Better characterizing white dwarfs to illuminate planet occurrence around intermediate-mass stars

Better characterizing white dwarfs to illuminate planet occurrence around intermediate-mass stars

Conference presentation, 30 min. May 2019: KITP Conference: Planet-Star Connections in the Era of TESS and Gaia, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

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jjhermes

May 24, 2019
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    http://jjherm.es @jotajotahermes J.J. Hermes Better characterizing white dwarfs to illuminate

    planet occurrence around intermediate-mass stars h/t Boris Gänsicke, Bart Dunlap, Dimitri Veras, EESS team
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    • >30-50% of WDs descending from 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors

    reveal evidence for remnant planetary systems • But <10% of WDs coming from 4-6 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors show the same evidence • The question: Can we connect WD pollution fractions to planetary occurrence rates? Mark Garlick JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 2
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    JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 3 • >30-50% of WDs descending from

    1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors reveal evidence for remnant planetary systems • But <10% of WDs coming from 4-6 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors show the same evidence • The question: Can we connect WD pollution fractions to planetary occurrence rates?
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    White Dwarfs Directly Probe Rocky Exoplanetary Material • WD debris

    is comparable to bulk Earth (mostly Fe, O, Si, Mg) • Some of this debris is water-rich!(Farihi et al. 2013; Raddi et al. 2015) • Rocks are volatile-depleted (low C/O ratio) (Wilson et al. 2016) Abundances of rocks falling on 10 different white dwarfs: Xu et al. 2014 Bulk Earth Comet Halley JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 7
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    WD Metal Pollution Reflects Active Accretion of Rocks Wyatt et

    al. 2014, from Veras 2016 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 8
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    HST Snapshot Programs: Pollution Fraction Around WDs • 30%-50% of

    WDs are metal polluted (Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014) Si II (ISM) C III Si detected, must be accreted Si detected, most likely from recent accretion No Si detected JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 9
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    Does Metal Pollution Necessarily Reflect Remnant Planets? • Metal pollution

    always seen with IR excess (warm, dusty debris disks) as well as Ca II emission (co-located gaseous debris disks) • Rocks are scattered in at high-eand tidally disrupted (typical mass accretion rates suggest ~108 g/s, so ~1021 g or ~40-200 km asteroids) • If thermohaline mixing occurs, rates may be as high as 1013 g/s, corresponding to ~1026 g (~1 Moon mass) (Bauer & Bildsten 2019) JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 10 Mark Garlick See the reviews by Veras 2016 and Farihi 2016
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    Does Metal Pollution Necessarily Reflect Remnant Planets? • WD pollution

    is likely a signature of: • A modest reservoir of asteroids, comets, moons and/or planetesimals • At least 1 surviving major planet • Unless you are in a binary (e.g., Veras et al. 2018) See the reviews by Veras 2016 and Farihi 2016 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 11 Mark Garlick
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    Drastic Difference in Metal Pollution for More Massive WDs •

    30%-50% of 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors show evidence of remnant planetary systems (48/85 WDs) • <10% of 4-6 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors show the same evidence (1/12 WDs) Si detected, must be accreted Si detected, likely from recent accretion No Si detected Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 12
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    So How Do We Get a Progenitor Mass for a

    WD? Raddi et al. 2015 An example: 0.77(0.03) M¤ WD in NGC 2527(630 Myr) 185 Myr WD cooling age tprog = 445 Myr à Mprog = 3.1 M¤ “IFMR” (initial-to-final-mass relation) JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 13 Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014 Cummings et al. 2019
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    Mark Garlick • >30-50% of WDs from 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS

    progenitors show remnant planetary systems • <10% of WDs from 4-6 solar-mass progenitors show the same evidence • Is this caused by: mergers or binarity? late-stage stellar violence? differences in planetary architectures? differences in planetary occurrence? JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 14
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    Are Massive WDs Mostly Merger Byproducts? Dunlap & Clemens 2015

    • Hot (>15 kK) massive WDs descending from single stars were born <1 Gyr ago • They should thus have low velocity dispersions JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 15 1.2 M¤ WD Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014
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    Massive WDs Generally Evolved from Single Stars see also Wegg

    & Phinney 2012 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 16 • Hot (>15 kK) massive WDs descending from single stars were born <1 Gyr ago • They should thus have low velocity dispersions 0.6 M¤ 0.9 M¤ 1.2 M¤
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    Mark Garlick • >30-50% of WDs from 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS

    progenitors show remnant planetary systems • <10% of WDs from 4-6 solar-mass progenitors show the same evidence • Is this caused by: mergers or binarity? late-stage stellar violence? differences in planetary architectures? differences in planetary occurrence? JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 17
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    Could Mass-Loss Destabilize Planets For Massive AGB Stars? • Most

    major planets inside 100 au survive mass loss JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 178 Kalirai et al. 2008 Veras et al. 2011
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    Mark Garlick • >30-50% of WDs from 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS

    progenitors show remnant planetary systems • <10% of WDs from 4-6 solar-mass progenitors show the same evidence • Is this caused by: mergers or binarity? late-stage stellar violence? differences in planetary architectures? differences in planetary occurrence? JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 19
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    Do Planetary Architecture Shares Some Blame? • Perhaps more massive

    stars have fewer reservoirs of asteroids, or those reservoirs more affected by RGB luminosities? (eg, YORP: Veras et al. 2014) Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014 Mustill & Villaver 2012 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 20 Jupiter Jupiter Earth Earth
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    Do Massive Stars Simply Have Lower Planetary Occurrence? • Perhaps

    disk lifetimes too short, or are affected by stellar companions? Moe & Di Stefano 2017 JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 21 Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014
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    • >30-50% of WDs from 1.5-3.5 solar-mass ZAMS progenitors show

    remnant planetary systems • <10% of WDs from 4-6 solar-mass progenitors show the same evidence (HST Cycle 25 program “EESS”, PI: Gänsicke) • Is this caused by: mergers or binarity? late-stage stellar violence? differences in planetary architectures? differences in planetary occurrence? JJ Hermes KITP-ExoStar 22 Koester, Gänsicke & Farihi 2014