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自然のごとく複雑化したウェブシステムの運用自律化に向けて / Experimentable Infrastructure

自然のごとく複雑化したウェブシステムの運用自律化に向けて / Experimentable Infrastructure

2017/11/24 人工知能学会 合同研究会 第3回ウェブサイエンス研究会: 自然現象としてのウェブ 招待講演

Yuuki Tsubouchi (yuuk1)

November 24, 2017
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  1. ࣗવͷ͝ͱ͘ෳࡶԽͨ͠
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷӡ༻ࣗ཯Խ
    ʹ޲͚ͯ
    גࣜձࣾ͸ͯͳ ௶಺ ༎थ
    id:y_uuki / @y_uuk1
    2017/11/24 ਓ޻஌ೳֶձ ߹ಉݚڀձ ୈ̏ճ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯεݚڀձ: ࣗવݱ৅ͱͯ͠ͷ΢Σϒ ট଴ߨԋ

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  2. id:y_uuki / @y_uuk1
    ௶಺ ༎थ
    https://yuuk.io/
    2012೥ େࡕେֶ جૅ޻ֶ෦৘ใՊֶݚڀՊ ଔۀ
    2013೥ େࡕେֶ ৘ใՊֶݚڀՊത࢜લظ՝ఔ ୀֶ
    ಉ೥ גࣜձࣾ͸ͯͳ ৽ଔೖࣾ
    2017೥ݱࡏ γχΞΤϯδχΞɺςοΫϦʔυ

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  3. ৘ใॲཧֶձ Πϯλʔωοτͱӡ༻ٕज़ͷݚڀձ

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  4. http://blog.yuuk.io/entry/ipsjone2017

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  5. ෳࡶͳ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͸
    ͳʹ͔ҟৗ͕ى͖ͯ΋
    ࣗવͷؾ·͙ΕʹΈ͑Δ

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  6. ݱࡏͷ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͸ࣗಈԽ͞Εͭͭ͋
    ΔҰํͰඇৗʹෳࡶͰ͋Δ
    ͦͷৼΔ෣͍͸·ΔͰࣗવݱ৅ͷΑ͏ʹ
    ײ͡ΒΕΔ
    ݱ৅ͷϝΧχζϜͷ೺Ѳ͸೉͍͠

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  7. ෆ໌Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱ͸ʮා͞ʯʹͭͳ͕Δ
    ۙ୅ՊֶͷΞϓϩʔνͰ͋Δ
    ʮ؍ଌͱ࣮ݧʯΛಥ͖٧Ί
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷӡ༻͔Β
    ਓؒΛղ์͍ͨ͠

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  8. ࣗવͷ͝ͱ͘ෳࡶԽͨ͠
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷӡ༻ࣗ཯Խ
    ʹ޲͚ͯ

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  9. ຊߨԋͰͷʮ໰͍ʯ
    • ٕज़֊૚ͱͯ͠ͷ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷࣗ཯ੑ͸ͲͷΑ͏ʹ
    ࣮ݱ͞Ε͍ͯΔͷ͔ɺ͜Ε͔ΒԿΛ໨ࢦ͢ͷ͔
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͕ɺ͍ΘΏΔෳࡶܥՊֶͷจ຺ʹ͓͚Δ
    ੜ໋΍ΧΦεͳͲͷੑ࣭Λຬͨ͢ͷ͔
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷࣗ཯Խͷઌʹͳʹ͕͋Δͷ͔

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  10. ΞδΣϯμ
    1. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ৴པੑΛकΔ࢓ࣄ
    2. ΢ΣϒγεςϜӡ༻ͷݱঢ়ͱ՝୊
    3. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷࣗ཯ӡ༻΁ͷΞϓϩʔν
    4. ӡ༻͔Βղ์͞Εͨͦͷઌʹ͋Δ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯε
    5. ·ͱΊ

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  11. 1. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ৴པੑΛ
    कΔ࢓ࣄ

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  12. ຊߨԋͰͷʮ΢ΣϒγεςϜʯ
    • ΢ΣϒαʔϏεΛߏ੒͢Δٕज़ཁૉͱཁૉͷͭͳ͕Γ
    • ٕज़ཁૉͱ͸ʮϒϥ΢βʯʮΠϯλʔωοτόοΫϘʔϯʯ
    ʮ΢Σϒαʔόʯʮσʔλϕʔεʯʮσʔληϯλʔ಺ωο
    τϫʔΫʯͳͲ
    • ಛʹσʔληϯλʔ಺ͷαʔόɾωοτϫʔΫ͓Αͼͦͷ
    ্Ͱಈ࡞͢Δ΢ΣϒΞϓϦέʔγϣϯΛࢦ͢
    • ૯ମͱͯ͠ͷ΢ΣϒͰ͸ͳ͘ɺ୯Ұ૊৫͕ఏڙ͢ΔγεςϜ

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  13. σʔληϯλʔ
    Πϯλʔ
    ωοτ
    1$
    ਓʑ
    *P5ػث
    εϚʔτ
    ϑΥϯ
    αʔό αʔό αʔό
    σʔληϯλʔ
    αʔό αʔό αʔό

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  14. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ։ൃͱӡ༻
    • ࣄۀͷ։ൃͱӡ༻ΛʮSoftware Engineerʯ͕୲͏
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ৴པੑΛ୲อ͢ΔͨΊͷ։ൃͱӡ༻Λ
    ʮSite Reliability Engineer(SRE)ʯ͕୲͏
    • Ұੲલͷදݱ͸ʮ΢ΣϒΦϖϨʔγϣϯΤϯδχΞʯ
    • ͞Βʹͦͷੲ͸ɺʮγεςϜ؅ཧऀʯʮαʔό؅ཧऀʯ
    • ࡉ͔ͳࠩҟ͸͋ΕͲɺେ·͔ͳ2෼ߏ଄͸΢ΣϒۀքͰ͸
    ීวత

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  15. αʔϏε։ൃɾӡ༻
    4PGUXBSF
    &OHJOFFST
    γεςϜ։ൃɾӡ༻
    4JUF3FMJBCJMJUZ
    &OHJOFFST

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  16. Site
    Reliability
    Engineering
    HOW GOOGLE RUNS
    PRODUCTION
    SYSTEMS
    Photo by O’reilly Media / CC by 3.0
    http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920041528.do https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed

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  17. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ৴པੑͱ͸
    • γεςϜ͕ఏڙ͢Δ΋ͷͷ͏ͪɺ࠷΋جຊతͳػೳ
    • γεςϜ͕ٻΊΒΕΔػೳΛɺఆΊΒΕͨ৚݅ͷԼͰɺఆΊ
    ΒΕͨظؒʹΘͨΓɺো֐Λى͜͢͜ͱͳ࣮͘ߦ͢Δ֬཰
    • ʮఆΊΒΕͨ৚݅ʯʹ͸ɺʮԠ౴͕࣌ؒ˓msҎԼʯͳͲΛؚΉ
    • ͨͩ͠ɺ100%ͷ৴པੑΛ໨ࢦͯ͠͸͍͚ͳ͍
    • Ϣʔβͷϥοϓτοϓɺࣗ୐ͷWifiɺISPͳͲ؅ཧ֎ͷγεςϜ͕͋Δ
    • ৴པੑ͸ࣄۀεϐʔυͱͷτϨʔυΦϑʹͳΓ΍͍͢
    [1]
    [1]: P. O'Connor and A. Kleyner, Practical Reliability Engineering, 5th edition: Wiley, 2012.

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  18. ৴པੑΛकΔ࢓ࣄ
    • αʔϏεͷՄ༻ੑɺϨΠςϯγɺύϑΥʔϚϯεɺޮ཰
    ੑɺมߋ؅ཧɺϞχλϦϯάɺΩϟύγςΟϓϥϯχϯ
    άʹ੹೚Λ΋ͭ
    • ඞཁͳεΩϧ͸ଟذʹΘͨΔ
    • ίϯϐϡʔλΞʔΩςΫνϟɺωοτϫʔΫɺOSɺ෼ࢄγες
    Ϝɺσʔλϕʔεٕज़ɺ΢Σϒαʔόͷઐ໳஌ࣝ
    • ιϑτ΢ΣΞΤϯδχΞϦϯά
    [1]
    [1]: Betsy Beyer, et al.ฤ ᖒా෢உ, et al.؂༁ Skyגࣜձࣾ ۄ઒ཽ࢘༁,ʮSRE αΠτϦϥΠΞϏϦςΟΤϯδχΞϦϯά ――Googleͷ
    ৴པੑΛࢧ͑ΔΤϯδχΞϦϯάνʔϜʯ,ΦϥΠϦʔɾδϟύϯ,2017/08

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  19. ৴པੑΛकΓͭͭɺඅ༻Λ࠷খʹ͢Δ
    • ৴པੑΛकΔ͚ͩͰͳ͘ɺਓ݅අ΍σʔληϯλʔඅ༻Λখ
    ͘͢͞Δ͜ͱ΋ٻΊΒΕΔ
    • ਓ݅අ͸ιϑτ΢ΣΞʹΑΔӡ༻ޮ཰ԽʹΑΓ࡟ݮ
    • σʔληϯλʔඅ༻͸ιϑτ΢ΣΞͷ࣮ߦޮ཰ͷ޲্ʹΑΓ࡟ݮ
    • ৴པੑΛ੍໿৚݅ͱͯ͠ɺඅ༻Λ࠷খʹ͢Δ࠷దԽ໰୊Λղ
    ͍͍ͯΔͱ͍͑Δ
    • ಛʹఆܕ࡞ۀ(τΠϧ)ΛࣗಈԽ͠ɺਓؒͰ͸ͳ͘ίϯϐϡʔλ
    Λεέʔϧͤ͞ΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ͕େ͖ͳ࢓ࣄ

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  20. ਓؒͱίϯϐϡʔλʹΑΔࣗ཯γεςϜ
    • Ұൠͷਓʑ͔ΒΈΕ͹ɺ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͸े෼ʹࣗ཯ಈ
    ࡞͍ͯ͠Δ
    • ͨͩ͠ɺͦͷཪͰ͸ਓؒͷख࡞ۀ΍൑அʹΑΓ৴པੑΛ
    ୲อ͍ͯ͠Δ
    • ਓ͕ؒͳʹ΋͠ͳ͚Ε͹ɺ͓Αͦ1िؒఔ౓Ͱ৴པੑ͸
    ଛͳΘΕΔ͜ͱ΋͋Δ
    • ि຤΍௕ظٳՋத͸Φϯίʔϧ౰൪Λෑ͘

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  21. ΢ΣϒγεςϜ
    ਓؒ
    1$
    ਓʑ
    *P5ػث
    εϚʔτ
    ϑΥϯ
    ίϯϐϡʔλ

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  22. ΢ΣϒγεςϜ
    ਓؒ
    1$
    ਓʑ
    *P5ػث
    εϚʔτ
    ϑΥϯ
    ίϯϐϡʔλ

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  23. ίϯϐϡʔλͷΈͰγεςϜΛ
    ӡ༻Ͱ͖Δঢ়ଶʹ͢Δ͜ͱ͕໨ඪ

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  24. 2. ΢ΣϒγεςϜӡ༻ͷݱঢ়ͱ
    ՝୊

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  25. (೔ຊͷ)
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜӡ༻ٕज़
    ͷมભ

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  26. ࣗ࡞αʔό࣌୅ ~2010೥
    • ळ༿ݪͰύʔπΛߪೖ͠ɺαʔόΛਓ͕૊Έཱ͍ͯͯͨ
    • ૊ΈཱͯͨαʔόΛϥοΫʹख࡞ۀͰ഑ஔ͍ͯͨ͠
    • ࣗ࡞ͰյΕ΍͍ͨ͢Ίɺ৑௕Խػߏ΍εέʔϧΞ΢τػ
    ߏͳͲ৴པੑΛߴΊΔجૅػೳͷਁಁ
    • ͷͪʹϕϯμʔ੡αʔό΍Ϋϥ΢υ΁Ҡߦ͕ਐΉ
    • Xen΍KVMͳͲͷαʔόԾ૝Խٕज़ʹΑΓɺঃʑʹαʔ
    όΛϞϊ͔Βσʔλͱͯ͠ѻ͏ྲྀΕ͕Ͱ͖͸͡ΊΔ

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  27. Ϋϥ΢υ࣌୅ 2011೥ʙ
    • 2011೥AWS౦ژϦʔδϣϯ։ઃ͠ɺ༗໊΢Σϒاۀ͕Ҡߦ
    ͠͸͡ΊΔ
    • ඞཁͳͱ͖ʹ͙͢ʹϋʔυ΢ΣΞϦιʔε͕खʹೖΔ࣌୅
    • ैདྷ͸೔୯ҐͷϦʔυλΠϜ͕෼୯Ґʹ
    • αʔόΛϓϩάϥϚϒϧʹ࡞੒͢Δ֓೦͕ొ৔
    • ෛՙʹԠͯࣗ͡ಈͰαʔόΛ૿΍͢ͳͲͷಈతͳΠϯϑϥ
    ετϥΫνϟΛߏஙͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳ͖ͬͯͨ
    https://aws.amazon.com/jp/aws_history/details/

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  28. ίϯςφܕԾ૝Խٕज़ͷ୆಄ 2013೥ʙ
    • Dockerͷొ৔ʹΑΓιϑτ΢ΣΞͷಈ࡞؀ڥΛؙ͝ͱ
    ύοέʔδԽ͠ɺ͞·͟·ͳ؀ڥʹ഑෍Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ
    • VMͱҟͳΓɺඵ୯ҐͰىಈ͢ΔͨΊɺΑΓಈతͳΠϯ
    ϑϥετϥΫνϟͷߏங͕Մೳʹͳͬͨ
    • Immutable Infrastructure(࢖͍ࣺͯαʔό)ͷ֓೦ొ৔

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  29. Site Reliability Engineering(SRE)ͷొ৔
    • ʮ৴པੑʯΛ୲อ͢ΔΤϯδχΞϦϯάͱ͍͏ɺԿΛ͢Δ
    ٕज़΍ΤϯδχΞͳͷ͔͕͸͖ͬΓఆٛ͞Εͨ
    • ͦΕ·Ͱ͸ɺʮΠϯϑϥʯʮԼճΓʯͳͲͱ͍͏ݺ͹Εํ
    • ΢ΣϒΦϖϨʔγϣϯͱ͍͏୯ޠ΋͕͋ͬͨɺΦϖϨʔγϣ
    ϯ=ӡ༻ͷΠϝʔδ͕ڧ͍
    • SRE͸ιϑτ΢ΣΞ։ൃΛॏࢹ͍ͯ͠Δ
    “ΠϯϑϥνʔϜվΊ Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) νʔϜʹͳΓ·ͨ͠”
    http://tech.mercari.com/entry/2015/11/18/153421

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  30. มભ·ͱΊ
    • ੲ͸ϋʔυ΢ΣΞΛௐୡ͠ɺख࡞ۀͰϥοΩϯά͍ͯͨ͠
    • αʔόͷԾ૝Խٕज़ͷൃୡͱΞϓϦέʔγϣϯಈ࡞؀ڥύο
    έʔδϯάͷ֓೦ʹΑΓɺμΠφϛοΫͳΠϯϑϥετϥ
    Ϋνϟ͕ߏஙՄೳʹ
    • ιϑτ΢ΣΞΤϯδχΞϦϯάΛॏࢹͨ͠૊৫จԽͷਁಁ
    • ͜ͷ10೥Ͱιϑτ΢ΣΞʹΑΔӡ༻ࣗಈԽ͕େ෯ʹਐΜ
    Ͱ͖ͨ

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  31. ຊ౰͸ා͍
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜ

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  32. ຊ౰͸ා͍΢ΣϒγεςϜ
    • ҟৗ͕ൃੜͯ͠΋ݪҼ͕Θ͔Βͳ͍͜ͱ͕͋Δ
    • γεςϜʹର͢Δૢ࡞͕҆શ͔Ͳ͏͔อূ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍
    • ࣗಈԽ͕ਐΜͰ͍Δ͔Βͦ͜ɺෆ໌Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ҟৗʹ
    ର͢ΔʮڪාʯΛ͏Ή
    • γεςϜͷৼΔ෣͍͕·ΔͰʮࣗવݱ৅ʯʹײ͡ΒΕΔ
    • ৼΔ෣͍ͷղ໌ʹଟ͘ͷ࣌ؒΛͱΒΕͨΓɺΘ͟ͱࣗಈ
    ԽΛආ͚ͯɺਓؒͷ൑அΛ͸͞΋͏ͱ͢Δ͜ͱ͕͋Δ

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  33. ຊ౰͸ා͍΢ΣϒγεςϜӡ༻: ྫ1
    • ϋʔυ΢ΣΞͷΩϟύγςΟʹ͸·ͩ༨༟͕͋Δʹ΋͔͔ΘΒͣɺ
    1୆͋ͨΓͷॲཧೳྗ͕಄ଧͪʹͳΔέʔε
    • ୆਺Λࣗಈ૿Ճͤ͞Δ΋ͷɺಛఆϊʔυ΁ͷ઀ଓ਺ͷڐ༰ྔΛ௒
    ͑ͯ͠·͏
    • ϚϧνεϨουϞσϧͷWebαʔόͰɺڞ༗ϝϞϦ্Ͱάϩʔό
    ϧϩοΫΛͱ͍ͬͯΔՕॴ͕͋Γɺಉ࣌ॲཧ਺͕΄΅1
    • ScalaͷॲཧܥϨϕϧͷ໰୊Ͱಛఆʹ͕͔͔࣌ؒͬͨ

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  34. ΢Σϒ
    αʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    ϩʔυ
    όϥϯα
    Ϩεϙϯε
    σʔλϕʔε
    αʔό

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  35. ΢Σϒ
    αʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    ϩʔυ
    όϥϯα
    Ϩεϙϯε
    σʔλϕʔε
    αʔό
    $16͸༨͍ͬͯΔ
    ͷʹੑೳ͕಄ଧͪ

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  36. ΢Σϒ
    αʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    ϩʔυ
    όϥϯα
    Ϩεϙϯε
    σʔλϕʔε
    αʔό
    ࣗಈεέʔϧ

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  37. ΢Σϒ
    αʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    ϩʔυ
    όϥϯα
    Ϩεϙϯε
    σʔλϕʔε
    αʔό
    ઀ଓ਺
    ্ݶʹ͋ͨΔ

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  38. αʔό͋ͨΓͷ
    ઀ଓ਺ΛݮΒͯ͠ௐઅ
    ΢Σϒ
    αʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    ϩʔυ
    όϥϯα
    Ϩεϙϯε
    σʔλϕʔε
    αʔό

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  39. ੑೳݶք͕Θ͔Βͳ͍
    ܥશମͷڍಈΛ஌Γ
    ੍ޚ͠ͳ͚Ε͹͍͚ͳ͍

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  40. • ෼ࢄσʔλϕʔεͷωοτϫʔΫ෼அ໰୊
    • ϚελʔɾεϨʔϒͷ2୆ߏ੒ͷσʔλϕʔεαʔό
    • Ϛελʔ=>εϨʔϒ΁ϦΞϧλΠϜʹσʔλΛෳ੡
    • Ϛελʔϊʔυ͕μ΢ϯ͢ΔͱϑΥϩϫʔϊʔυ͕Ϛε
    λʔ΁ঢ֨
    • ωοτϫʔΫ͕෼அ͞ΕΔͱɺ྆ํͱ΋Ϛελʔ΁
    • ͲͪΒ͔Ұํ΁σʔλ͕ॻ͖ࠐ·ΕɺҰ؏ੑ͕ͳ͘ͳΔ
    ຊ౰͸ා͍΢ΣϒγεςϜӡ༻: ྫ2

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  41. ΢Σϒαʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    Ϩεϙϯε
    Ϛελʔ
    εϨʔϒ

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  42. ΢Σϒαʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    Ϩεϙϯε
    Ϛελʔ
    εϨʔϒ
    ෼அ

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  43. ΢Σϒαʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    Ϩεϙϯε
    Ϛελʔ
    ྆ํ
    Ϛ
    ε
    λ
    ʔ
    Ϛελʔ

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  44. ΢Σϒαʔό
    ϦΫΤετ
    Ϩεϙϯε
    Ϛελʔ
    ֬཰తʹͲͪΒ͔
    ʹॻ͖ࠐΉ
    Ϛελʔ

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  45. ࣗಈԽʹΑΔฐ֐
    • අ༻Λগͳ͘͢Δ͜ͱͰɺࣗಈԽ΍৑௕ԽػߏΛඋ͑Δ͜ͱ
    Ͱ৴པੑ͕Լ͕Δ͜ͱ͕͋Δ
    • ࣗಈεέʔϧ͢Δͱผͷ෦෼͕٧·Δ
    • ৑௕ԽػߏʹΑΓɺҰ؏ੑ͕ࣦΘΕΔ͜ͱ͕͋Δ
    • ܥશମͷਫ਼៛ͳཧղͱΤϥʔέʔεͷ໖ີͳચ͍ग़͕͠ඞཁ
    • ࠷ۙ͸ίϯϙʔωϯτ਺Λ૿΍͢ํ޲΁ٕज़͕ਐΜͰ͍Δͨ
    Ίɺύλʔϯ਺͕૿େ͠ਓ͕ཧղ͢Δ͜ͱ͕೉͘͠ͳ͍ͬͯΔ

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  46. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷෳࡶੑ

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  47. ෳࡶཁҼ͸ͳʹ͔
    • ιϑτ΢ΣΞґଘؔ܎ͷෳࡶ͞
    • ෼ࢄγεςϜͱͯ͠ͷෳࡶ͞
    • ೖྗύλʔϯͷෳࡶ͞

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  48. ιϑτ΢ΣΞґଘؔ܎ͷෳࡶ͞
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͸ଟ਺ͷιϑτ΢ΣΞͷॏͶ߹ΘͤʹΑ
    Γߏ੒͞ΕΔ
    • ݴޠॲཧܥɺOSɺυϥΠόɺڞ༗ϥΠϒϥϦɺϛυϧ΢ΣΞɺ
    ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯϥΠϒϥϦɺΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ
    • ιϑτ΢ΣΞͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ໰୊
    • όʔδϣϯޓ׵ɺϓϩτίϧޓ׵ͳͲΛؚΉ

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  49. ෼ࢄγεςϜͷෳࡶ͞
    • ҎԼͷ෼ࢄγεςϜͷલఏ͕͋Γɺ෺ཧ๏ଇʹ཯ͤΒΕΔ
    • ϊʔυ(ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ)͸յΕ͏Δ
    • ωοτϫʔΫ͸੾அɾ஗Ԇ͕͋ΓɺଳҬ͸༗ݶͰ͋Δ
    • ͜ΕΒͷΤϥʔ͔Βͷճ෮ػߏ͸ෳࡶʹͳΓ͕ͪ
    • TCPͷϑϩʔ੍ޚ΍࠶ૹ੍ޚͳͲ͕Α͍ྫ
    • σʔλϕʔεʹ͓͍ͯɺωοτϫʔΫ෼அ͞Εͯ΋Մ༻ੑͱҰ
    ؏ੑΛҡ࣋͢Δ͜ͱ͸೉͍͠ (CAPఆཧ)

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  50. ೖྗύλʔϯͷෳࡶ͞
    • ਓؒɺݕࡧΫϩʔϥɺεύϚʔͳͲͷ׆ಈʹԠͯ͡γεςϜ΁ͷ
    ೖྗύλʔϯ͸ಥൃతʹมԽ͢Δ
    • ੍ޚ޻ֶͰ͍͏ͱ͜Ζͷ֎ཚ
    • γεςϜͷڍಈΛ༧ଌ͢Δʹ͸࠶ݱੑ͕ඞཁ
    • ͔͠͠ɺ΢ΣϒγεςϜʹର͢Δ͋ΔظؒͷೖྗύλʔϯΛ׬શ
    ʹ࠶ݱ͢Δ͜ͱ͸೉͍͠
    • σʔλϕʔεͳͲͷอଘঢ়ଶΛ౰࣌ͷظؒʹ໭্ͨ͠Ͱɺೖྗ
    ύλʔϯΛྲྀ͠ࠐΉ

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  51. γεςϜͷෳࡶੑͷ
    ౓߹͍

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  52. ୈ7ষ
    ෳࡶੑͷఆٛͱ
    ଌఆج४

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  53. ෳࡶੑͷج४
    • αΠζ
    • Τϯτϩϐʔ
    • ΞϧΰϦζϜ৘ใྔ
    • ࿦ཧਂ౓
    • ೤ྗֶਂ౓
    • ܭࢉೳྗ
    • ౷ܭతͳෳࡶੑ
    • ϑϥΫλϧ࣍ݩ
    • ֊૚౓

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  54. ෳࡶੑͷج४: αΠζ
    • ͸ͯͳͷγεςϜαΠζ͸ த~େن໛ఔ౓
    • αʔϏε਺: 100+ (಺෦޲ؚ͚Ή)
    • ϩʔϧ਺: 1000+
    • ϗετ਺: 1000+
    • ϓϩηε/εϨου਺: 10000+
    • SRE਺: 10ਓऑ
    • Google΍Amazon͸௒େن໛Ͱ͓ͦΒ͘100~1000ഒͷαΠζ

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  55. ֊૚౓ - ϓϩάϥϜ࣮ߦ୯Ґ - 10೥લ
    • Ϩϕϧ1: ϓϩηε/εϨου
    • Ϩϕϧ2: αʔό (ෳ਺ͷϓϩηεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ3: ϩʔϧ (Ϋϥελ΍ϩʔυόϥϯα഑Լͷαʔό܈)
    • Ϩϕϧ4: αʔϏε: (ϩʔϧ·ͨ͸ϚΠΫϩαʔϏεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ5: ϓϥοτϑΥʔϜ: (ෳ਺ͷαʔϏεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ6: ΢Σϒ

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  56. ֊૚౓ - ϓϩάϥϜ࣮ߦ୯Ґ - ࠷ۙ
    • Ϩϕϧ1: ϓϩηε/εϨου
    • Ϩϕϧ2: ίϯςφ
    • Ϩϕϧ3: αʔό (ෳ਺ͷϓϩηεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ4: ϩʔϧ (Ϋϥελ΍ϩʔυόϥϯα഑Լͷαʔό܈)
    • Ϩϕϧ5: ϚΠΫϩαʔϏε
    • Ϩϕϧ6: αʔϏε: (ϩʔϧ·ͨ͸ϚΠΫϩαʔϏεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ7: ϓϥοτϑΥʔϜ: (ෳ਺ͷαʔϏεͷू߹ମ)
    • Ϩϕϧ8: ΢Σϒ

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  57. ͋Δଆ໘Ͱ͸
    ࠷ۙͷج൫ٕज़ͷมԽʹΑΓ
    ෳࡶԽ͍ͯ͠Δͱ͍͑Δ

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  58. ෳࡶ͕͞΋ͨΒ͢΋ͷ
    • γεςϜͷঢ়ଶ༧ଌ͕ࠔ೉ʹͳΓɺͦͷ݁Ռɺਓؒʹ൑அΛ
    ೔ʑٻΊΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ
    • ͜Ε͔Β࣮ࢪ͢Δมߋ͕҆શ͔Ͳ͏͔ΛอূͰ͖ͳ͍ɺ·ͨ
    ͸อূ͢ΔͨΊʹखؒΛ͔͚ͳ͚Ε͹͍͚ͳ͍
    • ֎ཚͷ࠶ݱ͕೉͍ͨ͠ΊɺҰ૚ख͕͔͔ؒΔ
    • ͍ͭεέʔϧͷݶքʹ͋ͨΔ͔Θ͔Βͳ͍
    • ݶքʹ͋ͨͬͯ΋ɺͲ͕͜ϘτϧωοΫ͔Θ͔Βͳ͍
    • ΤϯδχΞͷܦݧΛجʹٕͨܳ͠Ͱղܾ͍ͯ͠Δ

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  59. ෳࡶ͞ʹ
    Ͳ͏ର߅͍ͯ͘͠ͷ͔

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  60. 3.΢ΣϒγεςϜͷࣗ཯తӡ༻
    Ξϓϩʔν

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  61. ؍ଌ
    Observation

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  62. ؍ଌͱ͸
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷʮաڈͱݱࡏʯͷঢ়گΛਓؒ/ίϯ
    ϐϡʔλ͕೺ѲͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δ
    • 20೥ۙ͘લ͔Βʮ؂ࢹʯΛ͢ΔͨΊͷπʔϧ͸͋Δ
    • Θ͔Βͳ͍΋ͷΛΘ͔ΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ͸͢΂ͯ؍ଌ
    • ʮ؂ࢹ(ping)ɺ࣌ܥྻσʔλͷऩूɺϩάσʔλͷऩ
    ूɺߏ੒ཁૉͱཁૉͷͭͳ͕Γɺೖྗͷ௥੻ʯͳͲ

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  63. ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷ͞·͟·ͳࢦඪ஋
    • ݸʑͷϋʔυ΢ΣΞϦιʔεࢦඪ
    • CPUར༻཰ɺϝϞϦ࢖༻ྔɺωοτϫʔΫଳҬͳͲ
    • ݸʑͷϛυϧ΢ΣΞ/ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯϦιʔεࢦඪ
    • εϨου਺ɺΫΤϦ਺ɺ଴ͪߦྻͷ௕͞ͳͲ
    • ܥશମΛදݱ͢Δࢦඪ
    • αʔϏεશମͷԠ౴࣌ؒɺΤϥʔϨʔτͳͲ

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  64. Mackerel
    https://mackerel.io/

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  65. αʔόͷϝτϦοΫՄ
    ࢹԽ

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  66. ؍ଌ݁ՌΛ΋ͱʹͨ͠φΠʔϒͳࣗ཯੍ޚ
    • Ϋϥ΢υͷ୆಄ʹΑΓαʔόͷੜ੒ͱഇغΛϓϩάϥϜԽ
    • ࢦඪ஋ͷมಈʹԠͯ͡αʔόͷݸ਺΍ੑೳΛࣗಈௐ੔
    • ෆௐϓϩηε/αʔόͷ৽௠୅ँ
    • ύϥϝʔλ͸ΤϯδχΞͷܦݧΛݩʹ஋Λઃఆ
    • ݱࡏͰ͸ɺ͜ͷ͋ͨΓ͕΢ΣϒγεςϜͷݱ৔Ͱਁಁதͷٕ
    ज़Ϩϕϧ
    • ͨͩ͜͠ͷΑ͏ͳφΠʔϒͳࣗ཯੍ޚʹ͸໰୊͕ى͖΍͍͢

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  67. ଴ͪߦྻཧ࿦Λར༻ͨࣗ͠཯੍ޚ
    • ฏۉԠ౴࣌ؒͱฏۉϦΫΤετ਺Λ؍ଌ͠ɺͦΕΒΛॲ
    ཧ͢ΔͨΊͷ߹ܭϓϩηε/αʔό਺ΛׂΓग़ࣗ͠ಈௐ
    ੔Ͱ͖Δ
    • ࢦඪΛ؍ଌ͚ͭͮ͠ɺ౸ண෼෍ͱॲཧ෼෍͔ΒඞཁͳϦ
    ιʔεΛܧଓతʹܭࢉ͠ɺௐ੔͠ଓ͚Δ
    #SFOEBO(SFHH l4ZTUFNT1FSGPSNBODF&OUFSQSJTFBOEUIF$MPVEz 1SFOUJDF)BMM
    Ϧτϧͷ๏ଇ: ҆ఆঢ়ଶʹ͋Δܥʹ͓͍ͯɺγεςϜ಺ͷฏۉϦΫΤε
    τ਺L͸ɺฏۉ౸ண཰λͱฏۉ଴ͪ࣌ؒͷੵʹ౳͍͠ (L=λW)

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  68. ଴ͪߦྻཧ࿦ͷ໰୊
    • ͦ΋ͦ΋ର৅΢ΣϒγεςϜ΁ͷ౸ண෼෍͕Θ͔Βͳ͍
    • Ծఆ͢Δ෼෍ͷൣғ֎ͷɺ༧ଌͷͰ͖ͳ͍ಥൃతͳ֎ཚʹରԠ͠
    ͮΒ͍
    • Θ͔Γ΍͍͢֎ཚ͸ɺྫ͑͹Yahoo!๒ͳͲ
    • ֎ཚ͸ࣄۀػձͱͳΔ͜ͱ͕͋ΔͨΊɺ෼෍͔Β֎Εͨҟৗ஋Ͱ
    ΋ແࢹͰ͖ͳ͍
    • ͨͩ͠ɺఆৗঢ়ଶͰͷ෼෍Λ༻͍ͯɺΩϟύγςΟϓϥϯχϯά
    ʹར༻͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖Δ

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  69. ϑΟʔυόοΫ੍ޚ
    ཧ࿦

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  70. ϑΟʔυόοΫ੍ޚ͸ɺେن໛Ͱෳࡶ
    ͳγεςϜΛɺͨͱ͑γεςϜ͕֎ཚ
    ʹӨڹΛड͚Α͏ͱ΋ɺ͋Δ͍͸ɺݶ
    ΒΕͨࢿݯΛ༗ޮར༻ͭͭ͠ɺͦͷੑ
    ೳΛอͬͯಈ࡞ͤ͞ΔͨΊͷख๏Ͱ͢ɻ
    Philipp K. Janert ஶ, ʮΤϯδχΞͷͨΊͷϑΟʔυόοΫ੍ޚೖ໳ʯ,ΦϥΠϦʔɾδϟύϯ, 2014/07

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  71. ϑΟʔυόοΫ੍ޚͷ஫໨఺
    • ੍ޚର৅͸ϒϥοΫϘοΫεͰ͋Γɺத਎͸ෆ໌ͰΑ͍
    • SRE͕ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯͷத਎Λ஌ΒͣʹϞχλϦϯά݁
    Ռ͚ͩΛΈͯো֐ରԠ͢Δ༷ࢠʹࣅ͍ͯΔ
    • ଴ͪߦྻཧ࿦Ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍μΠφϛΫεΛѻ͑Δ
    • ݱ࣮ͷ΢ΣϒγεςϜͰ͸ɺղੳతʹϞσϧΛಋग़͢Δͷ
    ͸೉͍ͨ͠Ίɺύϥϝʔλͷܾఆʹ͸ʮ࣮ݧʯʹΑΔܭଌ
    ͕ඞཁ
    [1]: େ࡚ ത೭, େن໛ωοτϫʔΫͷ ઃܭɾϞσϧԽɾ੍ޚ, http://www.ieice.org/~netsci/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/NetSci201308_Ohsaki.pdf
    [1]

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  72. ϑΟʔυόοΫ੍ޚͷಋೖΠϝʔδ
    • ੍ޚೖྗ: αʔόͷ୆਺ɺαʔόͷϝϞϦྔͳͲ
    • ੍ޚग़ྗ: ϨεϙϯελΠϜɺΤϥʔ਺ͳͲ
    • ੍ޚग़ྗΛ؂ࢹ͠ଓ͚ɺ໨ඪ஋͔Β֎ΕͨΒ੍ޚೖྗΛม
    ߋ͠ɺݩʹ໭͢Α͏ͳૢ࡞Λ͢Δ
    • ੍ޚೖྗʹରͯ͠఻ୡؔ਺Λద༻͠ɺ੍ޚग़ྗΛಘΔ
    • ఻ୡؔ਺ͷಉఆ΍νϡʔχϯά͸ɺ࣮γεςϜͰԠ౴ΛΈΔ
    ඞཁ͕͋Δ

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  73. Real World΁ͷ
    ੍ޚཧ࿦ͷಋೖʹ͸
    ࣮Ԡ౴ͷσʔλ͕ඞཁ

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  74. ࣮ݧ
    Experiment

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  75. ੍ޚϞσϧͷύϥϝʔλਪఆ
    • ࣮γεςϜͷ؍ଌ݁ՌʹΑΓɺ੍ޚثͷؔ਺ͱύϥϝʔλ
    Λਪఆ͢Δ
    • ҟৗݕ஌ͷͨΊͷ֬཰෼෍ͷύϥϝʔλΛਪఆ͢ΔͨΊͷ
    ֶशͳͲ΋࣮ݧʹؚΉ
    • ͨͩ͠ɺྫ͑͹1୆͋ͨΓͷαʔόͷݶքੑೳͱ͍͏ͷ͸
    ࣮ࡍʹݶք·ͰෛՙΛ͔͚ͳ͍ͱΘ͔Βͳ͍͜ͱ͕ଟ͍
    • ૉ๿ͳൃ૝ͩͱɺखಈͰ࣮ݧ͢Δ͜ͱʹͳΔ

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  76. ࣮ݧΛࣗಈԽ͍ͨ͠

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  77. ࣮ݧͷࣗಈԽ
    • ख࡞ۀʹΑΔ࣮ݧ͸ਓख͕ඞཁͰ݁ہ௕ଓ͖͠ͳ͍
    • γεςϜʹ͸೔ʑมߋ͕Ճ͑ΒΕΔͨΊɺ࣮ݧͷܧଓԽ
    ͕ඞཁ
    • ࣮ݧΛࣗಈԽ͍ͨ͠
    • ෼ࢄγεςϜͷࣗಈ࣮ݧͷ֓೦ͱͯ͠Netflix͕ఏএ͢Δ
    Chaos Engineering͕͋Δ

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  78. “PRINCIPLES OF CHAOS ENGINEERING”, http://principlesofchaos.org/
    Chaos Engineering is the
    discipline of experimenting on a
    distributed system in order to build
    confidence in the system’s capability
    to withstand turbulent conditions in
    production.

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  79. Θ͟ͱҟৗΛى͜͢ൃ૝
    • αʔόμ΢ϯͳͲΘ͟ͱҟৗΛى͜͢͜ͱͰ࣮ݧ͢Δ
    • ͔͠͠ɺຊ൪؀ڥͰҟৗΛىͨ͜͠Γɺݶք·ͰෛՙΛ͔͚Δ
    ͷ͸ෆ҆
    • Ϋϥ΢υ΍ίϯςφͳͲݶΓͳ͘ຊ൪ʹ͍ۙ؀ڥΛΦϯσϚϯ
    υʹߏங͢Δٕज़͕ൃୡ͖͍ͯͯ͠Δ
    • ຊ൪؀ڥͷෛՙΛ࠶ݱ͢Δͷ͸·ͩ೉͍͕͠…
    • ࣮ݧ؀ڥΛߴ଎ʹ࡞੒͠ഇغ͢Δ͜ͱͰ҆શʹ࣮ݧΛࣗಈԽ͢Δ

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  80. ੍ޚҎ֎ͷखಈ࣮ݧ

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  81. ੍ޚҎ֎ͷ࣮ݧ
    • ಈ࡞ςετ
    • ෛՙςετ
    • Τϥʔςετ
    • ϋʔυ΢ΣΞނো΍ωοτϫʔΫ஗Ԇͷ૿େͳͲ
    • ύϥϝʔλνϡʔχϯά
    • OSͳͲͷύϥϝʔλ(όοϑΝαΠζͳͲ)νϡʔχϯά
    • ͜ΕΒʹ͍ͭͯ΋ࣗಈԽ͢Δ

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  82. ؍ଌͱ࣮ݧ

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  83. ؍࡯ͱ࣮ݧͷࣗಈԽ͸
    ۙ୅Պֶͷख๏ͷࣗಈԽ

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  84. Ծઆԋ៷๏
    • (1) ؍࡯ʹج͍ͮͨ໰୊ͷൃݟ (؍ଌ)
    • (2) ໰୊Λղܾ͢ΔԾઆͷఏى
    • (3) Ծઆ͔Βͷςετ໋୊ͷԋ៷
    • (4) ςετ໋୊ͷ࣮ݧతݕূ·ͨ͸൓ূ (࣮ݧ)
    • (5) ςετͷ݁Ռʹجͮ͘Ծઆͷड༰ɺमਖ਼·ͨ͸์غ
    ໺ՈܒҰஶʮՊֶ఩ֶ΁ͷট଴ʯͪ͘·ֶܳจݿ 2015೥

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  85. Ծઆԋ៷๏ͷϧʔϓΛߴ଎ʹճ͠
    มԽʹదԠ͠ଓ͚ΔγεςϜ

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  86. Experimentable
    Infrastructure

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  87. 4. ࣗ཯ӡ༻ͷนͱ΢ΣϒαΠΤ
    ϯε

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  88. ࣗ཯ӡ༻ͷͨΊͷେ͖ͳน
    • ϋʔυ΢ΣΞϦιʔε੍໿
    • ༧Ί༻ҙͨ͠ϦιʔεϓʔϧͰ͞͹͚ΔҎ্ͷෛՙʹ͸଱͑ΒΕ
    ͳ͍
    • Ϋϥ΢υʹ΋্ݶ͸ଘࡏ͢Δ
    • ֎ཚͷେ͖ͳมԽΛ༧૝Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    • αʔόͷ૿ՃͳͲʹ͸σΟϨΠ͕ଘࡏ͢ΔͨΊɺϑΟʔυόοΫ
    ͕ؒʹ߹Θͳ͍έʔε΋͋Γ͑Δ
    • ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯεͷݚڀΛϑΟʔυϑΥϫʔυ੍ޚʹ࢖͑Δ͔΋

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  89. ࣗൃతʹൃల͢ΔαʔϏεͷಛ௃Λଊ͑ɺྫ͑͹ɺ
    Web αʔϏε͕ࠓޙൃల͍ͯ͘͠ͷ͔ɺݩؾΛ
    ͳ͍ͯ͘͘͠ͷ͔ɺͦ͏ͨ͠ঢ়ଶ༧ଌΛ໨ࢦ͠ɺ
    ࣗ཯తͳਓ޻γεςϜͷμΠφϛΫεΛଊ͑Δී
    วతͳํ๏࿦Λͭ͘ΓɺࣗવՊֶͱͯ͠ͷਓ޻γ
    εςϜݱ৅ͱ͍͏෼໺ͷཱ֬Λ໨ࢦ͍ͯ͠Δɻ
    106 ਓ ޻ ஌ ೳɹ31 ר 1 ߸ʢ2016 ೥ 1 ݄ʣʮ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯεݚڀձʢSIG-WebSciʣʯ ൃ଍

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  90. ৴པੑΛ੍໿৚݅ͱͯ͠
    අ༻Λ࠷খʹ͢Δ࠷దԽ໰୊
    ※අ༻ = ਓ݅අ + αʔόɾωοτϫʔΫඅ༻

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  91. ࣗ཯ӡ༻
    • ͜͜·Ͱͷʮࣗ཯ʯͷఆٛ͸ʮࣗಈम෮ʯʮࣗ཯ӡ༻ʯ
    • ༩͑ΒΕ੍ͨ໿৚݅=৴པੑ Λຬͨ͢Α͏ʹࣗ཯ಈ࡞͢Δ
    ͜ͱΛ໨ࢦ͍ͯ͠Δ
    • ৴པੑΛࣗ཯తʹຬͨͤΕ͹ɺඅ༻ͷ͏ͪਓ݅අ͸͋Δఔ
    ౓࡟ݮͰ͖Δ
    • ৴པੑͷ৚݅ઃఆɺΞʔΩςΫνϟͷܾఆɺιϑτ΢ΣΞ
    ͷޮ཰ԽͳͲ͸Ҏલͱͯ͠ਓͷ࢓ࣄ

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  92. ࣗ཯։ൃ
    • ࣗ཯తʹඅ༻Λ࠷খԽ͢ΔγεςϜ
    • ਐԽɾదԠͷ֓೦͕ඞཁ
    • ෼ࢄγεςϜΞʔΩςΫνϟͷઃܭɾվળ
    • ιϑτ΢ΣΞޮ཰վળͷࣗ཯Խ
    • ref. ιϑτ΢ΣΞਐԽͷݚڀͳͲ

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  93. ΢ΣϒγεςϜ͸ෳࡶͰ͋Δ͕
    ίϯϐϡʔλ͚ͩͰ͸ࣗ཯ͨ͠ܥͰ͸ͳ͍
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜͱ͍͏ਓ޻෺Λ
    ࣗવͷΑ͏ʹৼΔ෣Θͤ
    ਓؒΛӡ༻͔Βղ์͍ͨ͠

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  94. ͜͜·Ͱ͸
    ޻ֶతϞνϕʔγϣϯ

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  95. ͍͔ͭԕ͍ະདྷͰ
    ӡ༻͔Βղ์͞ΕͨΒ
    ԿΛ΍Δͷ͔

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  96. ༡ΜͰ฻Β͢

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  97. ༡ΜͰ฻Β͢͜ͱʹ
    ͦΜͳʹڵຯ͕ͳ͍

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  98. ʮγεςϜʯ͕޷͖

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  99. ਓͷखΛհͣ͞ʹಈ͖ଓ͚Δ
    ΢ΣϒγεςϜΛ୳ڀ͢Δ͜ͱͰ
    ෳࡶͳܥʹର͢Δ౷Ұతͳ๏ଇΛൃݟ͠
    ࣗવՊֶ΁ߩݙͰ͖Δ͜ͱ͸ͳ͍͔

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  100. ωοτϫʔΫͷٕज़֊૚ΛؚΉ Webͷଘࡏͦͷ΋ͷ
    Λ৽͍͠ʮࣗવݱ৅ʯͱͯ͠ଊ͑ɺྫ͑͹ɺͦͷʮੜ
    ଶܥʯͱͯ͠ͷߏ଄Λ໌Β͔ʹ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺීวతͳ
    μΠφϛΫε΍ύλʔϯΛ໌Β͔ʹ͠ɺैདྷͷࣗવՊ
    ֶɾਓจՊֶͷߟ͑Λൃలͤ͞Δ͜ͱΛ໨ࢦ͍ͯ͠
    Δɻ
    106 ਓ ޻ ஌ ೳɹ31 ר 1 ߸ʢ2016 ೥ 1 ݄ʣʮ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯεݚڀձʢSIG-WebSciʣʯ ൃ଍

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  101. ·ͱΊ
    • ໨ඪ͸γεςϜͷӡ༻͔Βਓ͕ؒղ์͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
    • Ϋϥ΢υͷొ৔ͳͲͰӡ༻ʮࣗಈԽʯ͕ਐΜͰ͖͕ͨɺ
    ʮࣗ཯Խʯʹ͍ͭͯ͸·ͩ·ͩ͜Ε͔Β
    • ࣗ཯ӡ༻ʹ޲͚ͯɺۙ୅ࣗવՊֶͷํ๏࿦Λώϯτʹ͠
    ͨExperimentable Infrastructureߏ૝Λ঺հ
    • ࣗ཯ӡ༻ͷେ͖ͳนͱ΢ΣϒαΠΤϯεͷՄೳੑ

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  102. ΢ΣϒγεςϜΞʔΩςΫνϟݚڀձ
    • ೔ຊʹ͸ίϯϐϡʔλωοτϫʔΫͷݚڀձ͸ͨ͘͞Μ͋Δ
    • ΢ΣϒγεςϜͷΞʔΩςΫνϟ΍ϦΞϧϫʔϧυͷӡ༻·Ͱؚ
    Ίͨݚڀձ͕͋·Γͳ͍
    • ࠷΋͍ۙͷ͸৘ใॲཧֶձIOTݚڀձ
    • ւ֎ͩͱUSENIXͷLISA΍SREconͳͲ
    • ͦ͜ͰݚڀձΛ্ཱͪ͛Α͏ͱ͍ͯ͠Δ => 12/23@ژ౎
    • ϋογϡλά #wsaݚ

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  103. ΢ΣϒΦϖϨʔγϣϯ͸ٕܳ
    Ͱ͋ΓՊֶͰ͸ͳ͍
    John Allspaw,Jesse Robbinsฤ, ֯ ੐య༁
    ΢ΣϒΦϖϨʔγϣϯʔʔαΠτӡ༻؅ཧͷ࣮ફςΫχοΫ, ΦϥΠϦʔɾδϟύϯ, 2011/05

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  104. ٕ͔ܳΒՊֶ΁

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