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वेणु गोपाल

November 30, 2005

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  1. "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom".

  2. NANOTECHNOLOGY Background Image : A Molecular Mill

  3. THE NANO APPROACH Ball Bearings Gears A pump A Joint

    Consumer goods that we buy are made by traditional manufacturing methods. Chunks of material are taken and the final product part is achieved by grinding, molding, etc. That is piles of atoms are in a bulky, imprecise manner. This is called a TOP DOWN fashion. But NanoManufacturing has a BOTTOM UP approach. Individual atoms are grabbed and brought together to form product parts in which every atom is in a precise, desired location. We can create products that take us to the fundamental limits of manufacturing !
  4. Images : NanoFactory & Assembly Plant NANOMANUFACTURING Nanofactories called assemblers

    and replicators can automatically make products. Consume modest amounts of power. Contain the programmable software required to guide the building process. Capable of creating a wide range of molecular structures, including a complete copy of itself. This will vastly decrease manufacturing costs. And replace all traditional labor methods. Making consumer goods plentiful, cheaper and stronger.
  5. NANOMATERIALS & COMPOSITES Carbon composites made using nanotechnology are stronger

    and more flexible than any other materials such as synthetic fibers. Stress & strain 10% much higher than any material. Thermal conductivity of 3000 W / mK. Electrical conductivity is 106 times more than copper. Can be metallic or semi conducting. Resistance can be reduced to the least possible value.
  6. Ability to shrink the size of transistors & microprocessors will

    soon reach limits. Processors with minimal capacitance ensure minimal power use. Minimum resistance etc will ensure fastest data transmission. Storing trillions of bytes in a structure the size of a sugar cube possible. Higher frequencies will provide at least 10 times the bandwidth now available. Displays with pixels smaller than those visible to naked eye will give highest gradation possible. NANO ELECTRONICS & COMPUTING Data storage at the atomic level Nano Transistors
  7. Drugs made by bottom up will have the highest level

    of effectiveness possible. Nanodevices can deliverer drugs to exactly where it is required and not to the entire body. Nanosubmarines can travel through the circulatory system monitoring the body. Nanomachines detect cancer cells, dissolve tumors & rebuild new cells in minutes. Better and accurate imaging, negating the need for exploratory surgery possible. NANO MEDICINE
  8. Nanorobots could be programmed to perform delicate surgeries at a

    level a thousand times more precise than the sharpest scalpel. Nanorobots can perform cosmetic surgery and can change our physical appearance. Operations without leaving the scars possible. Nanorobots could slow or reverse the aging process by destroying dead cells and rebuilding new flesh. NANO MEDICINE
  9. Respirocytes Artificial Red Blood Cells Spherical 1-micron vessels. Powered by

    glucose in blood. Able to deliver 236 times more oxygen than natural red blood cells. Have an onboard nanocomputer thereby remotely reprogrammable. Numerous chemical and pressure sensors enable complex behaviors . Destroy microbiological pathogens found in the human bloodstream. Measures 3.4 microns in diameter. Consumes 200 pW of power. 1000 times faster-acting than natural WBC‟s. 80 times more efficient in terms of volume/sec digested per unit volume of pathogenic agent. Digest 2 micron3 of organic material in 30seconds. Microbivores Artificial White Blood cells
  10. BENEFITS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Bottom-up method creates less pollution than conventional

    processes. Sprawling industrial plants would become obsolete, freeing up land, and cutting pollution. Disassemblers can break down waste products to basic elements. The broken down matter could be reused again by assemblers as raw material. Digging landfills for raw material would be unnecessary. „indestructible‟ solar cells that could be painted on roads and rooftops, easily exceeding the worlds power requirements. ending the energy crisis. Airborne nanorobots could rebuild the thinning ozone layer. Contaminants could be removed from water sources & oil spills could be cleaned up instantly. Cutting down trees, mining coal or drilling for oil may no longer be necessary.
  11. CRITICS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanoparticles can easily cross the skin, lungs,

    etc. Inside the body, there may trigger reactions like the creation of free radicals that damage cells. Toxicity of new nanosubstances could affect the stability of cell walls or disturb the immune system. Nanoparticles in drinking water could be dangerous to humans and other animals. Nanomachines would quickly fail when exposed to harsh climates. Can lead to the development of biological and chemical warfare.
  12. A CONCLUDING SUMMARY Nanotechnology promises advances in manufacturing, medicine, electronics

    and computing. “smart materials” with the assembly or repair instructions could assemble or repair themselves. Nanotechnology will take us to the fundamental limits of manufacturing. BarbrerBots can cut and trim hair. NanoRobots assisting brain cells.
  13. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Works Cited Encyclopædia Britannica. Scientific American Online. (www.sciam.com) National

    Nanoscale Science Foundation Website. (www.nano.gov) Google Image Search. Other Internet Sources. Presentation By : KAKARLA VENU GOPAL 2005U7PS124 Thank You ! Dr. Shazi Shah Jabeen Dr. Mubeena Rahman and all my friends.