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Pollution as driver of biodiversity change

jatalah
March 24, 2007

Pollution as driver of biodiversity change

Talk at the postgraduate seminar University College Dublin, 2007

jatalah

March 24, 2007
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  1. Pollution as driver of biodiversity change:
    impacts, indicators and monitoring
    Javier Atalah, Tasman Crowe & Marie Kelly-Quinn
    Marine Biodiversity Ecology and Evolution (MarBEE)
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, UCD

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  2. Outline
    1. Impacts of pollution in rocky shores: using
    molluscan assemblages as bioindicators.
    2. Macroinvertebrate assessment tools in
    lakes in relation to zebra mussel invasion.
    3. Experimental approach: nutrients and
    sedimentation on rock pools.

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  3. An integrated study encompassing a range of
    scales, taxa and habitats.
    Multi-disciplinary research framework to support
    national and local biodiversity policy in Ireland.

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  4. Human impacts across 20 ocean ecosystem types (Halpern et al. 2008)

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  5.  The Water Framework Directive requires
    consideration of the impacts of pollutants on
    biodiversity and the development of cost-
    effective tools to measure those impacts.
     Nutrient enrichment, which can lead to
    eutrophication, is the focus of considerable
    management effort.
    Introduction

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  6. I Pollution as a driver of biodiversity change in rocky
    shores: using molluscan assemblages as biomonitoring tool.

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  7. We need…
    • Reliable indicators of ecological status.
    • e.g. AMBI, BENTIX in soft sediment; Q –
    values in freshwater.
    • Time and cost – effective.
    • Achieve ‘ Good ecological ’ status by 2015.
    • Currently, no indicators of ecosystem health
    of rocky shores.

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  8. Bioindicators
    Ecological quality
    • Molluscs community
    • Seaweeds
    • Polychaeta
    • SfG, SiA, CI
    FAIR
    GOOD
    POOR

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  9. • Taxonomy, biology and ecology relatively
    well know in Europe.
    • They can be identified by use of shell
    features.
    • They inhabit almost all marine
    environments.
    • They can reach considerable high
    diversity and abundance.
    • They are poorly vagile, they can hardly
    avoid changing environmental conditions.
    Molluscs as indicators

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  10. Objectives
    a) Asses impacts of nutrient pollution driving
    biodiversity change in rocky shores.
    b) Test the effectiveness of intertidal molluscan
    assemblages as biomonitoring tool.
    c) Establish networks of sites for future strategic
    research.
    d) Develop a comprehensive biodiversity database.
    Pollution

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  11. Polluted & control interspersed
    Similar salinity & wave exposure
    Fenit
    Rinevella
    Corrigaholt Kilrush
    Parkmore
    Midden
    Rossaveel
    Renmore
    Galway
    Shannon
    - Tralee
    Renville
    Mutton Is.
    Connemara
    Mweenish Kilkieran
    Polluted
    Unpolluted
    Fenit
    Rinevella
    Corrigaholt Kilrush
    Parkmore
    Ballyhown
    Rossaveel
    Galway
    Galway
    Shannon
    - Tralee
    Renville
    Mutton Is.
    Connemara
    Connemara
    Mweenish Kilkieran
    Polluted
    Control
    Sites:
    polluted & control interspersed
    Similar salinity & wave exposure

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  12.  Five quadrats per
    site
     Molluscan
    assemblages identified
     Nitrate, nitrite,
    phosphate, ammonia
    and chlorophyll-a
    measured.
    Methods

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  13. Results
    • Overall a total of 38 species of mollusc
    were found.

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  14. 0
    4
    8
    12
    Richness
    Connemara Galway Shannon
    Polluted
    Unpolluted
    Species richness
    ANOVA: Cluster x Pollution, p < 0.05

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  15. Total abundance
    0
    2
    4
    6
    Total abundance (ln)
    Connemara Galway Shannon
    Polluted
    Unpolluted
    ANOVA: Pollution, p < 0.05

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  16. Community Structure
    -40 -20 0 20 40
    PCO1 (42.8%)
    -40
    -20
    0
    20
    40
    Polluted
    Control
    Bittium reticulatum
    Brachystomia rissoides
    Gibbula cineraria
    Gibbula umbilicalis
    Hellicum pellucidum
    Lacuna pallidula
    Lacuna vincta
    Littorina littorea
    Littorina sp.
    Musculus sp.
    Nucella lapillus
    Rissoa lilacina
    Rissoa parva
    PCO 2 (19.3%)
    PERMANOVA: Pollution, p < 0.05

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  17. Littorina spp. (log)
    1 2 3
    Total abundance (log)
    1
    2
    3 r2 = 0.59
    p < 0.0001
    Littorina spp. (log)
    1 2 3
    NO
    2
    (log)
    0.6
    0.9
    1.2
    1.5
    r2 = 0.34
    p < 0.001

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  18. NO
    2
    - + NH
    3
    + PO
    4
    3- + NO
    3
    -
    45
    %
    Molluscan assemblage structure
    Relationship with nutrient concentration
    (Multivariate multiple regression, P < 0.01)

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  19. Conclusions
     Molluscan assemblages at polluted sites had
    lower diversity, abundance and different structure.
     The structure of molluscan assemblages is
    significant related to the levels of nutrient of
    coastal waters.
     Mollusc are a potentially effective and sensitive
    indicator of nutrient pollution.

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  20. Ecological assessment tools and biological
    invasion in lakes

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  21. Objectives
    • Test effects of eutrophication pressure and
    the invasion of the zebra mussel on lakes
    biodiversity.
    • Test the performance of 3 ecological metrics
    under non-invaded and invaded conditions
    along a gradient of nutrient pressure.

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  22. invaded
    non-invaded
    •Medium – high alkalinity
    •Gradient of Total Phosphorus

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  23. Methods
    • Three 1 min. kick samples per lake.
    • All macroinvertebrates identified.
    •TP historical data NS-SHARE database.
    • 3 metric tested : Indicator Taxa metric, TP score and %
    sensitivity to TP (Donohue et al. submitted).

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  24. -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60
    PCO 1 (21.7 %)
    -40
    -20
    0
    20
    40
    60
    None - invaded
    Invaded
    Asellus aquaticus
    Caenis luctuosa
    Pisidium/Sphaerium sp.
    Gammarus sp.
    Crangonyx pseudogracilis
    Oligochaete
    Community structure
    PCO 2 (13.5 %)

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  25. 0
    10
    20
    30
    40
    Number of taxa
    Non-Invaded
    Invaded
    Invaded lakes had higher mean Number of Taxa
    P < 0.01

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  26. Total abundance (x 1000)
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    Invaded Non-Invaded
    Invaded lakes had higher Total abundance

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  27. • Ecosystems engineers invaders.
    • Provide structurally complex habitat.
    • Change nutrient availability by
    depositing feces and pseudofeces.

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  28. Total phosphorus (ug / L) (log)
    Non - invaded
    Invaded
    0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Indicator Taxa Metric
    -0.4
    0.0
    0.4
    0.8
    1.2
    Invaded
    r2 = 0.002, n.s.
    Non-invaded
    r2 = 0.71, p < 0.01

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  29. Non - invaded
    Invaded
    Total phosphorus (ug / L) (log)
    0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    % sensitivity TP
    20
    30
    40
    50
    60
    Invaded
    r 2 = 0.002, n.s.
    Non-Invaded
    r 2 = 0.37, p < 0.01

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  30. 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    TP score
    2.6
    2.8
    3.0
    3.2
    3.4
    3.6
    Non-invaded
    r2 = 0.31, p < 0.01
    Invaded
    r2 = 0.008, n.s.
    Non - invaded
    Invaded
    Total phosphorus (ug / L) (log)

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  31. Conclusions
    • Drastic biodiversity changes associated to D.
    polymorpha invasion.
    • All metrics performance was affected by D.
    polymorpha.
    • Metrics need developed separately for invaded
    and non-invaded lakes.

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  32. III: Effects of nutrients enrichment and
    sedimentation on rock pools biodiversity
    Objective: Experimentally test the
    combine effect of nutrients,
    sedimentation and loss of key species
    on rocky shore diversity.

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  33. Experimental design I
    ++N +N -N
    ++S ++S
    ++S
    +S -S -S
    -S
    +S +S
    n = 4

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  34. Experimental design II
    +G +G
    - G -G
    n = 4
    ++N +N -N
    ++S ++S
    ++S
    +S -S -S
    -S +S +S
    n = 4

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  35. Sediment applied every 15 days

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  36. Nutrients added every 30 days

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  37. Sampling after 3, 6, 9 months

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  38. Stress = 0.11
    After 3 months….
    Crustose coralline algae
    Grazers
    “Sand loving” spp.:
    Corallina officinalis
    Red turfing algae
    Green ephemeral
    Red filamentous
    Sedimentation
    Ambient
    High
    Low

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  39. 0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    100
    120
    Ambient Grazing
    Reduced Grazing
    Green ephemeral algae
    Low
    Nutrients
    High
    Nutrients

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  40. Preliminary findings
     Sedimentation is an important driver
    macroalgal diversity change.
     In rock pools top-down control (grazers) is
    more important than bottom-up control
    (nutrients).

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  41. Acknowledgements
     Thanks to Jenn, Letizia, Elaine, Orlaigh, Gus, Maria, Samuel, Edel for help on
    sample sorting and identification.
     Cristina, Davidone, Judita, Maria B. and Jayne for their fieldwork help.
     R. Cave (NUI Galway) and R. French for help on the water chemistry.
     L. Scally and S. Waldren for BIOCHANGE project coordination.
     Ken Irvine for comments, TP data and metrics MS.
     EPA for funding and environmental data

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