Open source communities are people. Participants, contributors, and users are some of the roles that we already know and we have acknowledged some of them in the existing CHAOSS [Community Health Analytics for Open Source Software] work. CHAOSS is the leading OSS community with the mission of learning and sharing insights about OSS health. The very existence of public profiles developing software with whom you can interact, make decisions together, and discuss next steps is important up to the point that the alternative is to have close governance communities with low interaction and lack of initiative. Some OSS foundations and OSS projects are indeed stating the importance of these other artifacts as key to a good open governance policy (as for instance the Four Opens by the Open Infra Foundation) and having those discussions in a transparent, public, and open way is part of their culture. How can this be translated into action? Collaboration. And how can we measure collaboration? This talk aims at providing an initial set of existing use cases where collaboration is used as a healthy community metric, an initial list of them related to the collaboration concept, and some existing software you can use to visualize them.
OSS Summit Latin America 2022
Daniel Izquierdo Cortázar
Miguel Ángel Fernández
Analytics Specialist & Consultant
CEO @ Bitergia
Governing Board @ CHAOSS
VP @ InnerSource Commons
Collaboration (from Latin com- "with" +
laborare "to labor", "to work") is the
process of two or more people, entities or
organizations working together to
complete a task or achieve a goal.
Welcome to Open Source
What does look like
collaboration in open
Data mining process and visualizations powered
by GrimoireLab, a CHAOSS project
Dots are developers
Squares are repositories
Edge exists if a developer has
contributed to a repository
Collaboration vs Isolated Projects
‘Continent’ communities vs Archipelago
1 Project Developer vs Many Projects Developer
High density areas vs lighter ones
Knowledge silos, continent communities
Organizational Diversity, areas of expertise
Projects are interconnected
Organizations and developers engage at different levels
OSS projects without contributors are dead
OSS projects without collaboration are dead
What is a healthy collaboration?
Let’s try to formalize this discussion
Let’s see if we can measure collaboration
What is a graph?
Representation of a
network as a set of
Creating collaboration networks (I)
Creating collaboration networks (II)
How to measure collaboration from a network?
Which properties of
the network can
help us to measure
Which metrics should
Applying Graph theory: Network properties
Adjacency Two nodes are adjacent if there is an edge between them.
Two edges are adjacent if they share one of their ends.
Degree The degree of a node is the number of connections that it has
to other nodes in the network.
A node is reachable from another node if there is a path
between them. A graph is connected if there is a path for every
pair of nodes in the graph.
Applying Graph theory: Centrality metrics
A way of detecting the amount of
inﬂuence a node has over the ﬂow of
information in a graph.
It is often used to ﬁnd nodes that serve
as a bridge from one part of a graph to
Analyzing a real network (I)
The amount of connections from a
Contributor node indicates they
collaborate in many projects.
A highly-connected network indicates
a more collaborative community.
Contributor nodes sharing edges to
Project nodes indicate collaboration
among these people.
Analyzing a real network (II)
Finding the contributors connected to a
greater number of projects help us ﬁnd the
people acting as bridges in the
Collaborating to deﬁne
Community Health Analytics for Open Source Software
OSS Tools to
Work in Progress @ Metrics Models Working Group
Join #wg-metrics-models @ CHAOSS Slack
OSS Tools to
Focus on data, not on mining processes
OSS metrics lake
Metrics ready for consumption
30+ Data sources
Extra Collaboration Metrics
in Action [by Bitergia]
Bitergia in Action: Santander InnerSource Metrics
From Art to Science: The Evolution of Community
Development. Diane Mueller and Daniel Izquierdo.
IEEE Software Volume: 36, Issue: 6, Nov.-Dec. 2019
“Scaling management skills by 10x
thanks to data insights”
Discover developer interrelations,
onboard newcomers faster, and
align project expectations and
Bitergia in Action: Red Hat and CNCF
“[...] holistic view of our contributor
ecosystem’s network structure,
health and impact [...]”
“[...] we’re able to visually describe
these distinct contributor
communities as well as how they are
Bitergia in Action: Mozilla Rebel Alliance