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InfluxDB IOx data lifecycle and object store persistence

Paul Dix
January 13, 2021

InfluxDB IOx data lifecycle and object store persistence

Talk given on 1/13/2021 at the InfluxDB IOx community tech talks. This talks about how the data lifecycle is managed with incoming and queried data in IOx. It goes into details about how data is persisted to object storage and when.

Paul Dix

January 13, 2021

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  1. Terms • Writer ID – Unique u32 server identifier •

    Mutable Buffer – in-memory writable & queryable DB • Read Buffer – in-memory read-only optimized DB • Object Store – storage backed by S3, Azure, Google, Local Disk, or Memory
  2. Terms • Partition – User defined area of non-overlapping data

    • Chunk – Block of data in a partition potentially overlapping • WAL Segment – Collection of writes, deletes, schema modifications
  3. WAL Buffer • Max Buffer Size • Segment Size •

    Persist? – On rollover and/or open time • Max Behavior – Reject write – Drop new write – Drop un-persisted Segment • Segments have monotonically increasing ID, writer ID
  4. WAL Buffer Example (success) • 300MB max, 100MB Segments •

    Writes fill up segment 1 • Close segment, attempt to persist in background • New writes into segment 2, which fills up • Close segment, attempt to persist in background • New writes into segment 3, which fills up • Close segment, if segment 1 persisted, clear it • New writes (will create segment 4, or not)
  5. WAL Buffer Properties • Persistence optional – Replication for durability

    – Local disk (later and if persisting) • Steady-state takes max buffer memory • Segments captured on schedule or space • Serverless replication via segments in object store
  6. WAL Object Store Location • <writer id>/<database>/wal/<NNN>/<NNN>/<NNN>.segment • 1/mydb/wal/000/000/001.segment •

    Up to 999,999,998 segments – Maybe increase this by adding a few zero padding at top level • 1 list operation to get DB dirs • 3 list operations to get latest segment
  7. Mutable Buffer Structure • Data is partitioned – User configurable

    – Default based on time (every 2h, for instance) – Rows can only exist in a single partition • Each partition has chunks – Used to persist blocks of data within a partition – Closing a chunk and persisting it § Triggered on size § Triggered on time § Triggered by explicit API call – Chunks may have overlapping data
  8. Chunk Persistence to Object Store • Parquet files, 1 per

    table (measurement) • Metadata file • Tables • Columns & types § Summary Stats (min, max, count) • Writer Stats § For each writer, min and max sequence § For each writer, min and max segment (if applicable) • Catalog file (for whole DB) • All partitions & chunks • New file each chunk persisted
  9. Chunk Properties • Immutable once persisted • Can compact chunks

    • Bulk import new chunks • Read replicas • Load only recent chunks
  10. Catalog Data • Partitions • Chunks – Metadata (when persisted,

    when last queried) – Schema – Summary Stats – Writer Stats • Writer Stats on Open Chunks – Min Segment ID with Data
  11. Restart/Recovery (single database) • Get checkpoint from catalog • Determine

    oldest WAL Segment to start from • Read WAL into Mutable Buffer – Only write into buffer for writes not persisted • Fetch recently queried chunks
  12. Handling Deletes • Tombstones in the WAL (and in-memory) •

    Applied at query time • Apply to open chunks (cached delete results) • Apply to read-buffer incrementally as chunks get read • When next chunk persisted, mark in catalog • Tombstones matched to each chunk it applies • Compact old chunks • In background • On different servers
  13. Delete Properties • They’re expensive! – Expensive to rewrite data

    – Should be cheap(ish) at query time • You can do them in the background! – Even on a different server – Compact chunks to new and write catalog • Drops are incredibly cheap – New structure means drops on measurements!
  14. Project Update • Mutable Buffer + Read Buffer Lifecycle –

    In process – Query (without optimizations) • WAL Segment Persistence PR up • Chunk Persistence within two weeks • Recovery Shortly after • Arrow Flight RPC! • Some optimization and numbers • Builds in Feb (hopefully)