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SER315 Lecture 03

SER315 Lecture 03

Software Design and Process
SOLID Design Principles

Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez

September 04, 2022

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  1. jgs SER 315 Software Design and Process Lecture: SOLID Design

    Principles Dr. Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez javiergs@asu.edu javiergs.engineering.asu.edu | javiergs.com PERALTA 230U Office Hours: By appointment
  2. jgs Previously … Topics, activities, grading, and planning

  3. jgs 564 00000111 Object Oriented Relationships Association Directed Association Reflexive

    Association Multiplicity Aggregation Composition Generalization Realization
  4. jgs 564 00000111 Warning!

  5. jgs 564 00000111 Warning!

  6. jgs 564 00000111 Example

  7. jgs Test Yourselves I

  8. jgs 564 00000111 Is this a solution for Quiz 01?

  9. jgs SOLID Design Principles

  10. jgs 564 00000111 Key idea § Just as the source

    code a design should be clean and that include Keep it Simple A design that is more than what we need smells So, abstract classes, interfaces, design patterns, and other infrastructure elements that do not solve a problem and are there to over-design the system are as bad as their absence when needed. Eliminate design smells is the goal of design principles.
  11. jgs 564 00000111 Key Idea Design principles are not a

    perfume to be liberally scattered all over the system –Robert Martin
  12. jgs 564 00000111 Design Principles There are five key design

    principles to consider in Object-Oriented: § Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) § Open-Closed Principle (OCP) § Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) § Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) § Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)
  13. jgs Single Responsibility Principle SRP

  14. jgs 564 00000111 Definition A class should have only one

    responsibility SRP is all about understanding when and how to apply decoupling. Why? Because each responsibility implies a possibility of a change.
  15. jgs 564 00000111 SRP Example § Imagine that you need

    a piece of software to read data from diverse sensor devices (a heart rate monitor, a brain-computer interface, a skin conductance sensor, etc.) § And you need to store that information for future use also. § For some sensors, we need to gather data directly from a serial port. § For others, we use a WebSockets (third-party APIs help us get data from the physical device). § To store data, we want to be able to store data in a local file (text file) or in a database
  16. jgs 564 00000111 SRP Example

  17. jgs 564 00000111 SRP Example

  18. jgs Open-Closed Principle OCP

  19. jgs 564 00000111 Definition Software entities (functions, classes, modules, etc.)

    should be open for extension but closed for modification. OCP is all about achieving changes adding new code, not changing the old code that already works. Closure cannot be complete. There will always be some change against which the entity is not closed. Thus, the closure must be strategic. As a developer, make educated guesses about the likely kinds of changes that the application could suffer over time. OCP means that we do not want to modify the class, i.e., write code into a class. Once you create a class and put that class in a production environment, you do not want to touch that class. OCP can be satisfied with a simple and effective heuristic: inheritance
  20. jgs 564 00000111 OCP Example § Imagine you are asked

    to create a program to draw geometric shapes on screen. § We want to draw circles and draw squares; maybe later, we would ask for draw triangles, etc.
  21. jgs 564 00000111 OCP Example

  22. jgs 564 00000111 OCP Example

  23. jgs Liskov Substitution Principle LSP

  24. jgs 564 00000111 Definition Subtypes must be substitutable for all

    their base types. i.e., a child should always be better than its parent. And, “better” means more behaviors, not less. That principle is the answer proposed by Barbara Liskov (1988) to the questions: § What are the characteristics of the best inheritance hierarchies? § What are the traps that could create hierarchies that jeopardize the OCP?
  25. jgs 564 00000111 LSP Example § Imagine you already have

    a class Circle, and you are asked to create a class Cylinder. § Or maybe you have a class Rectangle, and you are asked to create a class Square (a square is a rectangle with the same width and height). § Or you have a class LinkedList, and you are asked to create a class PersistentLinkedList (one that writes out its elements to a stream and can read them back later). If you are tempted to use inheritance from Circle to Cylinder, or from Rectangle to Square, or from LinkedList to PersistentLinkedList, i.e., create a parent-child relationship for any of these cases, you will have problems.
  26. jgs 564 00000111 LSP Example § The class Cylinder would

    eliminate the method calculateArea() in Circle since calculating an area does not make sense. It is impossible to use our Cylinder object to replace a Circle object. § The class Square will make the methods setWidth() and setHeight() to modify both width and height attributes (they are equal in a square, right?). Therefore, it will be impossible to use a Square object to replace a Rectangle object. § The class PersistentLinkedList needs persistent (serializable) objects while LinkedList does not. Moreover, probably, PersistentLinkedList would need to throw some exceptions.
  27. jgs Interface Segregation Principle ISP

  28. jgs 564 00000111 Definition § Clients should not be forced

    to depend on methods that they do not use. § ISP deals with the disadvantage of “fat” interfaces (or abstract classes). § ISP recommends to broke up interfaces with a lot of methods into several interfaces.
  29. jgs Dependency Inversion Principle DIP

  30. jgs 564 00000111 Definition § High-level modules should not depend

    on low-level modules. Both should depend on abstractions. § Traditional procedural programming creates software structures in which high-level modules depend on low-level modules. § The dependency structure of a well-designed object-oriented program is “inverted” with respect to the dependency structure that generally results from traditional procedural methods. § DIP is what makes software fulfill the object-oriented paradigm.
  31. jgs 564 00000111 Definition § Hollywood Principle: “do not call

    us, we will call you.” § Review DIP whenever one class sends a message to another. DIP is about calling methods. § When doing that, depend on abstractions (use abstract classes or interfaces).
  32. jgs 564 00000111 DIP Example

  33. jgs 564 00000111 DIP Example What about ISP?

  34. jgs 564 00000111 Homework Read: § Design Patterns: Abstraction and

    Reuse of Object-Oriented Design Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides § European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming October 1993 § This will become:
  35. jgs 564 00000111 Questions https://medium.com/geekculture/agile-software-design-in-a-nutshell-1d104cb4830a

  36. jgs CSE 564 Software Design Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ph.D. javiergs@asu.edu Fall

    2021 Copyright. These slides can only be used as study material for the class CSE564 at ASU. They cannot be distributed or used for another purpose.