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Are there still barriers to contribution?

Are there still barriers to contribution?

Presented at EsLibre 2021 in Spanish

El grupo de trabajo de diversidad e inclusión de la Fundación Apache tiene como objetivo el entender en profundidad y desde un punto de vista social a los participantes de sus comunidades y dedicar esfuerzos a entender y promocionar la diversidad e inclusión en sus proyectos.

Su misión principal es la de construir entornos donde todas las personas se sientan seguras y puedan participar en igualdad de oportunidades.

Para ello, han realizado un estudio sobre sus comunidades que ha consistido por un lado en una encuesta con alrededor de 700 respuestas y entrevistas para conocer en profundidad las necesidades de ciertos grupos de personas que de forma recurrente están subrepresentadas en la industria.

Esta charla detallará los diferentes resultados y conclusiones a las que se ha llegado y que esperamos que sean útiles para otras comunidades de software libre con el objetivo de construir comunidades más inclusivas.

Web del proyecto: https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=130026504

7dddc875546948b5b5094167c90dc10d?s=128

Bitergia
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June 25, 2021
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  1. Are there still barriers to contribution? Daniel Izquierdo Cortázar dizquierdo@bitergia.com

    @dizquierdo Bitergia EsLibre, 2021
  2. The Research Team Anita Sarma Oregon State University Daniel Izquierdo

    Bitergia Mariam Guizani Oregon State University Georg Link Bitergia Griselda Cuevas The Apache Software Foundation The State of D&I at the ASF, ApacheCon 2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tk_A7XpLzeE
  3. Motivation Study design, data collection, and analysis aligned with the

    ASF D&I strategy. Short term goals • Gather scientific data to study current status of Diversity and Inclusion at the ASF • Raise awareness in our community about the importance of Diversity & Inclusion in the business, and in the open source industry • Find key indicators to track over time As stated in the ASF EDI goals https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/DI-25 Medium term goals • Instrument ASF’s contributor funnel to recommend a participation baseline for underrepresented groups • Create a toolkit to address the top 3 entry barriers for new contributors from under represented groups • Become a trusted thought partner for PMCs when it comes to D&I
  4. Motivation 3 Efforts to gather data about the ASF community

    The Community Survey Quantitative Analysis Interviews
  5. Highlights Top Insights from Survey and Interviews The typical ASF

    contributor is a male, english proficient, highly educated and with time to volunteer Challenges experienced by minorities persist even after they become experienced contributors Top challenge types: contrib. background, technical hurdles, communication
  6. Highlights Recommendations to remove contribution barriers Documented ASF/project policies and

    expectations Accessible resources for technical contributions (e.g. docs) Streamlined contribution & decision making processes
  7. Phase I: Survey

  8. Data Collection Timeline Up to Oct. 2019 Survey Design First

    Survey Design available Up to Dec. 2019 Community Feedback Open discussion and addition of ideas, comments, and concerns Up to Jan. 2020 Data Collection Data collection starts 7010 emails sent Up to mid-Feb. 2020 Deadline Extension Booth FOSDEM opportunity
  9. Survey Survey* is split into: 1. Contributor Role and Tenure

    (4 questions) 2. Motivation (2) 3. Availability of Protocols / Guidelines (2) 4. Support for Newcomers (4) 5. Diversity and Inclusion (11) 6. Wrap up (3) Each section contains a motivation introductory paragraph. *Questions are available at https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=158869274
  10. Process Process • 2 Internal iteration followed by feedback process.

    Meeting notes available*. • Public feedback and discussions followed using Google Docs. ◦ Comments were left “unresolved” to leave communication trace • Voting and veto process followed as usual at the ASF under the Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion PMC. • Reproducibility: Survey methodology and questions published in the D&I wiki** * E.g., https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/EDI/2019-11-13+Meeting+notes+survey ** E.g., https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/EDI Referenced Google Docs Activity
  11. Overview of Data Collected 624 Total Responses 8.9% Response Rate*

    * Based on a considered total community size of 7,010
  12. Survey Analysis Dimensions Demographics: • Age, Gender, English fluency, Background

    culture Socio-economic aspects: • Education, Compensation, Time to volunteer Experiences in the ASF: • Tenure, mentorship, challenges
  13. Survey Results

  14. Average ASF contributor 40 Years old Man Confident in English

    Born/lives in the USA Bachelor’s Degree No compensation 1 or 2 hours for volunteering 5 Years in the community Didn’t have a mentor Faced no challenges Demographics Socio-economic Aspects Experience in the ASF
  15. Those with “No College” education are more likely to be

    volunteers, perhaps ASF provides paths to gaining technical skills Does education impact compensation? Yes 𝝌2 (2, N=611)=23.46, p<.05 Question to community: How to attract volunteers who have no college education? Effect of Formal Education
  16. Those with an average English fluency or less faced more

    challenges Does fluency in English impact challenges faced? Yes 𝝌2 (2, N=609)=8.96, p<.05 Question to community: How can we lower the language barrier? Effect of English Fluency
  17. Those who self-identified as women or other (not men) faced

    more challenges Does gender impact challenges faced? Yes. 𝝌2 (1, N=611)=5.04, p<.05 Question to community: How can we reduce gender barriers? Effect of Gender * 4.6% * We aggregated who identified as non-binary, prefer to self describe, not state into others
  18. Those who had mentor(s) faced slightly more challenges Do mentors

    impact challenges faced? No; 𝝌2 (1, N=600)=3.80, p>.05 Question to community: Why is mentoring not helping with challenges? What is the role of mentors? Effect of having a Mentor
  19. 1. Education impacts compensation: yes (p<0.05) 2. Those in minority

    face challenges a. English fluency: Yes (p<0.05) b. Gender: Yes (p < 0.05) c. Having a mentor: No (p >0.05) 3. Men who face challenges have different demographics: No 4. Those who move country where they grew up... a. ... different demographics: No b. … challenges to contributing: No Survey Summary
  20. Phase II: Interviews

  21. Objectives Groups Interviewees Gender minority 5 Language minority 1 Men

    with challenges 4 Contributors who left 5 Newcomers 4 Total 19 221 open ended survey responses on challenges Deeper dive to analyze these challenges 19 interviews Jun-Sept 2020 Interviews Numbers
  22. 12 categories of challenges Each category comprises subsequent challenges, 88

    in total 6 of these found in academia for other OSS projects, and 6 that are specific to the ASF Identified Challenges
  23. “The ASF documentation is spread all over the place and

    poorly organized” [S-212] “ASF infrastructure (e.g., for web hosting) can be more limiting and presents more challenges to work with than public cloud offerings” [S-753] Identified Challenge: Technical Hurdles
  24. Identified Challenge: Process Hurdles “I found bug, a few bugs

    in their implementation and I have submitted patches, but it never got anywhere. I didn't get any. Like, I didn't really see anything back. So I don't think they ever got merged. And this, this means that community is not active.” [I-1] “It’s also not super clear how the idea of ‘rough consensu[s]’ works with regards to coming to consensus on changes within the project (new features, designs, libraries, etc) and how to proceed if ‘rough consensus’ cannot be reached.” [S-404]
  25. Identified Challenge: Process Hurdles Apache Way <=> Mitigation Strategies •

    Modernize introduction to Apache • Provide regular training on ASF • Provide clear guidance on the governance process • Give projects more agency • Make becoming a reviewer equitable
  26. Identified Challenge: Process Hurdles Contributing to Projects <=> Mitigation Strategies

    • Provide training on contributing to OSS • Encourage knowledge transfer across projects • Make OSS licensing more accessible and provide guidance
  27. Identified Challenge: Social Hurdles “it is still hard to understand

    phrases, slangs or irony from native speakers on operational lists.” [S-259] “the single most challenge to overcome...was to overcome the fear of making some mistake” [S-665]
  28. Identified Challenge: Social Hurdles Cultural Differences <=> Mitigation Strategies •

    Provide the option of offline training when acceptance • Encourage awareness of personal preferences
  29. Identified Challenge: Social Hurdles Cultural Differences <=> Mitigation Strategies •

    Provide the option of offline training when acceptance • Encourage awareness of personal preferences Communication <=> Mitigation Strategies • Create communication best practices • Transition from tacit to explicit • Leverage both public and private channels and disclose their visibility • Automate a role-based (committer, etc) sign up to mailing lists • Create a list of helpful contacts
  30. Summary

  31. Summary INSIGHTS The typical ASF contributor is a male, english

    proficient, highly educated and with time to volunteer Challenges experienced by minorities persist even after they become experienced contributors Top challenge types: contrib. background, technical hurdles, communication
  32. Summary Documented ASF/project policies and expectations Accessible resources for technical

    contributions (e.g. docs) Streamlined contribution & decision making processes INSIGHTS RECOMMENDATIONS The typical ASF contributor is a male, english proficient, highly educated and with time to volunteer Challenges experienced by minorities persist even after they become experienced contributors Top challenge types: contrib. background, technical hurdles, communication
  33. Questions? Thank you to all our participants!

  34. Are there still barriers to contribution? Daniel Izquierdo Cortázar dizquierdo@bitergia.com

    @dizquierdo Bitergia EsLibre, 2021