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Early Gothic Art

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April 20, 2013

Early Gothic Art



April 20, 2013


  1. Early  Gothic  Art   Reading:   Stokstad,  494-­‐506    

    Range:   1100-­‐1300   Early  Gothic     Key  Terms/Concepts:   gothic,  tapestry,  embroidery,  ribs,   groin  vault,  barrel  vault,  pier   buAress,  flying  buAress,   scholasCcism,  jambs,  sedes   sapienCae,  seven  liberal  arts,  tree   of  Jesse,     Monument  List:     16-­‐30,  The  Bayeux  Embroidery,   Bayeux,  France,  Romanesque,   1070-­‐1080.     17-­‐2,  Ambulatory  and  RadiaCng   Chapels,  St.  Denis,  Paris,  France,   Gothic,  1140-­‐1144.     17-­‐4,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  Gothic,  1134-­‐1260.     17-­‐6,  Jambs,  Royal  Portal  West   Façade,  Chartres  Cathedral,   Gothic,  1145-­‐1155.    
  2. Reminders   •  Your  Image  and  Text  essay  is  due

     THIS   Thursday  May  2nd.   •  The  final  exam  is  Tuesday  May  14th  8:00-­‐10:00   in  Starz  12.   •  Study  Guide  will  be  posted  by  this  Thursday!  
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  5. William  invades  England  in  1066  

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  9. Plan  

  10. Statue  of  St.  Denis,   Notre  Dame  of  Paris,  

  11. “Delight  in  the  beauty  of  the  house  of   God…call

     him  away  from  external   cares…dwelling  in  some  strange  region   of  the  universe  which  neither  exists   enCrely  in  the  slime  of  the  earth  nor   enCrely  in  the  purity  of  heaven… transported  from  this  inferior  to  that   higher  world.”     “We  profess  that  we  must  do  homage   through  the  outward  ornaments  of   sacred  vessels,  and  to  nothing  in  the   world  in  an  equal  degree  to  the  service   of  the  Holy  Sacrifice,  with  all  inner   purity  and  with  all  outward  splendor.”  
  12. “Money  is  won  with  such  skill  that  it  may  be

      mulCplied.    It  is  expended  so  that  it  may  be   increased,  and  pouring  it  out  produces   abundance.    The  Reason  is  that  the  very  sight   of  these  costly  but  wonderful  illusions  inflames   the  men  more  to  give  than  to  pray.”   “To  me  [golden  images]  somehow  represent   the  ancient  rite  of  the  Jews…  Or  is  it  that  since   we  have  been  mingled  with  the  genCles,   perhaps  we  have  also  adopted  their  ways  and   even  serve  their  idols.”   “O  vanity  of  vaniCes,  but  no  more  vain  than   insane!    The  Church  is  radiant  in  its  walls  and   desCtute  in  its  poor.    It  dresses  its  stones  in   gold  and  it  abandons  its  children  naked.    It   serves  the  eyes  of  the  rich  at  the  expense  of   the  poor.    The  curious  find  that  which  may   delight  them,  but  those  in  need  do  not  find   that  which  should  sustain  them.”  
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  17. “And  what  of  the  sun’s  rays?    Light  comes  from

     the  good,  and  light  is  an   image  of  this  archetypal  Good.    Thus  the  Good  is  also  by  the  name   “Light,”  just  as  an  archetype  is  real  in  its  image.    The  goodness  of  the   transcendent  God  reaches  from  the  highest  and  most  perfect  forms  of   being  to  the  very  lowest.    And  yet  it  remains  above  and  beyond  them  all,   superior  to  the  highest  and  yet  stretching  out  to  the  lowliest.    It  gives   light  to  everything  capable  of  receiving  it,  it  creates  them,  keeps  them   alive,  preserves  and  perfects  them.    Everything  looks  to  it  for  measure,   eternity,  number,  order.    It  is  the  power,  which  embraces  the  universe.     It  is  the  Cause  of  the  universe  and  its  end.”  –Pseudo  Dionysus    
  18. “Elegant  and  praiseworthy   extension  in  [the  form  of]  a

      circular  string  of  chapels,  by   virtue  of  which  the  whole   [church]  would  shine  with  the   wonderful  and  uninterrupted   light  of  most  sacred  windows,   pervading  in  the  interior   beauty.”—Abbot  Suger  
  19. Romanesque  vs.  Gothic  VaulCng  

  20. Romanesque  vs.  Gothic  VaulCng   Ribs  

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  23. Jesse  

  24. Jesse   “Then  a  shoot  will  spring  from  the  stem

      of  Jesse,  And  a  branch  from  his  roots   will  bear  fruit.”     Isaiah  11:1    
  25. David  

  26. King  

  27. King  

  28. Virgin  

  29. Christ   The  naCons  will  resort  to  the  root  of

     Jesse,   Who  will  stand  as  a  signal  for  the  peoples;   And  His  resCng  place  will  be  glorious.    
  30. Christ   Doves  =     Giqs  of  the  Holy

     Spirit   The  Spirit  of  the  LORD  will  rest  on  Him,   The  spirit  of  wisdom  and  understanding,   The  spirit  of  counsel  and  strength,   The  spirit  of  knowledge  and  the  fear  of  the  LORD.    
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  34. Jesse   Christ  

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  37. Notre  Dame  =  “Our  Lady”  (the  Virgin  Mary)  –  

    All  churches  dedicated  to  Mary  have  this   name.   Flying  BuAresses  
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  46. NaCvity   PresentaCon  at  the  Temple   Sede  SapienCae  =

     Throne  of  Wisdom  
  47. Seven  Liberal  Arts  

  48. Rhetoric   Grammar   Music  

  49. Aristotle   Pythagoras   ScholasCcism  =  the  synthesis  of  classical

     philosophy  and   ChrisCan  theology  
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  51. Ascension  

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  54. Notre  Dame  de  la  Belle  Verrière  =  Our  Lady  of

      the  BeauKful  Window  
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  58. CriCcal  Thinking  QuesCons   1.  Both  Gothic  and  Romanesque  art

     evoke  an  emoConal   response  from  the  viewer.    How  is  that  response   different?    How  is  it  achieved  differently?   2.  What  are  some  of  the  key  differences  between   Romanesque  and  Gothic  churches?      What  adaptaCons   did  Gothic  architects  have  to  make  to  accommodate   those  differences?   3.  What  is  the  debate  between  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  and   Abbot  Suger?    How  does  impact  how  churches  are  built   and  decorated?   4.  How  is  the  use  of  stained  glass  related  to  the  use  of   golden  mosaics  in  Late  AnCque  and  ByzanCne   Churches?