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2018-03-27-JMFrost-ElthorneParkHighSchool-LayTalk

 2018-03-27-JMFrost-ElthorneParkHighSchool-LayTalk

Out-reach talk to students at Elthorne Park High School (Ealing, London), on using quantum mechanics to design new solar cell materials.

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Jarvist Moore Frost

March 27, 2018
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  1. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Walsh Materials Design Group, Imperial College London, UK jarvist.frost@imperial.ac.uk Building the future with quantum mechanics Jarvist Moore Frost
  2. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Physics: Big ideas... Hannah Devlin, in The Guardian, February 2018.
  3. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 ...by limited means. The EDGE detector, Western Australia
  4. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Science is not … a collection of facts. … inherently mathematical.
  5. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Science is ⇒ Think up a model for how things work. ⇒ Test it. Models that work always seem to be ~mathematical. We don't really know why.
  6. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 What do scientists do all day? ~50 % - reading / writing / computing The actual 'work'. (+ lab work) ~20 % - talking / whiteboarding / meeting, immediate research group ~20 % - written communication - emails / Slack / forum posts ~10 % - travelling to conferences, giving talks, watching talks, chatting over coffee
  7. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 → Not a CO2 Crisis - we have an Energy Crisis Each person in Britain (for all energy):- 10'000 kg CO2 → ~10 MWh/year 10 MWh → 36 GJ / year 1142W → ~10 Cyclists The world (2008):- = 18 TW = 18'000'000'000'000 W Art Installation, V&A museum, Christmas 2009
  8. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  9. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 ⇒What we need is Fusion! [ E=mc2 ] Opération Canopus, Fangatuafa atoll, 1968. 2.6 MT
  10. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Controlled fusion: A challenge!
  11. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  12. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  13. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 We need: = 18'000'000'000'000 W (0.01 %)
  14. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Vanguard 1 (1958 – NASA) [Still in orbit...] ~5cm square silicon cells [transmitted for 7 years] We have the technology! Cost and land-use are the problems • the solar resource is low density (1kW / m^2) • ~good solar panels are 22% efficient ⇒ Would need to put solar panels on ~10% of the UK
  15. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Why are solar cells not very efficient? (~22%)
  16. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 White light is a mix of colours. Each of these colours is a different energy photon. (Entropy bites!)
  17. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 e e h h Material with a band gap
  18. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 PERL Silicon Solar Cell ~23.5% PCE
  19. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Silicon grown by Czochralski process 1956 George E. Meyers, Raytheon Corp. semiconductor plant in Newton, Massachusetts, USA Credit: American Radio History ( The yellow-hot bits are 1500 degrees centigrade!
  20. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 2000; Smithsonian Single crystal - 'hanging by a thread'. These are the purest materials on Earth - far far more pure than any diamond or gemstone. (Nb: lab safety is massively improved!)
  21. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Do some experiments!
  22. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 … experiments don't always work :(
  23. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Programming There's three things you need to know. (Everything else is technique and practice.) Cray 1 supercomputer. US$ 8.86 million, 1977. Slower than a smartphone!
  24. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Computers are: 1) Really stupid
  25. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Computers are: 2) Really fast
  26. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Computers are: 3) All identical. (Turing complete.) If you can program one of them - you can program all of them! ~£100 million 120'000 CPU cores Hosted at Uni of Edinburgh
  27. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 The time independent Schrodinger equation In this equation is all of chemistry*. * (The problem is that we can't solve it exactly.)
  28. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Atomic orbitals = solution of Schrodinger equation for 1 electron in a central 1/r^2 potential.
  29. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 What colour is a material? How strong is it? How flexible? Does it conduct? Is it stable? Could we make it? What we learn:
  30. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  31. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  32. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  33. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Eigensolver ('direct diagonalisation') Eigenenergies (orbital energies) Eigenvectors (Wavefunctions)
  34. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  35. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 How fast does tunnelling occur? Quantum Tunnel
  36. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Electron correlation. Why is solving the TISE hard? 1 electron ⇒ Easy!
  37. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Electron correlation. Why is solving the TISE hard? 2 electrons ⇒ Hard
  38. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Electron correlation. Why is solving the TISE hard? Many electrons ⇒ Impossible.
  39. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  40. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 C60 Mono-PCBM Bis-PCBM Tris-PCBM
  41. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 8 Bis isomers; Angles: 36 72 60 90 180 144 120 108
  42. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 45 Unique Tris Isomers... (of 24360)
  43. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  44. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  45. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 These exist...
  46. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Experiment (Differential pulse voltammetry) Theory (Density functional theory)
  47. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 What about things that do not?
  48. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018
  49. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Sunlight is a great source of power. To get the majority of humankind's energy from it, we need new ideas: • Higher efficiency cells. • Cheap to make cells. Conclusions
  50. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 The End
  51. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 University vs. school No teachers :) • No register; turn up when you want; learn in your own style. • Mainly peer-to-peer (teach your friends) No teachers :( • Up to you to self motivate! • "Lack of feedback" • Feel slightly lost / unstructured environment.
  52. Jarvist Moore Frost (King's College London, UK) Elthorne Park High

    School - Talk 27th March 2018 Thinking of physics? https://www.youtube.com/user/tibees/videos - Recent Physics graduate, now PhD student; lots of short 5' videos about learning & doing physics. http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/I_toc.html - Feynman Lectures V 1, L1-13; essentially the A-level course, at a higher level. http://theoreticalminimum.com/ - Leonard Susskind. Lectures on YouTube of 'continuing studies' students revisiting Physics. Also 3 associated books. Very much proper physics, but with a minimum of assumed prior knowledge.