkg4.12 issue: Arbitrary Code Injection FAIL - High severity issue found. package: apt issue: Arbitrary Code Injection FAIL - High severity issue found. package: bzip2/libbz2-1.0 issue: Out-of-bounds Write FAIL - High severity issue found. package: glibc/libc-bin issue: Out-of-bounds Read ... Conftest Conftest is an open source command line tool, part of the Open Policy Agent project. It’s useful to testing things locally, and works in CI environments too.
  36. Allow only trusted base images package main allowed := {

    "python:slim" } deny[msg] { not valid(input.docker.baseImage) msg = sprintf("Not using a permitted base image: %v", [input.docker.baseImage]) } valid(image) { allowed[image] } REGO
  37. Catch prohibited base images $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app --file=app/Dockerfile

    --json | conftest test - FAIL - Not using a permitted base image: ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/middleware 4 tests, 3 passed, 0 warnings, 1 failure, 0 exceptions
  38. Allow images from our registry package main allowed := {

    "python:slim" } deny[msg] { not valid(input.docker.baseImage) msg = sprintf("Not using a permitted base image: %v", [input.docker.baseImage]) } valid(image) { allowed[image] } valid(image) { startswith(image, "ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/") } REGO
  39. Ensure images pass the policy $ snyk container test ghcr.io/garethr/snykt/app

    --file=app/Dockerfile --json | conftest test - 4 tests, 4 passed, 0 warnings, 0 failure, 0 exceptions To enforce or not to enforce? Over time it’s best to move towards enforcing policies automatically, but to start with you’ll probably want to roll out slowly and carefully. You might already have these policies written down, but unless you’re automatically checking or enforcing you’ll likely have a long tail of images in breach. The advantage of Snyk is you can help developer test early in the SDLC, on the local machine or in CI, when it’s fast and cheap to fix the problem.
  40. Demo

  41. Automation and workflow Demos and ideas

  42. Automate in your CI pipeline Embrace CI for building agreement

    between teams Using Snyk in your CI pipeline allows for automating this or other patterns for managing container images securely. Investing in good practices around CI should help security, build, operations and development teams work more closely together.
  43. Use the Snyk API Integrate Snyk into your existing tools

    Different organizations, and different teams, might manage base images differently. The Snyk API makes it easy to build custom dashboards or use the data about base images for reporting. snyk.docs.apiary.io
  44. Conclusions If all you remember is...

  45. Observe How are your teams using base images today?

  46. Orient Who actually fixes vulnerabilities? Do all teams bear the

    burden of fixing the same issues?
  47. Decide How can you shift the responsibilities of teams to

    make base image management easier?
  48. Act Put in place the automation to scale.

  49. Thanks for listening Try Snyk for free at snyk.io/signup