Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Lecture 1 | Framing Prehistoric Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
September 06, 2013
9

Lecture 1 | Framing Prehistoric Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

September 06, 2013
Tweet

Transcript

  1. The  Earliest  “Ar.sts”     Reading:   -­‐Spivey,  How  Art

     Made  the  World,  17-­‐49.   -­‐Susan  Vogel,  “Always  True  to  the  Object,   in  Our  Fashion”  from  Exhibi7ng  Cultures,   191-­‐204.       Range   ~77,000  BCE-­‐1000  BCE   Paleolithic,  Mesolithic  and  Neolithic   Periods     Terms/Concepts:   decora.ve  impulse,  framing  devices,   “Venuses,”  sympathe.c  magic,   composite  pose,  henge,  post  and  lintel   Key  Monuments:     Nude  Woman  (Venus  of   Willendorf),  from   Willendorf,  Austria,  ca.   28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.       “Bison”  or  Aurochs,   Altamira,  Spain,  12,500  BCE     “Hall  of  the  Bulls,”  Lascaux,   France,  15,000  BCE.     Stonehenge,  Salisbury  Plain,   2900-­‐1500  BCE.  
  2. Waterworn  pebble  resembling  a   face,  from  Makapansgat,  South  

    Africa,  ca.  3,000,000  BCE.     Australopithecus  Africanus  
  3. Waterworn  pebble  resembling  a  face,  from  Makapansgat,  South  Africa,  

    ca.  3,000,000  BCE.    
  4. Waterworn  pebble  resembling  a   face,  from  Makapansgat,  South  

    Africa,  ca.  3,000,000  BCE.     Marcel  Duchamp,  Fountain,  1917   (original),  1964  (replica).  
  5. AT L A N T I C O C E

    A N I N D I A N O C E A N P A C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N A R C T I C O C E A N MEDITERRANEAN SEA BLACK SEA CASPIAN SEA Mandu Mandu Creek rock shelter with shell-bead necklace Apollo 11 Cave painted plaquettes Border Cave engraved pieces of wood and bone Nswatugi Cave Zimbabwe palette Patne engraved ostrich eggshell Aq Kupruq carved stone head Mal‘ta Mezin Dolní Vestonice ˇ Dolní Vestonice Pavlov Willendorf Galgenberg Vogelherd ohlenstein-Stadel Le Trou Magrite Geissenklösterle Sungir Kostienki Tolbaga bone figurine Brno ˇ Predmostí Avdeevo Blombos Cave incised rocks Pedra Furada rock shelter; fallen fragments of painted wall Arnhem Land shelters with abundant ochre Tanzania shelters with ochre pencils and palettes Sandy Creek 2 / Walkunder Arch rock shelter with paintings Olary/Wharton Hill Koonalda Cave finger markings on ceilings and walls Carpenter‘s Gap rock shelter with fallen fragments of painted wall N O R T H A M E R I C A S O U T H A M E R I C A MESOAMERICA B E R I N G I A NEW GUINEA JAVA BOR NEO SUMATRA PHILIPPINES mammoth ibex horse reindeer ed deer bison giant sloth kangaroo eland antelope cape buffalo JAPAN GREENLAND C H I N A AUSTRALIA A F R I C A A S I A S I B E R I A E U R O P E N 0 0 2400 miles 3600 kms I N D I A N O C E A N P A C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N A R C T I C O C E A N CK A CASPIAN SEA Mandu Mandu Creek rock shelter with shell-bead necklace Border Cave engraved pieces of wood and bone watugi Cave mbabwe palette Patne engraved ostrich eggshell Aq Kupruq carved stone head Mal‘ta in e e Sungir Kostienki Tolbaga bone figurine Avdeevo Pedra Furada rock shelter; fallen fragments of painted wall Arnhem Land shelters with abundant ochre Tanzania shelters with ochre pencils and palettes Sandy Creek 2 / Walkunder Arch rock shelter with paintings Olary/Wharton Hill Koonalda Cave finger markings on ceilings and walls Carpenter‘s Gap rock shelter with fallen fragments of painted wall N O R T H A M E R I C A S O U T H A M E R I C A MESOAMERICA B E R I N G I A NEW GUINEA JAVA BOR NEO SUMATRA PHILIPPINES mammoth ibex bison giant sloth kangaroo JAPAN GREENLAND C H I N A AUSTRALIA A S I A S I B E R I A 2400 miles 00 kms 1 Palaeolithic Art coastline at height of last Ice Age, c. 20,000 years ago greatest extent of ice cover tundra steppe forest tropical forest desert main routes of colonization using land bridges parietal art find site portable art find site dominant animal, source of food and materials 16k   50k   15k   65k   50k   60k   40k   The  Migra.on  of  Modern  Humans  
  6. “Stages  of  Cultural  Evolu.on”     •  Paleolithic:  c.  120,000-­‐3,000

     BP   •  Mesolithic:  c.  10,000-­‐3,000  BP   •  Neolithic:  c.  8,000-­‐1,000  BP  
  7. “Characteris.cs”  of  Paleolithic   •  Nomadic  Lifestyle   •  Sustaining

     life  through  gathering  plants  and   hun.ng   •  Development  of  abstract  thinking  and  basic   problem  solving  skills.   •  Developing  means  of  manipula.ng  the   environment  and  forming  tools.  
  8. Earliest  Cultural  Products   Hand  Axe,   Tanzania,  60,000  

    years  ago   Inscribed  Ocher,  South  Africa,   77,000  years  ago   Perforated  Shells,     South  Africa,  75,000  years  ago  
  9. “Prehistoric  art  is  _________,  maybe…”  

  10. What  we’re  working  with…   Mammoth  Hut,  excava.on  at  Mezhirich,

      Ukraine,  c.  16,000-­‐10,000  BCE.   Mammoth  Hut,  reconstruc.on  at   Mezhirich,  Ukraine,  c.  16,000-­‐10,000  
  11. Nude  Woman  (Venus  of   Willendorf),  from   Willendorf,  Austria,

     ca.   28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.  
  12. Waterworn  pebble  resembling  a  face,   from  Makapansgat,  South  Africa,

     ca.   3,000,000  BCE.     Woman  (“Venus”)  of   Willendorf,  Austria,  c.   28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.   Recogni.on   Representa.on  
  13. Nude  Woman  (Venus  of  Willendorf),  from   Willendorf,  Austria,  ca.

     28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.  
  14. Making  “Venuses”   Woman  (“Venus”)  of   Willendorf,  Austria,  c.

      28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.   Woman  (“Venus”)  of   Dolni  Vestonice,  Czech   Republic,  c.  23,000  BCE   Woman  (“Venus”)  of   Lespugue,  France,  c.   25,000  BCE  
  15. Distribu.on  of  “Goddesses”  

  16. Making  “Venuses”   =   Nude  Woman  (Venus  of  

    Willendorf),  Austria,  c.   28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.   Famous  Venus  Depic.ons,  Cabanel  (Top),  Ti.an   (Bogom),  Praxiteles  (leh).  
  17. The  “Goddess’s  Temple”  in  the  Naturhistorisches   Museum  in  Vienna.

     
  18. The  “Goddess’s  Temple”  in  the  Naturhistorisches   Museum  in  Vienna.

      The  “Venus”    in  her  “temple”  
  19. Photographic simulation of what a six-months-pregnant 26-year-old Caucasian female of

    average weight sees when looking down while standing. Woman from Willendorf (Austria). c. 28,000-25,000 BCE.. Limestone, height approx. 4z. Cast of Figurine, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Arms  
  20. Making  “Venuses”   Nude  Woman  (Venus  of   Willendorf),  Austria,

     c.   28,000-­‐25,000  BCE.   ≠  
  21. Discovered in 1879. Altamira

  22. María, daughter of Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, who participated in

    discovery of paintings at Altamira in November 1879.
  23. “Bison”  or  Aurochs,  Altamira,  Spain,  12,500  BCE  

  24. Lascaux  

  25. Map of Major Paintings, Lascaux, France, c.15,000 BCE (See 1-1)

  26. “Hall  of  the  Bulls,”  Lascaux,  France,  15,000  BCE  

  27. 1-­‐11,  “Hall  of  the  Bulls,”  Lascaux,  Dordogne   France,  15,000

     BCE.   15  feet  
  28. Deer  Fat  Lamp  from   Lascaux,  Dordogne,  France,   c.

     17,000  BP    
  29. None
  30. Film still. Fantastic Mr. Fox. 2009. Directed by Wes Anderson.

    Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. “We  have  invented  nothing  in  12,000  years.”  Agributed  to  Picasso   “Art  for  Art’s  Sake”  
  31. Pablo  Picasso,  Bull:  Stages  I-­‐VIII,  1945.     “Bison”  or

     Aurochs,  Altamira,  Spain,  12,500   BCE   “Aher  Altamira,  all  is  decadence.”  
  32. Chauvet  

  33. Lionesses  (?),  Chauvet,  France,  32,000-­‐30,000  BCE.  

  34. George Stubbs. Whistlejacket. c.1762. Oil on canvas, 9`7z x 8`1z.

    National Gallery, London. Wall painting with horses, rhinoceroses, and aurochs. Chauvet Cave. c. 32,000-30,000 BCE.
  35. Pech  Merle  

  36. 1-­‐1,  Spoged  Horses  and  Human  Hands,  Pech  Merle,  Dordogne,  France,

        25,000-­‐24,000  BCE  (Horses),  15,000  BCE  (Hands)  
  37. “Chapel  of  Mammoths,”  Pech  Merle,  Dordogne,   France,  15,000  BCE

     
  38. Ceiling  of  the  Archer,  Pech  Merle,  Dordogne,  France,   15,000

     BCE  
  39. Enclosed  Forms  =  Female   Straight  Lines  =  Male  

  40. Nil e N ige r Amazon Mississippi Ganges Amu r

    Mekong Yangtze Yellow R. Indus Tigris Danube PA C I F I C O C E A N A T L A N T I C O C E A N ATLANTIC OCEAN I N D I A N O C E A N ARABIAN SEA ROCKY MTS AND ES HIMALAYAS N.AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA CHINA JAPAN R U S S I A INDIA ARABIA AUSTRALIA S.AMERICA c.3500 BC c.4500 BC c.4500 BC c.1000 BC c.8000 BC c.2000 BC c.2600 BC c.2600 BC c.300 BC c.3000 BC c.5500 BC c.6500 BC c.2500 BC c.2800 BC c.2500 BC pre-3000 BC c.3500 BC c.3500 BC N 0 0 2000 miles 3000 kms 1 The Origins of Agriculture areas where agriculture first emerged adoption of the plough, with date limit of plough agriculture The  Neolithic  “Revolu.on”  
  41. Characteris.cs  of  Neolithic   •  Widespread  development  of  permanent  

    seglements  that  lasted  longer  than  a  single   genera.on.   •  More  care  taken  with  burial.   •  Development  of  more  permanent   architecture.   •  Development  of  trade  networks.   •  Domes.ca.on  of  plants  and  animals.  
  42. Partial map of Prehistoric Europe and Near East.

  43. Houses,  Çatalhöyük,  Turkey,  c.  7400-­‐6200.   Reconstruction drawing of Çatalhöyük,

    with tending of goats.
  44. Reconstruction drawing of a house in Çatalhöyük. c.7400-6200 BCE. (illustrated

    on Stokstad page 15) House,  Çatalhöyük,  Turkey,  c.  7400-­‐6200.  
  45. None
  46. Stonehenge,  Salisbury  Plain,  2900-­‐1500  BCE  

  47. 3,000  BCE  

  48. 2,900-­‐2,600  BCE  

  49. 2,500  BCE  

  50. Post Post Lintel Post Post Lintel 24  Feet   15

     Feet   3  Feet   Each  Stone  =  ~40-­‐50   Tons   30  Megaliths       60  Stones  Total   Stonehenge,  Salisbury   Plain,  2900-­‐1500  BCE  
  51. start   end   Moving  the  Bluestone,  Hypothe.cal   Reconstruc.on

     
  52. Stonehenge,  Salisbury  Plain,  2900-­‐1500  BCE.  

  53. Stonehenge,  Salisbury  Plain,  2900-­‐1500  BCE  

  54. figure  1  Labels:     1.  Midsummer  sunrise    

    2.  Winter  moonrise   low  point     3.  Midwinter  Sunrise     4.  Southern  moonrise   (minimum)     5.  Southern  moonrise   (maximum)     6.  Midwinter  sunset     7.  Northern  moonset   (minimum)     8.  Northern  moonset   (maximum)     9.  Midsummer  sunset     10.  Winter  moonrise   high  point    
  55. Y angtze Yel low Ri ver Danube Nile Volga Indus

    G anges Congo Niger Darling I N D I A N O C E A N P A C I F I C O C E A N SOU T H CHINA SEA HIMALAYAS URAL MTS A F R I C A AUSTRALIA A S I A E U R O P E Jomon pottery Tybrind Vig wooden paddles ous rs El Wad Natufian figurines Jericho plastered portrait skulls, plaster statues Sha’ar Hagolan Yarmukian clay figurines Jerf el-Ahmar pictograph tablets Jiahu bone flutes Sturts Meadows petroglyphs Magnificent Gallery paintings Kakadu paintings Çatal Hüyük wall paintings in houses, clay figurines Zamostje/Vis I portable carvings Kunda Culture portable carvings Maglemose Culture portable art Lepenski Vir limestone sculptures Le Mas d’Azil Azilian Culture, decorated pebbles Fontainebleau rock engravings? Ojo Guareña cave paintings rock paintings? Karelia/Lake Onega Veretye Culture/Oleneostrovski Cemetery, portable carvings, decorated implements Shigirsky portable carvings Berelekh portable engraving stone and clay figurines ’Ain Ghazal plaster statues one s, N 0 0 1000 miles 1500 kms 1 Postglacial Art, 10,000-5000 BC
  56. None
  57. “Temple,”  Gobekli  Tepe,  Turkey,  c.  9,000  BCE  

  58. “Temple,”  Gobekli  Tepe,  Turkey,  c.  9,000  BCE  

  59. “Temple,”  Gobekli  Tepe,  Turkey,  c.  9,000  BCE  

  60. NEWSFOCUS “Temple,”  Gobekli  Tepe,  Turkey,  c.  9,000  BCE  

  61. Y angtze Yel low Ri ver Danube Nile Volga Indus

    G anges Congo Niger Darling I N D I A N O C E A N P A C I F I C O C E A N SOU T H CHINA SEA HIMALAYAS URAL MTS A F R I C A AUSTRALIA A S I A E U R O P E Jomon pottery Tybrind Vig wooden paddles ous rs El Wad Natufian figurines Jericho plastered portrait skulls, plaster statues Sha’ar Hagolan Yarmukian clay figurines Jerf el-Ahmar pictograph tablets Jiahu bone flutes Sturts Meadows petroglyphs Magnificent Gallery paintings Kakadu paintings Çatal Hüyük wall paintings in houses, clay figurines Zamostje/Vis I portable carvings Kunda Culture portable carvings Maglemose Culture portable art Lepenski Vir limestone sculptures Le Mas d’Azil Azilian Culture, decorated pebbles Fontainebleau rock engravings? Ojo Guareña cave paintings rock paintings? Karelia/Lake Onega Veretye Culture/Oleneostrovski Cemetery, portable carvings, decorated implements Shigirsky portable carvings Berelekh portable engraving stone and clay figurines ’Ain Ghazal plaster statues one s, N 0 0 1000 miles 1500 kms 1 Postglacial Art, 10,000-5000 BC
  62. 147˚ 144˚ 141˚ 138˚ 135˚ 132˚ 129˚ 126˚ 123˚ 42˚

    40˚ 38˚ 36˚ 34˚ 32˚ 30˚ Akyu Tanabatake Ikawazu Shakado Awazu Jinnai Shigasato Yoshigo Kashihara Butsunami Kitamura Togari-ishi Arayashiki Ohatadai Komakino Sugizawadai Teraji Kinsei Horinouchi Nakasawame Satohama Omori Kasori Ogyozuka Chikamori Torihama Mawaki Minamikata Maeike Kuwagaishimo Tsukumo Yamaga Ataka Yaze Fudodo Unggi Negoyadai Yoksam-dong Oksong-ni Yangpyong-ni Ubayama Kazahari Korekawa Nirakubo Oyu Nishida Chiamigaito Sakuramachi Miharada Higashi-Kushiro Hamanasuno Sannai Maruyama Bibi Kashiwagi B Hupo-ri Mimanda Higashibaru Kyo-dong Amsa-dong Osan-ni Sinmae-ri Kumgang-ni Tosong-ni Mizonoguchi Naepyong-ni Kungsan-ni Soktal-li Simchol-li Namgyong Songgu-ni Chitam-ni Chonjin-dong Hogok-dong Kuksong-dong Hunnam-ni Song-Do Changchon-ni Naju Sougam-dong Taegong-ni Taepyong-ni Mugye-ri Sangnodae-Do Hwangsong-ni Suga-ri Yongsangong Tongsam-dong Tadaepo Tongnae Imbul-li Shinam-ni Taehuksan-do Songgung-ni Namsong-ni Sogong-ni Yangul-li Naedong-ni Undae-ri Choji-ri Kimpo Nongpo-dong Sopohang Naktong-gang Shi nano-gawa Han-gang Imjin-gang L. Biwa Osumi-shoto Oki-gunto Izu-shoto Sado Cheju-do Tsushima P A C I F I C O C E A N S E A O F J A P A N S E A O F O K H O T S K T I A R T S A E R O K NANGNIM-SANM AEK SOBAEK-SANMAEK TAEBAEK SANMAEK HONSHU HOKKAIDO SHIKOKU KYUSHU KOREA JAPAN C H I N A N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 2 The Forager Communities of Japan and Korea, 6000-500 BC important settlements settlements with large buildings cemeteries burials cist burials stone circles and standing stones waterlogged sites shell middens sites with figurines sites with face masks sites with lacquer sites with bronze rice cultivation millet cultivation Japanese sites, 6000-500 BC Korean sites, 6000-2000 BC Korean sites, 2000-500 BC sources of obsidian and greenstone ancient coastline 2 A SERIES OF RELATIVELY SEDENTARY CULTURES, with no clearly institutionalized social hierarchies, was well- established across the Korean peninsula and Japanese archipelago by 5000 BC. While these communities show clearly localized developments in their material culture, they were not totally isolated, as shown by shared pottery styles. There was also some contact between the peninsula and archipelago, as shown by Jomon pottery sherds and by obsidian from Korean Neolithic coastal sites and influences from the peninsula on some Jomon pottery styles. Resistance to change from outside, however, is suggested by the relatively late arrival of metallurgy and agriculture in the region. DECORATING THE BODY was important in Jomon times. Elaborate pottery ear ornaments became especially popular in the Kanto region of Honshu in the final stage of the Jomon period. Over 1000 ear ornaments were discovered at Chiamigaito in central Honshu, indicating they were produced in a specialist workshop. Large numbers of ear ornaments are only found at a few sites, although strikingly similar designs are found from sites separated by long distances. These ornaments were made from specially selected clay and are sometimes decorated with red pigments. They belong to a tradition of ear ornaments that extends back to 5000 BC. monstrated g from ukumo and curred at ed by orn in a ay have uggesting own from a e umbers of ed. , notably orate ch were ndicates that ed among uction of ne and ability to onuments, ments of at Komakino, ant st a concern and the to have been ts of lysis of the suggests ation of and 7 which ce for Jomon terlogged material perished. fore 5000 BC, gree of nvironment, r requires a mmediately ree and its Counter-­‐example:  Jomon  Japan  
  63. 1 Pottery Manufacture in Jomon Japan neolithic style zone with

    example of characteristic pottery natural resources: cold deciduous forest evergreen broad-leaf forest warm deciduous forest wild boar deer sea lion seal salmon acorns chestnut walnuts buckeyes green earsp trans prest these caref wood contr inclu stone which topo with seaso cons meas desig that t certa may comm I sites demo cultu Lacq and i know as th detai obvio 141˚ 135˚ 129˚ 40˚ 36˚ 32˚ 28˚ 44˚ 147˚ Sobata Taishakukyo Torihama Togari-ishi Okinohara Natsushima Kamo Hamanasuno Tokoro S E A O F J A PA N Osumi-Shoto PA C I F I C O C E A N KOREA STRAIT S H I K O K U H O N S H U H O K K A I D O K Y U S H U J A PA N C H I N A K O R E A N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 THE DIVERSITY of forested environments that supported a rich array of wild food resources across the Japanese archipelago was matched by a multitude of local pottery styles.
  64. Clay  Vessel,  Jomon   Culture,  Japan,   12,000  BCE