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WCUS2022.pdf

 WCUS2022.pdf

Embracing Minds of All Kinds: Making Digital Content Usable for People with Cognitive Disabilities

Christina Deemer

September 07, 2022
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  1. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Embracing Minds of All Kinds Making Digital

    Content Usable for People with Cognitive Disabilities WordCamp US 2022
  2. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS https://speakerdeck.com/cahdeemer/wcus2022 2

  3. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Objectives & Agenda 3

  4. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Explore ways to gain buy-in for accessibility

    work Objectives Identify digital access barriers that people with cognitive disabilities experience online Recognize 12 practical solutions for making content usable by people with cognitive disabilities 4
  5. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda • Terminology & Language • Barriers

    • 12 Solutions • Getting Buy In • Questions 5
  6. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda ⁕ Terminology & Language • Barriers

    • 12 Solutions • Getting Buy In • Questions 6
  7. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Disability is not a dirty or shameful

    word 7
  8. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS 8

  9. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Definition of Cognitive Disabilities “neurodiversity as well

    as neurological disorders and mental and behavioral disorders that may or may not be neurological.” -W3C https://www.w3.org/WAI 9
  10. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Examples of Cognitive Disabilities • ADHD •

    Anxiety • Aphasia • Autism • Dementia • Depression • Down syndrome • Dysgraphia • Dyscalculia • Dyspraxia • Epilepsy • OCD • PTSD • TBI • Tourette syndrome 10
  11. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS ADHD Dementia Traumatic brain injury Struggles with

    focus Has memory impairments Difficulty concentrating Diagnostic labels Functional terms 11
  12. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Functional vs. Diagnostic Labels We use functional

    terms over clinical terms because: • Not everyone with a cognitive disability has a clinical diagnosis. 12
  13. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Functional vs. Diagnostic Labels We use functional

    terms over clinical terms because: • Not everyone with a cognitive disability has a clinical diagnosis. • Not everyone with a cognitive disability has only one diagnosis. 13
  14. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Functional vs. Diagnostic Labels We use functional

    terms over clinical terms because: • Not everyone with a cognitive disability has a clinical diagnosis. • Not everyone with a cognitive disability has only one diagnosis. • Not everyone with the same disability experiences it the same way. 14
  15. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Cognitive Skills That Affect Online Behaviors •

    Memory • Problem solving • Decision making • Attention & focus • Time Management • Processing speed • Math comprehension • Reading comprehension • Language comprehension • Impulse Control 15
  16. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Executive function “mental processes that enable us

    to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, and juggle multiple tasks successfully.” Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University https://developingchild.harvard.edu/ 16
  17. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda • Terminology & Language ⁕ Barriers

    • 12 Solutions • Getting Buy In • Questions 17
  18. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Digital barriers • Sites with complex or

    overwhelming interfaces • Sites with complex or unusual words • Long passages of text or visual walls of text • Animations or media that autoplay • Blinking, flashing, flickering, or moving content • Lack of help 18
  19. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS 19

  20. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS 20

  21. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Flesch Reading Ease Score Reading Ease Score

    Readability Level Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level (US Grade) 90 — 100 Very Easy 5th 80 — 89 Easy 6th 70 — 79 Fairly Easy 7th 60 — 69 Standard 8th — 9th 50 — 59 Fairly Difficult 10th — 12th 30 — 49 Difficult College < 30 Very Difficult College Grad / Professional 21
  22. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Flesch Reading Ease Score Saturn page Reading

    Ease Score Readability Level Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level (US Grade) 90 — 100 Very Easy 5th 80 — 89 Easy 6th 70 — 79 Fairly Easy 7th 60 — 69 Standard 8th — 9th 50 — 59 Fairly Difficult 10th — 12th 30 — 49 Difficult College < 30 Very Difficult College Grad / Professional 22
  23. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Flesch Reading Ease Score Reading Ease Score

    Readability Level Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level (US Grade) 90 — 100 Very Easy 5th 80 — 89 Easy 6th 70 — 79 Fairly Easy 7th 60 — 69 Standard 8th — 9th 50 — 59 Fairly Difficult 10th — 12th 30 — 49 Difficult College < 30 Very Difficult College Grad / Professional Most Adults 23
  24. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Flesch Reading Ease Score Reading Ease Score

    Readability Level Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level (US Grade) 90 — 100 Very Easy 5th 80 — 89 Easy 6th 70 — 79 Fairly Easy 7th 60 — 69 Standard 8th — 9th 50 — 59 Fairly Difficult 10th — 12th 30 — 49 Difficult College < 30 Very Difficult College Grad / Professional Folks with concentration, language, or reading impairments 24
  25. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS What price are disabled users paying for

    inaccessible sites? 25
  26. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS 🥄🥄🥄🥄🥄 26

  27. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Spoon Theory 🥄 Developed by Christine Miserandino

    to explain what it’s like to live with a chronic illness or disability 🥄 Every task in a day takes energy; every task in a day takes spoons 🥄 When spoons run out, there is no energy left for tasks 27
  28. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda • Terminology & Language • Barriers

    ⁕ 12 Solutions • Getting Buy In • Questions 28
  29. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS About the 12 Solutions • Based on

    the W3C’s April 2021 Working Group Note • There are many more solutions in the Working Group Note • Cannot be identified or remediated with automated tools 29
  30. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Make it easy to find the most

    important tasks 1 30
  31. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with impaired

    executive function and memory may have difficulty determining what they can do on a site with a lot of noise and distractions 31
  32. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Identifying the most important tasks Identifying your

    product’s most important tasks can be tricky and may involve user testing, focus groups, or usage data 32
  33. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Provide a friendly search 2 33

  34. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with short-term

    memory impairments, who get distracted easily, or struggle with executive function may rely on search more than menus, categories, or browsing 34
  35. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Search Tip #1 Search is most useful

    when it corrects spelling errors and suggests auto-corrected versions of search terms acessibil accessibility definition accessibility synonym accessibility meaning accessibility checker 35
  36. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Search Tip #2 Prioritize search accessibility on

    large and complex sites, where search is a more important navigation tool 36
  37. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Use clear and understandable content 3 37

  38. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with impaired

    language skills may not be able to understand complex language. 38
  39. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with memory

    impairments may not be able to be learn new words. 39
  40. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users who struggle

    with non-literal language may not understand jokes and metaphors. 40
  41. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Help users understand your content by using

    • easy to understand words • short sentences • simple tense 41
  42. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Help users understand your content by using

    • easy to understand words • short sentences • simple tense • short blocks of text • concrete content & examples • generous white space 42
  43. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Use clear formatting and punctuation 4 43

  44. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with communication

    difficulties may use screen readers to understand content. When content is formatted incorrectly, the user may not able to understand it. 44
  45. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Punctuation and Formatting Tips • Write out

    the month in dates • Avoid using Roman numerals • Use language-appropriate separators for long numbers 👍 Do this 👎 Avoid Nov. 8, 2019 11/08/2019 Chapter 4 Chapter IV 1,234 visitors 1234 visitors 45
  46. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Use clear step-by-step instructions 5 46

  47. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Clear and easy-to-understand

    instructions help a variety of disabled folks. Without instructions, users may make multiple mistakes, use their spoons , and abandon their task. 47
  48. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Where to position instructions • Provide clear

    instructions at the start of a process, not just when there are errors. • Place instructions before, or next to, the field or activity • Instructions can be hidden behind a familiar icon Member ID Your Member ID is a 9-digit number found in your welcome email 48
  49. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Make short critical paths 6 49

  50. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Streamlining processes reduces

    fatigue, distractions, and mistakes and increases the chances that users with cognitive disabilities will successfully complete a task. 50
  51. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Critical Path Tips • Provide short navigation

    to key features • Only require necessary steps 51
  52. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Solutions 1 - 6 Recap 1. Make

    it easy to find the most important tasks 2. Provide a friendly search 3. Use clear and understandable content 4. Use clear formatting and punctuation 5. Use clear step-by-step instructions 6. Make short critical paths 52
  53. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Provide a login that doesn’t rely on

    memory 7 53
  54. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? People with any

    impairment that affects memory or language can find it difficult or impossible to overcome memory barriers when logging in. 54
  55. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Login methods that don’t rely on memory

    • Single Sign-on (SSO) • Magic links • Quick Response Codes (QR Code) 55
  56. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Don’t ask users to memorize or calculate

    data 8 56
  57. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Users with impaired

    working memory can’t remember a lot of details at the same time. Users with impaired executive function may struggle to remember instructions. 57
  58. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Building processes that don’t rely on memory

    Each step in a process should contain the information necessary to allow a user to proceed. Provide a summary of information from previous steps Current Plan New Plan Plus New Plan Pro 58
  59. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Provide Alternative Content for Complex Tasks and

    Information 9 59
  60. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? People with cognitive

    disabilities may struggle to make sense of complex information and data formats, but may understand when supplementary content is included. 60
  61. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Alternative Content Tips • Use charts and

    graphs to support text • Add video clips to support instructions • Include a flow chart to visualize a process • Link keywords to a glossary 61
  62. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Provide human help 10 62

  63. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? When a user

    gets stuck or confused for any reason, getting help from a real person is usually the most effective solution. 63
  64. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS How to provide help • Phone number

    • Text • Email address • Live chat 64
  65. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Let Users Control When Content Changes 11

    65
  66. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? Unexpected changes in

    content can result in loss of focus, anxiety, or confusion for a variety of disabled users 66
  67. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Let Users Control When the Content Changes

    Changes include • Launching pop-ups automatically • Submitting forms through a mechanism other than a submit button • Opening of new content Autoplay toggle 67
  68. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Enable APIs and Extensions 12 68

  69. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Overlays & Widgets • Do not provide

    legal coverage • Do not make your site WCAG compliant • Do not help disabled people 69 Overlays
  70. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS overlayfactsheet.com 70

  71. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Why does this matter? When add-ons and

    extensions are blocked or not supported, disabled users with may not be able to use a site at all. 71
  72. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS APIs and Extension Tips Avoid code and

    designs that stop browser extensions and other personalization tools from working Logo 72
  73. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Solutions 7 - 12 Recap 7. Provide

    a login that doesn’t rely on memory 8. Don’t ask users to memorize or calculate data 9. Provide alternative content for complex tasks and information 10. Provide human help 11. Let users control when content changes 12. Enable APIs and extensions 73
  74. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda • Terminology & Language • Barriers

    • 12 Solutions ⁕ Getting Buy In • Questions 74
  75. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Balancing Accessibility Needs with Business Goals Test

    Conduct A/B testing or get feedback from users Prioritize Identify high-impact changes and do those first Research Collect data to understand long-term impact of decisions 75
  76. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS 🥄🥄🥄 Save the SPOONS 76

  77. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Agenda • Terminology & Language • Barriers

    • 12 Solutions • Getting Buy In ⁕ Questions 77
  78. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Terminology & Language National Center on Disability

    and Journalism’s Language Guide https://ncdj.org/style-guide/ “Special needs” is an ineffective euphemism https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PM C5256467/ W3C’s definition of cognitive disabilities https://www.w3.org/WAI/people-use-web/abili ties-barriers/#cognitive Penn State Social Science Institute: Privilege plays a huge role in getting an ADHD diagnosis https://ssri.psu.edu/news/privilege-plays-huge -role-getting-adhd-diagnosis Resources Guide 78
  79. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Terminology & Language Journal of the American

    Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Race Differences in the Age at Diagnosis Among Medicaid-Eligible Children With Autism https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(09) 60739-5/fulltext Executive Function and Self-Regulation https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/k ey-concepts/executive-function/ Resources Guide 79
  80. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Barriers Flesch Reading Ease Score https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flesch%E2%80% 93Kincaid_readability_tests

    Readability of Wikipedia Pages https://www.readabilityofwikipedia.com/ Spoon Theory by Christine Miserandino https://butyoudontlooksick.com/articles/writte n-by-christine/the-spoon-theory/ Spoon Theory - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spoon_theory Resources Guide 80
  81. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Solutions Screenshot 1: Philadelphia Museum of Art’s

    Search Page https://philamuseum.org/search Screenshot 2: New York TImes Newsletters https://www.nytimes.com/newsletters Screenshot 3: AirBnb Login https://www.airbnb.com/login Screenshot 4: MeUndies Contact Us https://help.meundies.com/hc/en-us Resources Guide 81
  82. @cahdeemer @alleyco #WCUS Solutions Screenshot 5: YouTube Autoplay Toggle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VY8gpP2K

    tUc Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1 https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/ Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.2 Editor’s Draft https://w3c.github.io/wcag/guidelines/22/ Overlay Fact Sheet https://overlayfactsheet.com/ Cool jobs with the Alley Group https://alley.co/careers/ Resources Guide 82