communication • Not new – cartography is old • Not old – computer graphics are young • Wide applications: architecture, product design, education, communication • A Periodic Table of Visualization Methods
– roots without cycles • Symmetric – create visual symmetry • Orthogonal – min. area & edge crossing • Spectral – eigenvectors of a matrix • Force/MDS – springs and electric charges
we parallelize it? • Does the algorithm converge? How quickly? • Does it show obvious symmetries? • Can we adapt it with parameters? • Does it minimize edge crossings? • Does vertex nearness reflect adjacency? • Are sizes, distances and shapes distributed uniformly? • Election 2008 visualization – let’s evaluate
physical system • Forces can be gravity (Newton), springs (Hooke), charged particles (Coulomb), magnetism (Maxwell?) • Advantages: quality, flexibility, interactivity • Disadvantages: can be slow, hurt by local minima or initial conditions
edges as springs, electrical repulsive force, step width using a global cooling temperature definition • Kamada-Kawai: Same as above, but instead of a temperature, minimize force equations with some initial node criteria
Moody, and Katherine Stovel, Chains of affection: The structure of adolescent romantic and sexual networks, American Journal of Sociology 110, 44-91 (2004).
social networks? • Modify the graph, improve data collection • Add constraints to force-directed algorithm • Get better initial conditions, more iterations • Deal with orientations and coordinate systems • 3D -> 2D, or use more interesting forces • Apply multiple layout algorithms • Curved lines and uniform distributions
Java Universal Network/Graph Framework • Currently defaults to F-R, but places isolates regularly instead of randomly • We’d like to explore other optimizations
Social Structure 1(1), Carnegie-Mellon, 2000. • 2. Giuseppe Di Battista, Peter Eades, Roberto Tamassia, Ioannis G. Tollis. Algorithms for Drawing Graphs: an Annotated Bibliography. Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications 4:235-282, 1994. • 3. Tamassia, R. Advances in the Theory and Practice of Graph Drawing. Theoretical Computer Science 217 (2), 1999. • 4. Fruchterman, T. M. J., & Reingold, E. M. Graph Drawing by Force- Directed Placement. Software: Practice and Experience, 21(11), 1991. • 5. Kamada, T. & Kawai, S. (1989). An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs. Information Processing Letters, 31, 7-15. • 6. Network Workbench Community Wiki at https://nwb.slis.indiana.edu/community/?n=VisualizeData.HomePage