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Hands on the Gradle

Hands on the Gradle

Introduction to the Gradle build system and the community driven Android plugin. For DroidCon Berlin 2011 barcamp.

Matthias Käppler

March 23, 2011
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  1. S
    Hands on the Gradle
    Painless Android builds
    © 2011 Matthias Käppler
    Qype GmbH

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  2. What is Gradle?
    S  Gradle is a task based build system. From files and
    configuration it assembles build artifacts.
    S  Gradle is flexible. It is not bound to any specific process or
    technology.
    S  Gradle uses a Groovy based DSL to write configuration.
    This makes it easy to read and write Gradle scripts.

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  3. The Gradle manifesto
    S  „Build scripts are code.“
    S  Don‘t expect, allow.
    S  Don‘t re-invent, re-use.
    S  Don‘t inherit, inject.
    S  Scale to the complexity of a problem.
    – „Make the impossible possible, the possible easy, and the
    easy elegant.“

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  4. Gradle vs. Maven



    maven-antrun-plugin



    install


    run












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  5. Gradle vs. Maven (cont.)
    println "dunno, must be a Maven thing."

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  6. Gradle vs. Maven (cont.)
    S  Maven is declarative.
    Gradle is imperative.
    S  Maven is verbose.
    Gradle is concise.
    S  Maven assumes Maven.
    Gradle doesn‘t.
    S  Maven scales poorly to simple problems.
    Gradle scales with the complexity of a problem.

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  7. Gradle vs. Maven (cont.)
    S  Maven has a rich plug-in ecosystem.
    Gradle still needs to catch-up here.
    S  Maven has very good IDE support.
    Gradle has... IDE support.
    S  Maven has project archetypes.
    Gradle doesn‘t.

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  8. How is Gradle used?
    $ls

    build/ build.gradle ...
    ...
    $gradle tasks
    $gradle clean build
    $gradle androidInstall androidInstrument

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  9. build.gradle
    env = System.getenv()
    dependsOnChildren()
    apply from: ‘shared.gradle'
    allprojects {

    apply plugin: 'java'

    }
    task hello << {

    println ‘hello from Gradle‘

    }

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  10. Demo
    Move along, nothing to see here.

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  11. More about tasks
    S  There are different ways how tasks can be used or exposed
    in a build script:
    1 – by writing them
    2 – through project.ant
    3 – by applying a plug-in

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  12. Writing tasks
    task hello << {

    4.times { println ‘hello from Gradle‘ }

    }


    hello.dependsOn initLang


    hello.someProperty = 1

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  13. Writing tasks (cont.)
    project.task(‘hello‘, dependsOn: ‘initLang‘)


    greeter = { println it }


    hello.doLast greeter.curry(‘hello from Gradle‘)

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  14. Ant tasks
    S  Ant tasks are first class citizens in Gradle. You access them
    through Groovy‘s AntBuilder DSL.

    myProp = ant.properties["my.prop"]


    ant.copy {

    from zipTree("/path/to/lib.jar")

    into "$buildDir/extracted-classes"

    exclude "com.example/**"

    }

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  15. Plug-ins
    S  Most of Gradle‘s functionality comes from plug-ins. This helps in
    keeping the core Gradle APIs lean and clean.

    apply plugin: 'java'

    apply plugin: 'maven'


    ...


    $gradle clean install

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  16. Plug-ins (cont.)
    S  Writing Gradle plug-ins is very simple. Check this out.

    class MyPlugin implements Plugin {

    def apply(Project project) {

    project.task(‘hello‘) << {

    println ‘hello, people‘

    }

    }

    }

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  17. Dependencies
    S  Gradle doesn‘t define ist own dependency management system.
    Instead, it builds on Apache Ivy.

    repositories {

    mavenCentral()

    mavenRepo urls: "http://my.repo.com"

    flatDir dirs: "libs"

    }

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  18. Dependencies (cont.)
    S  Dependencies are grouped into configurations. A configuration is
    simply a set of files bound to a name.

    dependencies {

    compile "commons-lang:commons-lang:2.5"

    compile fileTree(dir: "libs", include: "*.jar")

    testCompile "junit:junit:4.8.2"

    }

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  19. Android
    S  There‘s a Gradle plug-in for Android.

    https://github.com/jvoegele/gradle-android-plugin

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  20. Setting it up
    S  Now:


    buildscript {


    repositories {

    mavenRepo(urls: 'http://jvoegele.com/maven2/‘)

    }


    dependencies {

    classpath 'com.jvoegele.gradle.plugins:android-plugin:0.9.8‘

    }

    }


    apply plugin: com.jvoegele.gradle.plugins.android.AndroidPlugin
    S  Soon:


    apply plugin: 'android'

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  21. What‘s in store
    S  The plug-in adds the following tasks:
    S  :androidProcessResources
    S  :androidPackage
    S  :androidInstall
    S  :androidInstrument
    S  [:proguard]


    $gradle clean andInstall :test-proj:andInstr

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  22. Instrumentation tests
    androidInstrument {


    runners {


    run testpackage: "unit", with: "com.my.UnitTestRunner",
    name: "instrumentation-unit-tests"


    run annotation: "android.test.suitebuilder.annotation.Smoke"


    run with: "com.my.OtherTestRunner”, options: "…”


    }


    }

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  23. Thanks
    Thanks for listening!

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  24. Android in Practice
    Charlie Collins, Michael Galpin, Matthias Käppler
    •  Real world practical recipes
    •  Focus on intermediate to professional developers
    •  Two chapters on testing and build automation
    Summer 2011
    MEAP edition available
    http://manning.com/collins

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