RPython: a Step Towards Reconciling Dynamically and Statically Typed Object Oriented Languages

Cdc3cafa377f0e0e93fc69636021ef65?s=47 Antonio Cuni
October 22, 2007
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RPython: a Step Towards Reconciling Dynamically and Statically Typed Object Oriented Languages

DLS 2007

Cdc3cafa377f0e0e93fc69636021ef65?s=128

Antonio Cuni

October 22, 2007
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  1. RPython A Step Towards Reconciling Dynamically and Statically Typed OO

    Languages Antonio Cuni – DISI, Universit` a degli Studi di Genova joint work with D. Ancona, M. Ancona, N. D. Matsakis DLS’07 OOPSLA Montreal CA October 22, 2007 Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 1 / 26
  2. Outline 1 Introduction to RPython 2 RPython idioms 3 Implementation

    notes and benchmarks 4 Conclusions Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 2 / 26
  3. Dynamic languages for .NET and JVM .NET and JVM: widespread

    platforms Designed for static languages Great Python implementations: IronPython, Jython Much slower than e.g. C# and Java Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 3 / 26
  4. Dynamic vs. static Dynamic languages Flexibility Rapid development cycle Metaprogramming

    Static languages Speed Nothing more :-) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 4 / 26
  5. Dynamic vs. static Dynamic languages Flexibility Rapid development cycle Metaprogramming

    Static languages Speed Nothing more :-) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 4 / 26
  6. RPython Quick Facts Restricted subset of Python Statically typed (type

    inference) Still allows metaprogramming RPython programs still run under {C,J,Iron}Python Three backends: C, .NET, JVM Almost as fast as C, C#, Java Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 5 / 26
  7. Type inference Top-down, starting from an entry point; whole program

    analysis Assign the most precise type to each variable Fail if you try to mix incompatible types RPython def main (): print add(40, 2) def add(a, b): return a+b Not RPython def fn(flag ): if flag: return 42 else: return ’hello ’ Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 7 / 26
  8. Type inference Top-down, starting from an entry point; whole program

    analysis Assign the most precise type to each variable Fail if you try to mix incompatible types RPython def main (): print add(40, 2) def add(a, b): return a+b Not RPython def fn(flag ): if flag: return 42 else: return ’hello ’ Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 7 / 26
  9. Type inference Top-down, starting from an entry point; whole program

    analysis Assign the most precise type to each variable Fail if you try to mix incompatible types RPython def main (): print add(40, 2) def add(a, b): return a+b Not RPython def fn(flag ): if flag: return 42 else: return ’hello ’ Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 7 / 26
  10. Other restrictions Globals are assumed to be constant yield and

    generators not supported No special methods (except init and del ) No run-time definition of new functions and classes Cannot modify classes at run-time Cannot change the class of an object Single inheritance, with limited support for mixins Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 8 / 26
  11. Still pythonic, though No syntactic restriction Functions and classes are

    first-order values Exceptions work Lists and dictionaries Work, but they must be homogeneous list of int, dict from string to floats, etc. are OK list of int and strings is not Most of methods of list, dict and str are supported Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 9 / 26
  12. Still pythonic, though No syntactic restriction Functions and classes are

    first-order values Exceptions work Lists and dictionaries Work, but they must be homogeneous list of int, dict from string to floats, etc. are OK list of int and strings is not Most of methods of list, dict and str are supported Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 9 / 26
  13. Init-time, translation-time, run-time Translation time -- RPython Init time Full

    Python Python interpreter Live objects Translation toolchain Executable *.py Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 10 / 26
  14. Metaprogramming RPython restrictions only apply to live objects No restrictions

    about how they are created Full Python is allowed at init-time Python as a metaprogramming language for RPython Code generation considered harmful Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 11 / 26
  15. Outline 1 Introduction to RPython 2 RPython idioms 3 Implementation

    notes and benchmarks 4 Conclusions Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 12 / 26
  16. Compute complex constants Fibonacci’s numbers def fibo(N): sequence = []

    a, b = 1, 1 for i in xrange(N): sequence.append(a) a, b = b, a+b return sequence # computed at init -time fibo_numbers = fibo (100) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 14 / 26
  17. Metaclasses run at init-time extend metaclass class MyClass(object ): def

    foo(self ): ... class __extend__(MyClass ): def bar(self ): ... def main (): obj = MyClass () obj.bar() Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 16 / 26
  18. Dynamic classes/functions at init-time “Static” nested scopes work def make_adder(N):

    def add(x): return x+N return add add10 = make_adder (10) add20 = make_adder (20) def main (): print add10 (32) print add20 (22) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 18 / 26
  19. Outline 1 Introduction to RPython 2 RPython idioms 3 Implementation

    notes and benchmarks 4 Conclusions Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 19 / 26
  20. The Translation Toolchain CPython: *.py --> Python bytecode FlowObjSpace: bytecode

    --> flow graphs Annotator: type inference on flow graphs High level Python types (List(Integer)) RTyper: high level types --> low level types lltype for C, ootype for CLI and JVM Backends: code generation C, CLI (.NET), JVM Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 20 / 26
  21. Benchmarks Classic Martin Richard’s test Available in Java, C#, RPython

    Language Result Factor Results on Microsoft CLR C# 6.94 ms 1.00x RPython 7.25 ms 1.04x IronPython 1675.00 ms 241.35x Results on JVM Java 1.77 ms 1.00x RPython 2.10 ms 1.18x Jython 2918.90 ms 1641.80x Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 21 / 26
  22. Outline 1 Introduction to RPython 2 RPython idioms 3 Implementation

    notes and benchmarks 4 Conclusions Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 22 / 26
  23. What’s good about RPython Pythonic enough to be usable Very

    fast Testable under CPython Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 23 / 26
  24. Things to improve Originally an implementation detail Not designed to

    be user-friendly; terse error messages Lack of documentation/reference manual Lack of separate compilation Integration with the hosting platform Good for C/Posix Proof of concept for .NET Doesn’t exist for JVM Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 24 / 26
  25. About PyPy Python in (R)Python High level interpreter written in

    RPython Easy to understand Easy to extend Translation Toolchain Written in full Python Works as a general compiler Especially for interpreters (e.g. Javascript, Prolog) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 25 / 26
  26. About PyPy Python in (R)Python High level interpreter written in

    RPython Easy to understand Easy to extend Translation Toolchain Written in full Python Works as a general compiler Especially for interpreters (e.g. Javascript, Prolog) Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 25 / 26
  27. Acknowledgments The whole PyPy Team RPython is not mine :-)

    Our contributions: CLI and JVM backends Thanks for the attention Any question? Antonio Cuni (DSL’07 OOPSLA) RPython, a dynamic static language October 22, 2007 26 / 26