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Early Christian Art in the Medieval West

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
April 11, 2013
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Early Christian Art in the Medieval West

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

April 11, 2013
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  1. Early  Chris+an  Art  of  Europe   Reading   Stokstad,  429-­‐437

        Range   600-­‐1100  CE   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,   Norse,  Merovingian     Terms/Concepts   vellum,  parchment,  Genesis,   Pentateuch,  Gospels,  Evangelist,   scriptorium  (scriptoria),  Carpet   Page,  Incipit  Page,  illumina+on,     Monument  List     15-­‐5,  St.  MaMhew  from  the   Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon,  7th  Century  CE.     Not  in  Book,  Carpet  Page,   Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon  7th  Century  CE.     15-­‐7,  The  Evangelist  MaMhew,   Lindisfarne  Gospels,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon,  710-­‐725  CE.     15-­‐1,  Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of   Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th   Century.     Not  in  book,  Carvings,  Stave   Church,  Urnes,  Norway,  12th   Century  CE.  
  2. Reminders   •  Your  second  chance  for  the  Mythological  

    Comparison  is  due  THIS  THURSDAY.     •  Your  Image  and  Text  assignment  is  due   Thursday  May  2nd.  
  3. Byzan+ne  Empire   “An  able  Goth  wants  to  be  like

     a  Roman;  only  a   poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”    –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  
  4. EUROPE AD 300-600 30 30 40 20 10 0 30

    Paris Troyes Trier Córdoba Cologne Genova Pisae Narbonne Bordeaux Saragossa Tarragona Cádiz Toledo Marseille Mediolanum Caralis Lyon Lisbon Besançon Leptis Magna Memphis Cyrene Sinope London York St Albans Arles Geneva Aquileia Ravenna Rome Naples Ephesus Antioch St Catherine’s Monastery Carthage Sabratha Nicopolis Athens Alexandria Philippi Thessalonica Trapezus Damascus Caesarea Bethlehem Jerusalem Mosul Constantinople Nicomedia S L A V S P I C T S C E L T S BASQUES B E R B E R S F I N N O - U G R I A N S S L A V S IRISH BRITONS IRISH A F R I C A SCANDINAVIA BRITAIN I B E R I A ITALY GREECE E G Y P T GAUL ASIA MINOR CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY CRETE CYPRUS BA LEARIC IS A L P S A T L A S M T S PYRENEES CAUCASUS S A H A R A ARABIAN DESERT Mt Sinai Dnieper D niester Rhône Loire Tagus Elbe Oder N ile Danube N O R T H S E A BALTIC SEA M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A ENGLISH CHA N N EL A T L A N T I C O C E A N B L A C K S E A RED S EA 370 376 455 410 439 418 406 452 N 0 0 300 miles 450 kms 1 The Disintegration of the Roman Empire important churches Huns Vandals, Alans, Sueves Visigoths Burgundians Ostrogoths Angles, Saxons, Jutes Lombards Franks Empire of Justinian, AD 565 successor kingdoms: East Roman Empire Kingdom of the Vandals Kingdom of the Visigoths Burgundian Kingdom Kingdom of the Ostrogoths Sasanian Empire Kingdom of the Sueves Frankish Kingdom 1 THREATENED BY BARBARIANS through the fourth century and especially in the fifth century, the western empire collapsed, though many elements of its culture survived. The eastern empire was eventually able to deflect its enemies. Mainly of Germanic origin, the barbarians were forced westwards by pressure from the nomads of central Asia. The  Conquest  of  the  West   Byzan+ne  Empire   “An  able  Goth  wants  to  be  like  a  Roman;  only  a   poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”    –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  
  5. DANES (c. 960) NORSE (c. 970-1025) Areas Christianized, 900-1100

  6. Parchment: Lambskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting.

    Vellum: Calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting. The  Medieval  Manuscript  
  7. Preparation of parchment •  Placed on a stretcher •  Then

    it was scraped
  8. In some instances, the animal`s skin is then sanded.

  9. Purple  Dye  =  Murex  Shell   Blue  =  Lapis  Lazuli

      Green  =  Verdigris   Gold  Leaf  
  10. Genesis  

  11. Pentateuch  

  12. Gospels  

  13. Durrow The  Bri+sh  Isles   Iona

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  20. 15-­‐5,  St.  MaMhew  from  the  Book  of   Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,

     660-­‐680   Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuMon  Hoo,   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  
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  24. Lindesfarne The  Bri+sh  Isles  

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  33. The  Bri+sh  Isles   Iona

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  40. 0˚ 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 10˚ 20˚ 711 714 670 697

    711 Kairouan Carthage Tulaytulah (Toledo) Mérida Oviedo (c.790) Tangier Saragossa Ceuta Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Rome Naples Taranto Athens Thessalonica Adrianople Varna Constantinople Smyrna Bari Spalatum Palermo Messina Lyon Marseille Barshilunah (Barcelona) Tarrakunah (Tarragona) Cartagena Algiers Qurtubah (Córdoba) Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Hedeby York Scone Winchester Glastonbury Cividale Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Jarrow (684) Monkwearmouth (674) Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) Escomb (670s) Hexham Ripon (670s) Yeavering St Denis Benevento (c.770) Tempio di Clitunno San Vincenzo al Volturno Pavia Lomello San Pedro della Nave São Gião de Navaré São Frutuoso de Montelios San Juan de Baños Santa Comba de Bande Santianes de Pravia Santa María de Melque Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Oder Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BA LT I C S E A BLACK SEA M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A A L P S P Y R E N E E S BALTIC PEO P LES S L A V S S L A V S NO RTHM E N (SCA NDINAV I A N S ) SAXO N S F R I S I A N S BRETONS BASQUES B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY MALTA CRETE BAVARIA AQUITAINE ASTURIAS KINGDOM OF THE PICTS SCOTTISH KINGDOMS IRISH KINGDOMS STRATH- CLYDE EAST ANGLIA KENT WELSH STATES WEST WALES NORTHUMBRIA MERCIA AVAR EMPIRE BULGARIA B Y Z A N T I N E E M P I R E U M A Y Y A D C A L I P H A T E KIN G DO M OF THE LOMBARDS FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms Centres and Distribution of Luxury Goods c.730 Muslim Umayyad Caliphate date of Muslim conquest Byzantine Empire Frankish Kingdom Kingdom of the Lombards mints represented in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) provenance of objects found in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) distribution of marble sarcophagi and capitals quarried/carved in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C ecclesiastical structures of which significant remains survive secular (mostly royal) sites with substantial surviving fragments or known from literary sources trade route 670 1
  41. 714 do 90) Saragossa Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo

    Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Lyon Marseille Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Winchester Glastonbury Civida Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) St Denis Tempio d Clitunno Pavia Lomello o e Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Ebro A A L P S P Y R E N E E S SAXO BRETONS BASQUES CORSICA BAVARIA AQUITAINE TURIAS KENT WEST WALES KIN G DO M OF TH FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX 714 Saragossa Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Rome Adrianople Varna Constantinople Spalatum Lyon Marseille Barshilunah (Barcelona) Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Hedeby York Scone Winchester Glastonbury Cividale Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Jarrow (684) Monkwearmouth (674) Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) Escomb (670s) Hexham Ripon (670s) Yeavering St Denis Tempio di Clitunno San Vincenzo al Volturno Pavia Lomello Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Ebro Danube Elbe Oder Vistula N O R T H S E A BA LT I C S E A BLACK SEA A D R I A T I C S A L P S P Y R E N E E S BALTIC PEO P LES S L A V S S L A V S NO RTHM E N (SCA NDINAV I A N S ) SAXO N S F R I S I A N S BRETONS BASQUES CORSICA BAVARIA AQUITAINE RIAS KINGDOM OF THE PICTS SCOTTISH KINGDOMS H OMS STRATH- CLYDE EAST ANGLIA KENT WELSH STATES WEST WALES NORTHUMBRIA MERCIA AVAR EMPIRE BULGARIA KIN G DO M OF THE FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX s Centres and Distribution of Luxury Goods c.730 Muslim Umayyad Caliphate date of Muslim conquest Byzantine Empire Frankish Kingdom Kingdom of the Lombards mints represented in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) provenance of objects found in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) distribution of marble sarcophagi and capitals quarried/carved in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C ecclesiastical structures of which significant remains survive secular (mostly royal) sites with substantial surviving fragments or known from literary sources trade route 670 1
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  45. 2 Art and Trade border of Holy Roman Empire, c.1095

    sources of: silver copper iron lead tin trade centre for Viking sculpture (wood/stone/bone) and metalwork centres of metalwork centres of alabaster centres of ivory-working export of alabaster trade route Cu Pb 109 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Pb Pb Cu Cu Cu Limerick Cork Dublin Wexford York Durham Cammin (Kamien) Gdansk ´ ´ Lund Vejrum Lade Urnes Borbjerg Trondheim Lincoln Norwich King’s Lynn Hull London Paderborn Utrecht Hamburg Bruges Paris Tours Vienna Florence Venice Barcelona Perpignan Gerona Valencia Palma Toledo Seville Lisbon Cartagena Zurich Naples Rome Basle Milan Pavia Genoa Siena Pisa Avignon Limoges Bordeaux Fuenterrabia Aviles Morella Nantes Ecaquelon Kermaria Chatelaudren Roscoff Cologne Toulouse Montpellier Santiago de Compostela Burgos Zamora Silos Palermo Messina Catania Otok Prague Buda Kiev Novgorod Waterford Winchester Tutbury Dartmouth Bristol St Albans Poole Evreux Southampton Wolin Zuchau Gross-Grönau Ribe Kaupang Oseberg Flatalunga Dorestad Sigtuna Po Danube Dnieper Dvina Volga Rhône Loire Sein e E lbe Od er Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BAY O F B I S C AY BALT IC SEA B L A C K S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA PYRENEES A L P S HARZ MTS SICILY CORSICA SARDINIA NORWAY ICELAND SWEDEN POLAND ENGLAND FRANCE NORMANDY SCOTLAND IRISH KINGDOMS WELSH PRINCIPALITIES HUNGARY KINGDOM OF ITALY BYZANTINE EMPIRE KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF GERMANY DENMARK S E L J U K E M P I R E S FIN N O -U G RIA N S T U R K I C P E O P L E S carved wood carved wood N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms 2 THE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS was essential for art production. In Germany and in England, local stone was in good supply and was a perfect source for buildings and sculpture, while in Scandinavia patrons and artists exploited the rich timber resources. Rare materials like alabaster and metal were exploited at source and then exported to other regions. Trade, a crucial factor in the growing European economy, fuelled the arts. In turn, trade routes contributed to the dispersal of craftsmen and their methods. their newly found positions of power by patronizing the arts. They constructed castles cathedrals. The monasteries that dotted the landscape were also important centres of much of the intellectual creativity was concentrated on devotional subjects.
  46. 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Pb Pb

    Cu Limerick Cork Dublin Wexford York Durham Cammin (Kamien) Gdansk ´ ´ Lund Vejrum Lade Urnes Borbjerg Trondheim Lincoln Norwich King’s Lynn Hull London Paderborn Utrecht Hamburg Novgorod Waterford Winchester Tutbury Bristol St Albans Wolin Zuchau Gross-Grönau Ribe Kaupang Oseberg Flatalunga Dorestad Sigtuna Dvina E l Od Rh N O R T H S E A BALT IC SEA NORWAY ICELAND SWEDEN POLAND ENGLAND SCOTLAND IRISH KINGDOMS WELSH CIPALITIES DENMARK carved wood 2 Art and Trade border of Holy Roman Empire, c.1095 sources of: silver copper iron lead tin trade centre for Viking sculpture (wood/stone/bone) and metalwork centres of metalwork centres of alabaster centres of ivory-working export of alabaster trade route Cu Pb had to be found for constructi and gems were needed for the furnishings. Such materials we found in the local vicinity but imported. Iron, copper and tin were brought from the east to metalwork, such as Cologne a The perfection of the material craftsmanship was a vital facto production of Christian art cre honour of God. ARTISTS AND PATRONS The European secular elite als their newly found positions of patronizing the arts. They con orthern France, d in 1066. They m of government, nd their for their religious institutions. The cathedral- monastery of Canterbury in England, the cathedral of Lund in Sweden and the monastery of Hirsau were all important sites. Between 1100 and 1200 society became much more stable. New trade links opened up to the north and south. A thriving agricultural base brought wealth to many regions. New towns and universities developed, and roads allowed safer travel for artists and merchants. In this flourishing society, visual art and architecture were increasingly put into the service of individuals and institutions. Often, they were intended to convey multiple 50˚ 60˚ Lincoln Oakham Norwich Bury St Edmunds Castle Rising Ely Colchester Orford Castle Hedingham Canterbury London (Westminster) Rochester Durham Richmond Norham Minden Paderborn Hamburg Lund Hildesheim Brunswick Halberstadt Magdeburg Gniezno Plock Trzemeszno Quedlinburg Goslar Hersfeld Wartburg Stavanger Bergen Ringsaker Gamla Uppsala Falun Hamar Trondheim Viborg Husaby Visby Soest Essen Corvey Leyden Aachen Liège Cologne Deutz Werden Bonn Tournai Peterborough Newcastle Conisbrough York eford St Albans Rhine Elbe Oder N O R T H S E A B A LT I C S E A S L AV S F I N N I C P E O P L E S B A L T I C P E O P L E S COTLAND ENGLAND DENMARK NORWAY SWEDEN POLAND POMERANIA TIES N O V G O R O D P O L O T S K K I E V N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms le vasions, new laces began to the recently a and eastern he Lion of Saxony ess pagan the east r, bringing with nd establishing and imposing architecture. All over Europe cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches were built or rebuilt. The churches were filled with paintings, altarpieces, sculpture and stained glass. These objects performed a part in the visual display of the Christian faith and the rituals of the daily liturgy. The funding was supplied mainly by donations from the faithful. Laity and clergy alike invested in the religious spectacle in order to illustrate their personal devotion and to attain salvation. Only the most famous artists and the most precious metals were suitable for these pious aspirations: good building stone and timber
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  52. Cri+cal  Thinking  Ques+ons   1.  How  are  both  classical  and

     northern   tradi+ons  present  in  early  Medieval   manuscripts?   2.  Why  was  the  en+re  Bible  not  commonly   reproduced?    What  types  of  book  were   produced  instead?   3.  How  is  “barbarian”  metalwork  significant  to   the  history  of  northern  manuscript  pain+ng?