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HESS's general plans and views about co-monitoring, alerts etc.

HESS's general plans and views about co-monitoring, alerts etc.

Karl Kosack
LOFAR TKP Meeting, Amsterdam, June 2011

Ab44292d7d6f032baf342a98230a6654?s=128

transientskp

June 17, 2012
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  1. Multi-wavelength Connection: H.E.S.S. Karl Kosack CEA Saclay (IRFU/SAp), France LOFAR

    Transients KP Meeting, Amsterdam 2011 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  2. Overview Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  3. Overview Astronomy at High Energies The HESS Instrument The HESS

    Science Program Overlap with LOFAR Observation Policy The Future: CTA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  4. Very High Energy Gamma rays HESS: the High Energy Stereoscopic

    system VHE: ≈100 GeV - 100 TeV ‣ 1 TeV = 1.602 erg = h •2.4x1026 Hz Explore: ‣ non-thermal processes in the universe ‣ acceleration mechanisms ‣ origin of cosmic rays Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  5. VHE Spectra Spectra we measure in the VHE energy range

    have very few “features” ‣ No lines at these energies* ‣ Only get: ★ Flux, Spectral slope ★ Cutoff energy (sometimes) ★ Peak energy (rarely) Multi-wavelength data are crucial for understanding the sources! *unless we detect dark matter, e.g. annihilating Neutralinos Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  6. Multi-wavelength view Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  7. Multi-wavelength view G. Renee Guzlas Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  8. Multi-wavelength view E dN dEdAdt E2 • Radio X-ray GeV

    Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  9. Multi-wavelength view VHE Gamma E dN dEdAdt E2 • Radio

    X-ray GeV Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  10. Synchrotron Inverse- Compton Multi-wavelength view VHE Gamma E dN dEdAdt

    E2 • Radio X-ray GeV Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  11. Synchrotron Inverse- Compton Multi-wavelength view both leptonic [e± + IC

    —› gamma] and hadronic [p + target —› π0 —› gamma] production processes exhibit a 2-humped spectrum with different characteristics. VHE Gamma E dN dEdAdt E2 • Radio X-ray GeV Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  12. Synchrotron Inverse- Compton Multi-wavelength view both leptonic [e± + IC

    —› gamma] and hadronic [p + target —› π0 —› gamma] production processes exhibit a 2-humped spectrum with different characteristics. VHE Gamma E dN dEdAdt E2 • Radio X-ray GeV Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  13. Synchrotron Inverse- Compton Multi-wavelength view both leptonic [e± + IC

    —› gamma] and hadronic [p + target —› π0 —› gamma] production processes exhibit a 2-humped spectrum with different characteristics. VHE Gamma E dN dEdAdt E2 • Radio X-ray GeV Gamma Ray TeV Gamma Ray Fermi Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  14. VHE Science Highlights Minute-timescale view of Active Galactic Nuclei flares

    Resolved supernova remnant shells Galaxy is full of VHE pulsar-wind-nebulae Pulsed VHE emission in Pulsars Galactic Center Source: possible accreting SMBH Binary Systems: VHE modulation, Outbursts Diffuse gamma rays from interacting molecular clouds and star-forming regions Starburst Galaxies Dark Accelerators and other unidentified objects Extra-galactic background light constraints Cosmic Ray Electron and Iron spectra Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  15. Image courtesy of tevcat.uchicago.edu HESS Galactic Plane Survey Tuesday, June

    28, 2011
  16. Overview Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  17. Overview Astronomy at High Energies The HESS Instrument The HESS

    Science Program Overlap with LOFAR Observation Policy The Future: CTA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  18. HESS: The High Energy Stereoscopic System Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  19. HESS: The High Energy Stereoscopic System Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  20. HESS: The High Energy Stereoscopic System MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg Humboldt-Univ.

    Berlin Ruhr-Univ. Bochum Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg Univ. Hamburg Landessternwarte Heidelberg Univ. Tübingen Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau APC Paris Univ. Paris VI-VII Paris Observatory, Meudon LAPP Annecy LAOG Grenoble LPTA Montpellier CEA Saclay CESR Toulouse Durham Univ. Univ. Leeds Dublin Inst. for Adv. Studies Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow Universität Innsbruck Stockholm University, Sweden Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden Charles Univ., Prague Yerewan Physics Inst. Univ. Adelaide North-West Univ., Potchefstroom Univ. of Namibia, Windhoek GERMANY FRANCE ENGLAND IRELAND POLAND AUSTRIA SWEDEN CZECH REPUBLIC ARMENIA AUSTRALIA SOUTH AFRICA NAMIBIA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  21. ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Interaction in atmosphere generates

    an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  22. 2.1 Atm ospheric ˇ Cerenkov Telescopes net field and thus

    no radiation. H owever, when a charged ity greater than the speed of light in the m edium ( v > cm edium ), ted by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy the conditions tion at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted radiation nown as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle ( θc) can be derived classically from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θc = cos − 1 ￿ cm t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , (2.4) e speed of light in the m edium ( c/n), and n is the index of refraction of ysical interpretation of this diagram is that along the wave potential is such that the dipoles created by th e in phase at θc (Jelley, 1958). In ∼ 1 .0003 (at sea-level), t for ˇ Cerenkov r 2.1 A t field and thus no radiation. greater than the speed of light in the m d by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy on at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted own as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle (θ c ) can be derived c from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θ c = cos − 1 ￿ c m t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , the speed of light in the m edium (c/n ), an e physical interpretation of this ded potential is such diate in Cherenkov Radiation ~ 100 m ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Interaction in atmosphere generates an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  23. 2.1 Atm ospheric ˇ Cerenkov Telescopes net field and thus

    no radiation. H owever, when a charged ity greater than the speed of light in the m edium ( v > cm edium ), ted by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy the conditions tion at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted radiation nown as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle ( θc) can be derived classically from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θc = cos − 1 ￿ cm t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , (2.4) e speed of light in the m edium ( c/n), and n is the index of refraction of ysical interpretation of this diagram is that along the wave potential is such that the dipoles created by th e in phase at θc (Jelley, 1958). In ∼ 1 .0003 (at sea-level), t for ˇ Cerenkov r 2.1 A t field and thus no radiation. greater than the speed of light in the m d by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy on at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted own as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle (θ c ) can be derived c from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θ c = cos − 1 ￿ c m t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , the speed of light in the m edium (c/n ), an e physical interpretation of this ded potential is such diate in Cherenkov Radiation ~ 100 m ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Cherenkov Camera Interaction in atmosphere generates an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  24. 2.1 Atm ospheric ˇ Cerenkov Telescopes net field and thus

    no radiation. H owever, when a charged ity greater than the speed of light in the m edium ( v > cm edium ), ted by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy the conditions tion at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted radiation nown as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle ( θc) can be derived classically from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θc = cos − 1 ￿ cm t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , (2.4) e speed of light in the m edium ( c/n), and n is the index of refraction of ysical interpretation of this diagram is that along the wave potential is such that the dipoles created by th e in phase at θc (Jelley, 1958). In ∼ 1 .0003 (at sea-level), t for ˇ Cerenkov r 2.1 A t field and thus no radiation. greater than the speed of light in the m d by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy on at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted own as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle (θ c ) can be derived c from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θ c = cos − 1 ￿ c m t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , the speed of light in the m edium (c/n ), an e physical interpretation of this ded potential is such diate in Cherenkov Radiation ~ 100 m ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Cherenkov Camera Interaction in atmosphere generates an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  25. 2.1 Atm ospheric ˇ Cerenkov Telescopes net field and thus

    no radiation. H owever, when a charged ity greater than the speed of light in the m edium ( v > cm edium ), ted by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy the conditions tion at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted radiation nown as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle ( θc) can be derived classically from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θc = cos − 1 ￿ cm t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , (2.4) e speed of light in the m edium ( c/n), and n is the index of refraction of ysical interpretation of this diagram is that along the wave potential is such that the dipoles created by th e in phase at θc (Jelley, 1958). In ∼ 1 .0003 (at sea-level), t for ˇ Cerenkov r 2.1 A t field and thus no radiation. greater than the speed of light in the m d by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy on at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted own as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle (θ c ) can be derived c from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θ c = cos − 1 ￿ c m t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , the speed of light in the m edium (c/n ), an e physical interpretation of this ded potential is such diate in Cherenkov Radiation ~ 100 m ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Cherenkov Camera Interaction in atmosphere generates an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  26. 2.1 Atm ospheric ˇ Cerenkov Telescopes net field and thus

    no radiation. H owever, when a charged ity greater than the speed of light in the m edium ( v > cm edium ), ted by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy the conditions tion at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted radiation nown as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle ( θc) can be derived classically from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θc = cos − 1 ￿ cm t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , (2.4) e speed of light in the m edium ( c/n), and n is the index of refraction of ysical interpretation of this diagram is that along the wave potential is such that the dipoles created by th e in phase at θc (Jelley, 1958). In ∼ 1 .0003 (at sea-level), t for ˇ Cerenkov r 2.1 A t field and thus no radiation. greater than the speed of light in the m d by the oscillation interfere constructively and satisfy on at a specific angle from the particle’s trajectory. The em itted own as ˇ Cerenkov light 2 , and the ˇ Cerenkov angle (θ c ) can be derived c from the sim ple interference diagram shown in Figure 2.5, as: θ c = cos − 1 ￿ c m t vt ￿ = cos − 1 ￿ 1 βn ￿ , the speed of light in the m edium (c/n ), an e physical interpretation of this ded potential is such diate in Cherenkov Radiation ~ 100 m ≈10km Energy ∝ total signal (Calorimeter) Cherenkov Camera Interaction in atmosphere generates an Air Shower (e+ , e-) VHE Gamma-ray Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  27. Focal plane Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  28. Focal plane Background: 104-105 more cosmic rays than γ-rays ‣

    Stereo trigger: ≈1/4 ‣ Image analysis/shape: ≈1/250 ‣ Arrival direction: 1/100 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  29. Focal plane Background: 104-105 more cosmic rays than γ-rays ‣

    Stereo trigger: ≈1/4 ‣ Image analysis/shape: ≈1/250 ‣ Arrival direction: 1/100 After analysis: S/N≈1.0! Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  30. HESS Specs Emin = 150 GeV (SZA) to 1.2 TeV

    (LZA) (as low as 20 GeV for HESS II) Emax ≈ 100 TeV Eres ≈ 15-20% Sensitivity: ≈1% Crab flux in 25 hours (point source) FOV: < 5° PSF: ≈ 0.1° Duty Cycle: cloudless, moonless nights, 1000 hours per year Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  31. HESS Phase II 30m telescope at center of current array

    ‣ Large collection area = lower energy threshold ‣ Good overlap with Fermi (Energies down to a few GeV) ‣ Operate in stand-alone or hybrid mode (with other HESS telescopes) Data from the beginning of next year Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  32. HESS Phase II HESS II Standalone HESS Hybrid ~50 GeV

    15-25 GeV ~100 GeV HESS Phase I enhanced sensitivity guaranteed exploration possible exploration overlap with Fermi Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  33. Overview Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  34. Overview Astronomy at High Energies The HESS Instrument The HESS

    Science Program Overlap with LOFAR Observation Policy The Future: CTA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  35. Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  36. Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  37. Supernova Remnants A&A, 437, L7 (2005) Vela Jr First resolved

    extended TeV source! Correspondance with X-Ray morphology: implies gamma/X- ray production mechanism linked Aharonian et al., 2004, Nature, 432, 75 RX J1713 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  38. Supernova Remnants A&A, 437, L7 (2005) Vela Jr First resolved

    extended TeV source! Correspondance with X-Ray morphology: implies gamma/X- ray production mechanism linked Aharonian et al., 2004, Nature, 432, 75 RX J1713 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  39. Supernova Remnants A&A, 437, L7 (2005) Vela Jr First resolved

    extended TeV source! Correspondance with X-Ray morphology: implies gamma/X- ray production mechanism linked Aharonian et al., 2004, Nature, 432, 75 RX J1713 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  40. AGN Monitoring There are not very many (≈40 VHE blazars

    + few non-blazar AGNs) ‣ EBL absorption: only see Z < 0.3-0.5 We monitor several interesting AGN periodically to check for flares React on alerts from e.g. Fermi, VERITAS, Magic Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  41. AGN Flaring: PKS 2155 F(>200GeV) in 5 minute bins Aharonian

    et al ApJL 664, 2007 First major AGN flare for Southern hemisphere source ‣ 15x Crab Nebula flux! Variability on 200s timescales! (fastest ever in the field) ★ Spectra on same timescales! ‣ Very small emission region or very high Lorentz factor! Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  42. AGN Flaring: PKS 2155 F(>200GeV) in 5 minute bins Aharonian

    et al ApJL 664, 2007 First major AGN flare for Southern hemisphere source ‣ 15x Crab Nebula flux! Variability on 200s timescales! (fastest ever in the field) ★ Spectra on same timescales! ‣ Very small emission region or very high Lorentz factor! Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  43. HESS J1825 F. Aharonian et al.: Energy dependent γ-ra Tuesday,

    June 28, 2011
  44. HESS J1825 F. Aharonian et al.: Energy dependent γ-ra Tuesday,

    June 28, 2011
  45. HESS J1825 Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  46. HESS J1825 Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  47. LS 5039 Period: HESS: 3.908(2) d Optical: 3.9060 d Tuesday,

    June 28, 2011
  48. HESS J0632+057 Unidentified point-like VHE source near the Monoceros Loop

    SNR Likely a VHE binary (VERITAS followup) Followups in X-ray and radio confirm variability, observe flaring Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  49. HESS J0632+057 Unidentified point-like VHE source near the Monoceros Loop

    SNR Likely a VHE binary (VERITAS followup) Followups in X-ray and radio confirm variability, observe flaring Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  50. Sgr A* variability? Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  51. Sgr A* variability? Nope! Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  52. Some Unidentified Sources Aharonian et al 2008, A&A [K. Kosack]

    Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  53. Some Unidentified Sources Aharonian et al 2008, A&A [K. Kosack]

    Recently: A new SNR! [Tian et al. 2008] [HESS Collaboration 2011] Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  54. Some Unidentified Sources Aharonian et al 2008, A&A [K. Kosack]

    Recently: A new SNR! [Tian et al. 2008] [HESS Collaboration 2011] New energetic PSR! [Hessels et al, 2008] Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  55. Variable/Transient Sources Detected by VHE telescopes: ‣ Flaring microquasars (e.g.

    Cygnus X-1, unconfirmed) ‣ X-ray binary systems (e.g. LS 5039, PSR B1259, HESS J0632+057, LSI+61 303) ‣ AGN outbursts (e.g. Mrk 421, PKS 2155) ‣ Pulsed emission (Crab Pulsar) Not (yet) detected: ‣ Gamma-ray bursts ‣ Supernovae ‣ gamma repeaters ‣ magnetars Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  56. Why Not? We don’t know where/when to look: ‣ Small

    FOV (<5°) ‣ Not particularly fast slewing time (few minutes required) ‣ There is no wide-field VHE instrument (Fermi helps though) We often need long exposures! ‣ Not many photons to detect at high energies (steep power law spectrum) ‣ Heavily background-dominated at lower energies (need long integration) ‣ fairly large PSF (≈0.1°) ‣ absorption by extragalactic background light for extra-galactic objects Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  57. Overview Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  58. Overview Astronomy at High Energies The HESS Instrument The HESS

    Science Program Overlap with LOFAR Observation Policy The Future: CTA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  59. Overlap with LOFAR Regions shown are for small zenith angle

    observations (lowest energy threshold, E>100GeV) At larger ZA, the overlap is larger, but with E>1TeV (dec ≈ -23 ± 50°) HESS (low zenith angle) VERITAS/MAGIC (low zenith angle) Image courtesy of tevcat.uchicago.edu Image courtesy of tevcat.uchicago.edu Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  60. HESS Observations ≈1000 hours of observation time per year ‣

    Moonless nights + good weather required HESS Observation Committee ‣ Leaders of each science working group + multi-wavelength coordinators + Postdoc representative ‣ Plan the long-term schedule, meet multiple times throughout year ‣ Continuously monitor data taking and update schedule as needed (hard work is done by an autoscheduler program) Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  61. Working Groups Binaries AGN Survey SNRs/ Pulsars/ PWNe Multi- wave-

    length Extended Extra- galactic Astro- particle Proposals Observation Committee OC Secretary AutoScheduler Shift Crew External Triggers Burst Contact Person OC Secretary: Karl Kosack <karl.kosack@cea.fr> Radio MWL coordinator: Marek Jamrozy <jamrozy@oa.uj.edu.pl>, OC Secretary Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  62. Observation Policy no public access to unpublished data no external

    analysis tools Most proposals internal to collaboration, but some time is reserved for external proposals ‣ see http://www.hess-experient.eu and click the “External proposals” link ‣ Data must be analyzed with a HESS collaboration member ‣ Author list on publication will contain full HESS collaboration + external proposers ‣ Data rights for 1 year Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  63. Observation Policy no public access to unpublished data no external

    analysis tools Most proposals internal to collaboration, but some time is reserved for external proposals ‣ see http://www.hess-experient.eu and click the “External proposals” link ‣ Data must be analyzed with a HESS collaboration member ‣ Author list on publication will contain full HESS collaboration + external proposers ‣ Data rights for 1 year Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  64. Observation Policy no public access to unpublished data no external

    analysis tools Most proposals internal to collaboration, but some time is reserved for external proposals ‣ see http://www.hess-experient.eu and click the “External proposals” link ‣ Data must be analyzed with a HESS collaboration member ‣ Author list on publication will contain full HESS collaboration + external proposers ‣ Data rights for 1 year Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  65. Reacting to TOOs TOOs handled on case-by- case basis by

    the Observation Committee ‣ some are easy: proposal contains strict trigger criteria ‣ Others may come up unexpectedly: (no formal proposal, but something interesting happening) ‣ Usually we can react within 1 day and schedule observations Special case: GRBs ‣ Telescope integrated with GCN, shift crew immediately alerted to bursts matching specific criteria ‣ Telescopes slew as quickly as possible Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  66. Overview Tuesday, June 28, 2011

  67. Overview Astronomy at High Energies The HESS Instrument The HESS

    Science Program Overlap with LOFAR Observation Policy The Future: CTA Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  68. The Future: Combination of H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS collaborations +

    others Large array of Cherenkov telescopes ‣ 3 telescope sizes, optimized for different energy ranges 2 Sites: CTA-north and CTA- South ‣ optimized for extra-galactic and galactic science, respectively Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  69. 38 Core array: mCrab sensitivity in the 100 GeV–10 TeV

    domain Low-energy section energy threshold of some 10 GeV High-energy section 10 km2 area at multi-TeV energies put in Werner’s latest image from the last CTA meeting... Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  70. The “quite expensive” line Crab 10% Crab 1% Crab GLAST

    MAGIC H.E.S.S. High-Z AGN, Pulsars Exploring the cutoff regime of cosmic accelerators Population studies, extended sources, Precision measurement E.F(>E) [TeV/cm2s] x 10 Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  71. Reaching the Goal Large Array Size ‣ >> size of

    light typical pool (200m) ‣ cost increases with number of telescopes ‣ can’t be too far apart or no stereo! Denser Telescope Spacing: ‣ Higher angular resolution ‣ More telescopes = more money Bigger telescopes: ‣ lower energy threshold ‣ Expensive to build! Wider FOVs ‣ Cameras become more expensive, or optics more complex Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  72. Reaching the Goal Large Array Size ‣ >> size of

    light typical pool (200m) ‣ cost increases with number of telescopes ‣ can’t be too far apart or no stereo! Denser Telescope Spacing: ‣ Higher angular resolution ‣ More telescopes = more money Bigger telescopes: ‣ lower energy threshold ‣ Expensive to build! Wider FOVs ‣ Cameras become more expensive, or optics more complex Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  73. Reaching the Goal The hard part: Balancing cost and complexity

    with performance! Large Array Size ‣ >> size of light typical pool (200m) ‣ cost increases with number of telescopes ‣ can’t be too far apart or no stereo! Denser Telescope Spacing: ‣ Higher angular resolution ‣ More telescopes = more money Bigger telescopes: ‣ lower energy threshold ‣ Expensive to build! Wider FOVs ‣ Cameras become more expensive, or optics more complex Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  74. Observatories not Experiments Current generation of telescopes use proprietary: ‣

    Analysis frameworks (mostly based on particle physics) ‣ Data formats (e.g. custom ROOT-based object-oriented databases) ‣ data and observations! (no true external propsals) The future will be open to the public! ‣ Astronomy standards followed and extended to support VHE needs ‣ Open observing programs ‣ Full data access Tuesday, June 28, 2011
  75. The Galactic Center Galactic Center Source: Whipple: 4σ (26 h)

    H.E.S.S.: 38σ (50h) G0.9+0.1 SNR Tuesday, June 28, 2011