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DREAMdev - A Participatory Framework to Catalyze Development in Emerging Economies

F5a1f223c755fba3351516909e78586c?s=47 Tim Tocci
March 06, 2013

DREAMdev - A Participatory Framework to Catalyze Development in Emerging Economies

MFA Industrial Design Thesis Defense Presentation (Extended Cut).

For rural entrepreneurs in developing countries with limited access to electricity, the DreamCatcher offers sustainable power generation and creates microenterprise opportunities. The DREAMdev participatory design framework provides a sustainable methodology for strategic development using co-design networks and local resources. This approach benefits native entrepreneurs by fostering innovation at the local level, hence instilling dignity and creativity. Unlike existing product design methodologies for developing countries, DREAMdev incorporates funding models from Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) to make substantive product solutions affordable and attainable.

F5a1f223c755fba3351516909e78586c?s=128

Tim Tocci

March 06, 2013
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Transcript

  1. A Participatory Framework to Catalyze Development in Emerging Economies Tim

    Tocci \ MFA IDUS Candidate \ dream.poweredbysilas.com
  2. OVERVIEW Context Characters Conflict 01 INTRO Categories Authors Toolkits 02

    LIT REVIEW Site Methods Tools 03 RESEARCH Synthesis Analysis Heuristics 04 FINDINGS Ideation Prototypes Frameworks 05 DESIGN Future Work Conclusions 06 CONCLUSION Table of Contents DREAMdev \ 2
  3. INTRODUCTION Context / Characters / Conflict 01

  4. THE (WICKED) PROBLEM TIER 1 TIERS 2-3 TIER 4 TIER

    5 Population in Millions 75-100 1,500-1,750 4,000 Purchasing Power Parity in US Dollars > $20,000 $1,500-$20,000 $1,500 <$1,500 Introduction DREAMdev \ 4 C. K. Prahalad’s Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid (2006)
  5. UN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger GOAL

    1 GOAL 2 GOAL 3 GOAL 4 GOAL 5 GOAL 6 GOAL 7 GOAL 8 Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and promote women Reducing child mortality rates Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases Ensure environ- mental sustainability Develop global partnership for development Introduction DREAMdev \ 5
  6. ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD “...the difficulty in getting widespread adoption

    of even proven innovation due to misunderstanding the social and cultural environment in which the innovation is to be introduced.” (Kraemer, Dedrick and Sharma 2009, 68) Introduction DREAMdev \ 6
  7. HOW DO WE DESIGN FOR THE OTHER 90%? Introduction DREAMdev

    \ 7
  8. HOW DO WE DESIGN WITH THE OTHER 90%? Introduction DREAMdev

    \ 8
  9. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Within participatory design communities, who are the stakeholders

    and decision makers? What are the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legislative (PESTEL) factors that influence development? How can an external agency determine needs and desires of a local population? How can the participatory design method be designed to mitigate unintended consequences and misuse? What are community perceptions of microcredit? 01 STAKEHOLDERS 02 PESTEL 03 NEEDS 04 CONSEQUENCES 05 MICROCREDIT Introduction DREAMdev \ 9
  10. LITERATURE REVIEW Categories / Authors / Toolkits 02

  11. CATEGORIES Humanitarian Design Sustainability Participatory Design Social Entrepreneurship DREAMdev \

    11 Literature Review
  12. NOTABLE AUTHORS Victor Papanek Paul Polak C.K. Prahalad Ezio Manzini

    Liz Sanders DREAMdev \ 12 Literature Review
  13. TOOLKITS Liz Sanders MakeTools DREAMdev \ 13 Literature Review

  14. RESEARCH Site / Methods / Tools 03

  15. CASE STUDY: OMETEPE, NICARAGUA DREAMdev \ 15 Research

  16. OMETEPE, NICARAGUA DREAMdev \ 16 Research

  17. $50 PER MONTH DREAMdev \ 17 Research

  18. SECONDARY RESEARCH POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL TECHNO- LOGICAL LEGISLATIVE ENVIRON- MENTAL

    DREAMdev \ 18 Research
  19. PRIMARY RESEARCH DREAMdev \ 19 Research

  20. PHOTO JOURNALS & DIARIES DREAMdev \ 20 Research

  21. ASPIRATION CARDS DREAMdev \ 21 Research

  22. WORKSHEETS DREAMdev \ 22 Research

  23. PROJECTIVE STIMULI DREAMdev \ 23 Research

  24. FINDINGS Synthesis / Analysis / Heuristics 04

  25. SYNTHESIS DREAMdev \ 25 Findings

  26. SWOT PESTEL MATRIX SWOT CURRENT SITUATION FUTURE SITUATION Categories Strengths

    Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Political Stability from FSLN Election Fraud / Arbitrary Action Green Climate Fund Instability, Civil Unrest/War Economic -DREAMdev Sustainable Innovation Fund Oil Demand and Cost Packaged Financing Global Recession Economic -Customer Ecotourism Low Available Capital Access MFI Capital Decreased Tourism Social Humanitarian Co- design Urbanization Social Networking Imperialism Stigma Technological Mobile Collaboration Limited internet access Energy Storage Material/Tech Cannibalization Environmental Strong wind power density Vulnerable to Natural Disasters Environmental Preservation Deforestation Pollution Legislative 2011 COP17 in Durban NGO Donor Limitations Clean energy mandates Limit foreign involvement DREAMdev \ 26 Findings
  27. ENVIRONMENTAL OPPORTUNITIES DREAMdev \ 27 Findings

  28. PHOTO JOURNAL ANALYSIS DREAMdev \ 28 Findings

  29. PHOTO JOURNAL ANALYSIS DREAMdev \ 29 Findings

  30. PHOTO JOURNAL ANALYSIS DREAMdev \ 30 Findings

  31. PHOTO JOURNAL ANALYSIS DREAMdev \ 31 Findings

  32. THE VOLTA “Es cierto que no tenemos energía ahorita, pero

    hay un sueño en nuestra mente [que] vamos a tener energía mas adelante...Un día vamos a tener energía.” DREAMdev \ 32 Findings
  33. HEURISTICS Use inexpensive materials and manufacturing methods. 01 AFFORDABILITY Use

    local labor and materials to promote maintenance and upkeep. 02 SUSTAINABILITY Combine local symbols of pride with aspirational design semantics. 03 DESIRABILITY ? DREAMdev \ 33 Findings
  34. DESIGN Ideation / Prototypes / Frameworks 05

  35. IDEATION DREAMdev \ 35 Design

  36. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN REVIEW DREAMdev \ 36 Design

  37. CRUDE PROTOTYPES DREAMdev \ 37 Design

  38. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS DREAMdev \ 38 Design

  39. ROTOR COMPARISON DREAMdev \ 39 Design

  40. PROTOTYPE 1 DREAMdev \ 40 Design

  41. PROTOTYPE FAIL DREAMdev \ 41 Design

  42. PROBLEM DETAIL DREAMdev \ 42 Design

  43. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE? DREAMdev \ 43 Design

  44. THE PAPANEK TRAP DREAMdev \ 44 Design

  45. THE PAPANEK TRAP “Of course, the radio is ugly. But

    there is a reason for this ugliness. It would have been simple to paint it ('grey', as the people at Ulm suggested). But painting it would have been wrong... I feel that I have no right to make aesthetic or 'good taste' decisions that will affect millions of people…” – Victor Papanek DREAMdev \ 45 Design
  46. NEW HEURISTICS Use inexpensive materials and manufacturing methods. 01 AFFORDABILITY

    Use local labor and materials to promote maintenance and upkeep. 02 SUSTAINABILITY Combine local symbols of pride with aspirational design semantics. 03 DESIRABILITY DREAMdev \ 46 Design
  47. TAKE 2 DREAMdev \ 47 Design

  48. DC MOTORS DREAMdev \ 48 Design

  49. DREAMdev \ 49 Design

  50. DREAMdev \ 50 Design

  51. DREAMdev \ 51 Design

  52. HOW DO WE MAKE THIS DESIRABLE? DREAMdev \ 52 Design

  53. DESIGN LANGUAGE National Pride Power, Speed, Efficiency, Flight DREAMdev \

    53 Design
  54. EVOLUTIONARY DREAMdev \ 54 Design

  55. COMPONENTS Mast Nose Cone Rotors Brackets Yaw Sleeve Guy Wires

    Motor Housing Tail Boom Tail Fin Ribs Motor Mounting Hardware Hub DC Motor Rotor Hardware DREAMdev \ 55 Design
  56. COST DREAMdev \ 56 Item Description Material / Size QTY

    Each Cost 1 Mast 8’ Fence Post 1 $15.98 $15.98 2 Metal Bracket 2 $3.35 $6.70 3 Yaw Sleeve 2" PVC, 4" PVC, + 4"-to-2" reducer 1 $11.04 $11.04 4 Motor Housing ABS 1 $8.38 $8.38 5 Tail Boom 1 1/2" PVC + 3-to-1.5" reducer 1 $6.75 $6.75 6 Ribs 1/4" Plywood (included below) 3 Included Included 7 Tail Fin 1/4" Plywood 1 $1.74 $1.74 8 Tail Cap 1/4" Plywood (included above) 1 Included Included 9 Cables 1/8" 230lb limit 1 $28.69 $28.69 10 DC Motor Average Used Starter Motor Price 1 $51.30 $51.30 11 Hub PE High Density 1 $9.98 $9.98 12 Rotor 6" PVC 3 $2.55 $7.64 13 Flat Washer 1/4" 10 $0.10 $1.00 14 Hex Bolt 1/4-20x1" 4 $0.24 $0.96 15 Hex Bolt 1/4-20x0.5" 8 $0.15 $1.20 16 Lock Washer 1/4" 8 $0.16 $1.28 17 Hex Nut 1/4-20 8 $0.12 $0.96 18 Nose Cone 4" PVC Cap 1 $5.34 $5.34 19 Electrical Cord 25’ Extension Cord 1 $6.05 $6.05 20 Body Filler 1pint with hardener 1 $6.14 $6.14 21 Paint 3 quarts (Primer, White, Blue) 1 $26.09 $26.09 TOTAL $ 197.31 Design
  57. HOW DO WE TURN THIS PROTOTYPE INTO A BUSINESS? DREAMdev

    \ 57 Design
  58. CATALYTIC DEVELOPMENT DREAMdev \ 58 Design

  59. CATALYTIC DEVELOPMENT DREAMdev \ 59 Design

  60. CATALYTIC DEVELOPMENT DREAMdev \ 60 Design

  61. CATALYTIC DEVELOPMENT DREAMdev \ 61 Design

  62. CATALYTIC DEVELOPMENT DREAMdev \ 62 Design

  63. DIFFUSION GLOBAL NATIONAL REGIONAL LOCAL DREAMdev \ 63 Design

  64. HOW DOES THE OMETEPE MODEL TRANSLATE INTO A FRAMEWORK? DREAMdev

    \ 64 Design
  65. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 65 Design

  66. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 66 Design

  67. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 67 Design

  68. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 68 Design

  69. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 69 Design

  70. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN FRAMEWORK DREAMdev \ 70 Design

  71. DENOUEMENT Conclusions / Further Work 06

  72. TACIT ASPIRATIONS DREAMdev \ 72 Denouement

  73. EXPLICIT ASPIRATIONS DREAMdev \ 73 Denouement

  74. ASPIRATIONAL AESTHETICS DREAMdev \ 74 Denouement

  75. Incorporate offerings into a holistic business and marketing plan Develop

    concepts into prototypes with attention to locally available material and labor assets Refine research findings into heuristics Use heuristics to guide ideation Explore users’ tacit and explicit needs Discover personal and community values 5 STEPS FOR THE NEXT (WICKED) PROBLEM Understand the context Determine involvement for users 01 PLAN 02 PRIME 03 DREAM 04 DEVELOP 05 DELIVER DREAMdev \ 75 Denouement
  76. ...BUT CO-DESIGN IS NOT AN ALGORITHM DREAMdev \ 76 Denouement

  77. 3 DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Prototype Development System Development Implementation

    Development DREAMdev \ 77 Denouement
  78. PROTOTYPE Increase output with planetary gear box or low-speed generator

    DREAMdev \ 78 Denouement
  79. SYSTEM Charge Controller Battery Bank Inverter & Fuse Box Load

    DreamCatcher Prototype DREAMdev \ 79 Denouement
  80. IMPLEMENTATION – THE 4 A’S DREAMdev \ 80 Photo diaries

    and visits suggest prolific DVD player ownership. Create small business opportunities by formatting internet content for DVD distribution. AWARENESS It takes 3 years to build trust with participants. Create and maintain an access network where designers and researchers can build trust with participants through an ongoing relationship. ACCESSIBILITY “Using local rural workshops to produce prototypes is an advantage....” (Polak 2008). This presents an opportunity for a part substitution database based on locally available technologies. AVAILABILITY Inhabitants living on $2/day cannot afford to take financial risks. Risk can be mitigated through iterative testing and reduced capital investment through rent-to-own revenue models. AFFORDABILITY Denouement
  81. EPILOGUE “I received this question recently...’Isn’t design a bit of

    luxury for a product destined for the developing world?’ This typical Western view misses the point completely: quality and values are universally understood! How dare we think that people living in conditions less ideal than ours do not understand, expect, or deserve the same high standards of design?” - Yves Behar DREAMdev \ 81 Denouement
  82. THANK YOU PHOTO CREDITS THESIS COMMITTEE bit.ly/DREAMdev Slides 2 &

    11 Photo of Victor Papanek (NC State) Slide 6 • Maria by More Altitude (flickr.com) • USAID (flickr.com) • UNHCR (flickr.com) • United Nations (flickr.com) • Women in the World (flickr.com) • Mother at School – Malawi by Maciej Dakowicz • Robert Douglas • Rencontre au Marrakech by Julie Kertesz Slide 7 OLPC by fuseproject (ArchDaily.org) Slide 10 • Sandinista Silhouette by Stacy • Inter-American Investment Corporation (http://www.iic.org) • Everest Parabolic Solar Cooker • Maslah Camp for Displaced (United Nations) Slide 12 • Muhammad Yunus (various sources) • Levitt and Richards. “Beyond Observation” Innovation. IDSA. Spring 2010. • SELF (http://katerva.org/ ) • IDE (MIT Innovations) Slide 13 • Ezio Manzini by jeanbaptisteparis • Victor Papanek (papanek.org) • Paul Polak by Ray Ng (Smithsonian Magazine) • CK Prahalad (World Economic Forum) • Liz Sanders (The Ohio State University) Slide 14 • IDEO HCD Toolkit (ideo.com) • frog Collective Action Toolkit (frodesign.com) • D4S Manual (d4s-de.org) Slide 16 Nicaragua Relief Map (Wikimedia Commons ) Slide 18 Map of Ometepe (OmetepeNicaragua.com) Slide 19 Old Man by Marc Vaxineta Slide 29 US National Renewable Energy Lab (nrel.gov) Slides 35 & 48 • Walls and Electrical Conduits (nicaragua365.com) • Furniture Artisan by Eddy G • Nicaragua Flag by Nathaniel Garnick Slides 46-47 Papanek’s Tin Can Radio Slide 79 frog’s Hartmut Esslinger - Advice For Designers (frogdesign.com) Victor Ermoli Dean of the School of Design, SCAD Robert Fee Design Management Coordinator, SCAD Lane Thames, Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, Georgia Tech